draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-03.txt   draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-04.txt 
Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed. Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc. Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil
Expires: August 2, 2009 Ghent University IBCN Expires: August 3, 2009 Ghent University IBCN
W. Vermeylen W. Vermeylen
Arts Centre Vooruit Arts Centre Vooruit
Nicolas Riou Nicolas Riou
Schneider Electric Schneider Electric
February 2, 2009 February 3, 2009
Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-03 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-04
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 3, 2009.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Terminology....................................................4 1. Terminology....................................................4
2. Introduction...................................................4 2. Introduction...................................................4
3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology......................5 3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology......................5
3.1. Introduction..............................................5 3.1. Introduction..............................................5
3.2. Sensors/Actuators.........................................6 3.2. Sensors/Actuators.........................................7
3.3. Area Controllers..........................................7 3.3. Area Controllers..........................................7
3.4. Zone Controllers..........................................7 3.4. Zone Controllers..........................................7
4. Installation Methods...........................................7 4. Installation Methods...........................................7
4.1. Wired Communication Media.................................7 4.1. Wired Communication Media.................................7
4.2. Device Density............................................8 4.2. Device Density............................................8
4.2.1. HVAC Device Density..................................8 4.2.1. HVAC Device Density..................................8
4.2.2. Fire Device Density..................................8 4.2.2. Fire Device Density..................................9
4.2.3. Lighting Device Density..............................9 4.2.3. Lighting Device Density..............................9
4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density.....................9 4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density.....................9
4.3. Installation Procedure....................................9 4.3. Installation Procedure....................................9
5. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................10 5. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................10
5.1. Installation.............................................10 5.1. Installation.............................................10
5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation.....................11 5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation.....................11
5.1.2. Sleeping Devices....................................11 5.1.2. Sleeping Devices....................................11
5.1.3. Local Testing.......................................11 5.1.3. Local Testing.......................................11
5.1.4. Device Replacement..................................12 5.1.4. Device Replacement..................................12
5.2. Scalability..............................................12 5.2. Scalability..............................................12
5.2.1. Network Domain......................................12 5.2.1. Network Domain......................................12
5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication..........................12 5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication..........................12
5.3. Mobility.................................................13 5.3. Mobility.................................................13
5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements..........................13 5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements..........................13
5.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................14 5.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................14
5.4.1. Limited Processing Power for Non-routing Devices....14 5.4.1. Limited Processing Power for Non-routing Devices....14
5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routing Devices........14 5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routing Devices........14
5.5. Addressing...............................................14 5.5. Addressing...............................................14
5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................14 5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................14
5.6. Manageability............................................14 5.6. Manageability............................................14
5.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................15 5.6.1. Diagnostics.........................................15
5.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................15 5.6.2. Route Tracking......................................15
5.6.3. Route Tracking......................................15
5.7. Route Selection..........................................15 5.7. Route Selection..........................................15
5.7.1. Path Cost...........................................15 5.7.1. Path Cost...........................................15
5.7.2. Path Adaptation.....................................16 5.7.2. Path Adaptation.....................................15
5.7.3. Route Redundancy....................................16 5.7.3. Route Redundancy....................................16
5.7.4. Route Discovery Time................................16 5.7.4. Route Discovery Time................................16
5.7.5. Route Preference....................................16 5.7.5. Route Preference....................................16
6. Traffic Pattern...............................................16 6. Traffic Pattern...............................................16
7. Security Considerations.......................................17 7. Security Considerations.......................................17
7.1. Security Requirements....................................18 7.1. Security Requirements....................................17
7.1.1. Authentication......................................18 7.1.1. Authentication......................................17
7.1.2. Encryption..........................................18 7.1.2. Encryption..........................................18
7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies.........................19 7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies.........................18
7.1.4. Routing Security Policies To Sleeping Devices.......18
8. IANA Considerations...........................................19 8. IANA Considerations...........................................19
9. Acknowledgments...............................................19 9. Acknowledgments...............................................19
10. References...................................................19 10. References...................................................19
10.1. Normative References....................................19 10.1. Normative References....................................19
10.2. Informative References..................................20 10.2. Informative References..................................19
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................20 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................20
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............20 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............20
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................20 11.1.1. Cost...............................................20
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................20 11.1.2. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................20
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............21 11.1.3. World-wide Applicability...........................20
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............21 11.1.4. Support of Application Layer Protocols.............20
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................21 11.1.5. Use of Constrained Devices.........................21
11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................21 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..21
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................21 11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................21
11.1.8. Cost...............................................21 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IP network....................21
11.1.9. IPv4 Compatibility.................................21 11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................21
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..22 11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................21
11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................22 11.3.2. Interference Mitigation............................21
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................22 11.3.3. Real-time Performance Measures.....................21
11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................22 11.3.4. Packet Reliability.................................22
11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................22 11.3.5. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................22
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................22 11.3.6. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................22
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................22 11.3.7. Communication Distance.............................22
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................22 11.3.8. Automatic Gain Control.............................22
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................22 11.3.9. IPv4 Compatibility.................................23
11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................22 11.3.10. Proxying for Sleeping Devices.....................23
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................23 11.3.11. Device and Network Integrity......................23
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................23 11.4. Additional Performance Requirements.....................23
11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................23 11.4.1. Data Rate Performance..............................23
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................23 11.4.2. Firmware Upgrades..................................23
11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................23 11.4.3. Prioritized Routing................................23
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................24 11.4.4. Path Persistence...................................24
11.6. Reliability.............................................24 11.5. Additional Network Security Requirements................24
11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................24 11.5.1. Encryption Levels..................................24
11.7. Path Persistence........................................24 11.5.2. Security Policy Flexibility........................24
12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases....................................24 12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases....................................24
12.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building......................25 12.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building......................25
12.2. Building Energy Conservation............................25 12.2. Building Energy Conservation............................25
12.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment......25 12.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment......25
12.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices.............................26 12.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices.............................26
12.5. Surveillance............................................26 12.5. Surveillance............................................26
12.6. Emergency...............................................26 12.6. Emergency...............................................26
12.7. Public Address..........................................27 12.7. Public Address..........................................27
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
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Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired
counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not
limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC),
Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator systems. These Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator systems. These
devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while
increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as
increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building
service quality. service quality.
Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered. Actuators and area Sensing devices may be battery-less; battery or mains powered.
controllers will be mains powered. Still it is envisioned to see a Actuators and area controllers will be mains powered. Due to
mix of wired and wireless sensors and actuators within buildings. building code and/or device density (e.g. equipment room), it is
envisioned that a mix of wired and wireless sensors and actuators
will be deployed within a building.
Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of
vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government
facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical
manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office
buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5 buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5
story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story
skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon. skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon.
The described topology is meant to be the model to be used in all The described topology is meant to be the model to be used in all
these types of environments, but clearly must be tailored to the these types of environments, but clearly must be tailored to the
building class, building tenant and vertical market being served. building class, building tenant and vertical market being served.
The following sections describe the sensor, actuator, area controller The following sections describe the sensor, actuator, area controller
and zone controller layers of the topology. (NOTE: The Building and zone controller layers of the topology. (NOTE: The Building
Controller and Enterprise layers of the FMS are excluded from this Controller and Enterprise layers of the FMS are excluded from this
discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring
LAN/WLAN communication technologies). LAN/WLAN communication technologies).
Section 3 describes FMS architectures commonly installed in Section 3 describes FMS architectures commonly installed in
commercial buildings. Section 4 describes installation methods commercial buildings. Section 4 describes installation methods
deployed for new and remodeled construction. Appendix B describes deployed for new and remodeled construction. Appendix A documents
various FMS use-cases and the interaction with humans for energy important commercial building requirements that are out of scope for
conservation and life-safety applications. routing yet will be essential to the final acceptance of the
protocols used within the building. Appendix B describes various FMS
use-cases and the interaction with humans for energy conservation and
life-safety applications.
Sections 3, 4, and Appendix B are mainly included for educational Sections 3, 4, Appendix A and Appendix B are mainly included for
purposes. The aim of this document is to provide the set of IPv6 educational purposes. The aim of this document is to provide the set
routing requirements for LLNs in buildings as described in Section 5. of IPv6 routing requirements for LLNs in buildings as described in
Section 5.
3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology 3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology
3.1. Introduction 3.1. Introduction
To understand the network systems requirements of a facility To understand the network systems requirements of a facility
management system in a commercial building, this document uses a management system in a commercial building, this document uses a
framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the
system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators, system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators,
controllers and user interface devices based on spatial extent. controllers and user interface devices based on spatial extent.
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Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices
3.2. Sensors/Actuators 3.2. Sensors/Actuators
As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional
stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building
Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the
environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are
the fringe of the network structure providing environmental data into the fringe of the network structure providing environmental data into
the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts modifying the the system. The actuators are the sensor's counterparts modifying
characteristics of the system based on the input sensor data and the the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor data and
applications deployed. the applications deployed.
3.3. Area Controllers 3.3. Area Controllers
An area describes a small physical locale within a building, An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room
lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area
controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the
environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in
many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature, many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors
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installed about every 50 feet. This is dictated by local building installed about every 50 feet. This is dictated by local building
codes. Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet. codes. Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet.
A fire controller will service a floor or wing. The fireman's fire A fire controller will service a floor or wing. The fireman's fire
panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in
the atrium. the atrium.
4.2.3. Lighting Device Density 4.2.3. Lighting Device Density
Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed
approximately every 10 feet. A lighting panel typically serves 48 to approximately every 10 feet. A lighting panel typically serves 48 to
64 zones. Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a 64 zones. Wired systems tether many lights together into a single
single zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently to
to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs. increase flexibility and reduce installation costs.
4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density 4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density
Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near
doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space. doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space.
The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is
increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical
endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates
per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS
sensing equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on sensing equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on
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4.3. Installation Procedure 4.3. Installation Procedure
Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the
extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement. extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement.
However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure
is typically a two or three step process. is typically a two or three step process.
Most FMS equipment will utilize 24 VAC power sources that can be Most FMS equipment will utilize 24 VAC power sources that can be
installed by a low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site installed by a low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site
during the construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and during the construction of the building prior to drywall and ceiling
ceiling installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space, installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space, easily
easily land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor networks.
networks. The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not normally
normally installed until months later. The electrician completes his installed until months later. The electrician completes his task by
task by running a wire verification procedure that shows proper running a wire verification procedure that shows proper continuity
continuity between the devices and proper local operation of the between the devices and proper local operation of the devices.
devices.
Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are
installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously
installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP
network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are
completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP
switch together with static IP addresses. switch together with static IP addresses.
Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added
to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must
follow the same work flow. The electrician will install the products follow the same work flow. The electrician installs the products as
as before and run local functional tests between the wireless device before and executes local functional tests between the wireless
to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does device to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician
not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device does not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the
operation. device operation.
The wireless installation process must follow the same work flow.
The electrician will install the products as before and run local
functional tests between the wireless devices to assure operation
before leaving the job. The electrician does not carry a laptop so
the commissioning must be built into the device operation.
5. Building Automation Routing Requirements 5. Building Automation Routing Requirements
Following are the building automation routing requirements for a Following are the building automation routing requirements for a
network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control network used to integrate building sensor, actuator and control
products. These requirements have been limited to routing products. These requirements have been limited to routing
requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any
preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio
technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements
that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will
pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems. pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems.
5.1. Installation 5.1. Installation
Building control systems typically are installed and tested by Building control systems typically are installed and tested by
electricians having little computer knowledge and no network electricians having little computer knowledge and no network
knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the
building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in
place. For new construction projects, the building enterprise IP place. For new construction projects, the building enterprise IP
network is not in place during installation of the building control network is not in place during installation of the building control
system. system. For retrofit applications, the installer will still operate
independently from the IP network so as not to affect network
In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers operations during the installation phase.
can be costly and in some applications (e.g. museums) not feasible.
Local (ad hoc) testing of sensors and room controllers must be Local (ad hoc) testing of sensors and room controllers must be
completed before the tradesperson can complete his/her work. This completed before the tradesperson can complete his/her work. This
testing allows the tradesperson to verify correct client (e.g. light testing allows the tradesperson to verify correct client (e.g. light
switch) and server (e.g. light ballast) before leaving the jobsite. switch) and server (e.g. light ballast) before leaving the jobsite.
In traditional wired systems correct operation of a light In traditional wired systems correct operation of a light
switch/ballast pair was as simple as flipping on the light switch. switch/ballast pair was as simple as flipping on the light switch.
In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same
operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is
associated to the proper ballast. associated to the proper ballast.
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harvesting techniques for power and will operate mostly in a sleep harvesting techniques for power and will operate mostly in a sleep
mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget. The mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget. The
routing protocol MUST take into account device characteristics such routing protocol MUST take into account device characteristics such
as power budget. If such devices provide routing, rather than merely as power budget. If such devices provide routing, rather than merely
host connectivity, the energy costs associated with such routing host connectivity, the energy costs associated with such routing
needs to fit within the power budget. If the mechanisms for duty needs to fit within the power budget. If the mechanisms for duty
cycling dictate very long response times or specific temporal cycling dictate very long response times or specific temporal
scheduling, routing will need to take such constraints into account. scheduling, routing will need to take such constraints into account.
Typically, batteries need to be operational for at least 5 years when Typically, batteries need to be operational for at least 5 years when
the sensing device is transmitting its data(e.g. 64 bytes) once per the sensing device is transmitting its data(e.g. 64 octets) once per
minute. This requires that sleeping devices must have minimal link minute. This requires that sleeping devices MUST have minimal link
on time when they awake and transmit onto the network. Moreover, on time when they awake and transmit onto the network. Moreover,
maintaining the ability to receive inbound data must be accomplished maintaining the ability to receive inbound data MUST be accomplished
with minimal link on time. with minimal link on time.
In many cases, proxies with unconstrained power budgets are used to Proxies with unconstrained power budgets oft times are used to cache
cache the inbound data for a sleeping device until the device the inbound data for a sleeping device until the device awakens. In
awakens. In such cases, the routing protocol MUST discover the such cases, the routing protocol MUST discover the capability of a
capability of a node to act as a proxy during path calculation; node to act as a proxy during path calculation; then deliver the
deliver the packet to the assigned proxy for later delivery to the packet to the assigned proxy for later delivery to the sleeping
sleeping device upon its next awake cycle. device upon its next awakened cycle.
5.1.3. Local Testing 5.1.3. Local Testing
The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be
testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication
connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic
devices. Routing should allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be devices. Routing should allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be
established that are updated as the network physically and established that are updated as the network physically and
functionally expands. functionally expands.
5.1.4. Device Replacement 5.1.4. Device Replacement
Replacement devices need to be plug-and-play with no additional setup Replacement devices need to be plug-and-play with no additional setup
compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices
referencing data in the replaced device must be able to reference referencing data in the replaced device MUST be able to reference
data in its replacement without being reconfigured to refer to the data in its replacement without being reconfigured to refer to the
new device. Thus, such a reference cannot be a hardware identifier, new device. Thus, such a reference cannot be a hardware identifier,
such as the MAC address, nor a hard-coded route. If such a reference such as the MAC address, nor a hard-coded route. If such a reference
is an IP address, the replacement device must be assigned the IP is an IP address, the replacement device MUST be assigned the IP
addressed previously bound to the replaced device. Or if the logical addressed previously bound to the replaced device. Or if the logical
equivalent of a hostname is used for the reference, it must be equivalent of a hostname is used for the reference, it must be
translated to the replacement IP address. translated to the replacement IP address.
5.2. Scalability 5.2. Scalability
Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq. Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must
cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities
installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
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5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication 5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication
The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast
portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in
the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling
towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return
pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback
control loops for these systems require data from across the control loops for these systems require data from across the
facility. facility.
A network device must be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner A network device MUST be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner
with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST
provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate
administrative domain. administrative domain.
5.3. Mobility 5.3. Mobility
Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within
buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings
are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of
occupants and assets is gaining favor. Asset tracking applications occupants and assets is gaining favor. Asset tracking applications
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domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network
joins and application binding in embedded systems. joins and application binding in embedded systems.
5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast 5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast
Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, and multicast. Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, and multicast.
5.6. Manageability 5.6. Manageability
In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section
4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the 5.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the
system to be simple and inexpensive. system to be simple and inexpensive.
5.6.1. Firmware Upgrades 5.6.1. Diagnostics
To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support transports
that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee
packet delivery. In cases where the spatial position of the devices
requires multiple hops, the algorithm must recurse through the
network until all targeted devices have been serviced.
5.6.2. Diagnostics
To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed
in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging
mode that provides additional communication information including at mode that provides additional communication information including at
least total number of routing packets sent and received, number of least total number of routed packets sent and received, number of
routing failure (no route available), neighbor table, and routing routing failures (no route available), neighbor table members, and
table entries. routing table entries.
5.6.3. Route Tracking 5.6.2. Route Tracking
Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as
path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with
associated costs. Path quality is the relative measure of 'goodness' associated costs. Path quality is the relative measure of 'goodness'
of the selected source to destination path as compared to alternate of the selected source to destination path as compared to alternate
paths. This composite value may be measured as a function of hop paths. This composite value may be measured as a function of hop
count, signal strength, available power, existing active paths or any count, signal strength, available power, existing active paths or any
other criteria deemed by ROLL as the path cost differentiator. other criteria deemed by ROLL as the path cost differentiator.
5.7. Route Selection 5.7. Route Selection
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metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count, metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count,
energy availability and communication error rates. energy availability and communication error rates.
5.7.2. Path Adaptation 5.7.2. Path Adaptation
Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g. Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g.
signal quality) optimality in time. signal quality) optimality in time.
5.7.3. Route Redundancy 5.7.3. Route Redundancy
The network layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and The routing layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and
tertiary paths to be established and used upon failure of the primary tertiary paths to be established and used upon failure of the primary
path. path.
5.7.4. Route Discovery Time 5.7.4. Route Discovery Time
Mission critical commercial applications (e.g. Fire, Security) Mission critical commercial applications (e.g. Fire, Security)
require reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of require reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of
all messages in a timely fashion. Application layer time-outs must all messages in a timely fashion. Application layer time-outs must
be selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost be selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost
packets and/or path discoveries; yet not be set too large to over packets and/or path discoveries; yet not be set too large to over
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policies must be facile to allow no security during the installation policies must be facile to allow no security during the installation
phase (prior to building occupancy), yet easily raise the security phase (prior to building occupancy), yet easily raise the security
level network wide during the commissioning phase of the system. level network wide during the commissioning phase of the system.
7.1. Security Requirements 7.1. Security Requirements
7.1.1. Authentication 7.1.1. Authentication
Authentication SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Authentication SHOULD Authentication SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Authentication SHOULD
be fully configurable on-site. Authentication policy and updates MUST be fully configurable on-site. Authentication policy and updates MUST
be transmittable over-the-air. Authentication SHOULD occur upon be routable over-the-air. Authentication SHOULD occur upon joining
joining or rejoining a network. However, once authenticated devices or rejoining a network. However, once authenticated devices SHOULD
SHOULD not need to reauthenticate themselves with any other devices not need to reauthenticate with any other devices in the LLN.
in the LLN. Packets may need authentication at the source and Packets may need authentication at the source and destination nodes,
destination nodes, however, packets routed through intermediate hops however, packets routed through intermediate hops should not need
should not need to be reauthenticated at each hop. reauthentication at each hop.
7.1.2. Encryption 7.1.2. Encryption
7.1.2.1. Encryption Levels 7.1.2.1. Encryption Types
Encryption SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Encryption SHOULD be fully
configurable on-site. Encryption policy and updates SHOULD be
transmittable over-the-air and in-the-clear.
7.1.2.2. Security Policy Flexibility
In most facilities authentication and encryption will be turned off
during installation.
More complex encryption policies might be put in force at
commissioning time. New encryption policies MUST be allowed to be
presented to all devices in the LLN over the network without needing
to visit each device.
7.1.2.3. Encryption Types
Data encryption of packets MUST optionally be supported by use of Data encryption of packets MUST optionally be supported by use of
either a network wide key and/or application key. The network key either a network wide key and/or application key. The network key
would apply to all devices in the LLN. The application key would would apply to all devices in the LLN. The application key would
apply to a subset of devices on the LLN. apply to a subset of devices on the LLN.
The network key and application keys would be mutually exclusive. The network key and application keys would be mutually exclusive.
Forwarding devices in the mesh MUST be able to forward a packet The routing protocol MUST allow routing a packet encrypted with an
encrypted with an application key without needing to have the application key through forwarding devices that without requiring
application key. each node in the path have the application key.
7.1.2.4. Packet Encryption 7.1.2.2. Packet Encryption
The encryption policy MUST support encryption of the payload only or The encryption policy MUST support encryption of the payload only or
the entire packet. Payload only encryption would eliminate the the entire packet. Payload only encryption would eliminate the
decryption/re-encryption overhead at every hop. decryption/re-encryption overhead at every hop providing more real-
time performance.
7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies 7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies
Due to the limited resources of an LLN, the security policy defined Due to the limited resources of an LLN, the security policy defined
within the LLN MUST be able to differ from that of the rest of the IP within the LLN MUST be able to differ from that of the rest of the IP
network within the facility yet packets MUST still be able to route network within the facility yet packets MUST still be able to route
to or through the LLN from/to these networks. to or through the LLN from/to these networks.
7.1.4. Routing Security Policies To Sleeping Devices
The routing protocol MUST gracefully handle routing temporal security
updates (e.g. dynamic keys) to sleeping devices on their 'awake'
cycle to assure that sleeping devices can readily and efficiently
access then network.
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document includes no request to IANA.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
In addition to the authors, J. P. Vasseur, David Culler, Ted Humpal In addition to the authors, J. P. Vasseur, David Culler, Ted Humpal
and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions
to this document. to this document.
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in progress), October 2008. in progress), October 2008.
[4] "RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical [4] "RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical
Characteristics of Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced Characteristics of Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced
[5] "BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and [5] "BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and
Automation Control Networks" ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004", Automation Control Networks" ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004",
2004 2004
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements
Appendix A contains additional informative building requirements that Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed
were deemed out of scope for the routing document yet provided out of scope for ROLL, yet provided ancillary substance for the
ancillary informational substance to the reader. The requirements reader.
should be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the
building automation industry.
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations 11.1.1. Cost
Solutions must support both wired and wireless implementations. The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to
the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the
number of devices); labor to install and commission the network must
not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations.
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more
than 80% of wired implementations.
11.1.2. Wired and Wireless Implementations
Vendors will likely not develop a separate product line for both
wired and wireless networks. Hence, the solutions set forth must
support both wired and wireless implementations.
11.1.3. World-wide Applicability
Wireless devices must be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band. Wireless devices must be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band.
Wireless devices should be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands Wireless devices should be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands
as well. as well.
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol 11.1.4. Support of Application Layer Protocols
Devices implementing the ROLL features should support the BACnet
protocol.
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol 11.1.4.1. BACnet Building Protocol
Devices implementing the ROLL features should support the LON BACnet is an ISO world-wide application layer IP protocol. Devices
implementing ROLL routing protocol should support the BACnet
protocol. protocol.
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors 11.1.5. Use of Constrained Devices
RFDs should target for operation using viable energy harvesting
techniques such as ambient light, mechanical action, solar load, air
pressure and differential temperature.
11.1.6. Communication Distance
A source device may be upwards to 1000 feet from its destination.
Communication may need to be established between these devices
without needing to install other intermediate 'communication only'
devices such as repeaters
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control
For wireless implementations, the device radios should incorporate
automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet transfer and
minimize network interference regardless of network size or density.
11.1.8. Cost
The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to
the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the
number of devices); labor to install and commission the network must
not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations.
Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more The network may be composed of a heterogeneous mix of full, battery
than 80% of wired implementations. and energy harvested powered devices. The routing protocol must
support these constrained devices.
11.1.9. IPv4 Compatibility 11.1.5.1. Energy Harvested Sensors
The routing protocol must support cost-effective intercommunication Devices utilizing available ambient energy (e.g. solar, air flow,
among IPv4 and IPv6 devices. temperature differential)for sensing and communicating should be
supported by the solution set.
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements
11.2.1. Device Setup Time 11.2.1. Device Setup Time
Network setup by the installer must take no longer than 20 seconds Device and Network setup by the installer must take no longer than 20
per device installed. seconds per device installed.
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IP network
Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer
prior to the installation of the IT network. prior to the installation of the IP network (e.g. switches, routers,
DHCP, DNS).
11.3. Additional Network Requirements 11.3. Additional Network Requirements
11.3.1. TCP/UDP 11.3.1. TCP/UDP
Connection based and connectionless services must be supported Connection based and connectionless services must be supported
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance 11.3.2. Interference Mitigation
An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable
operational data rate acceptable on the network.
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads
Devices receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon
completion of the download must automatically resume normal
operation.
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation
The network must automatically detect interference and seamlessly The network must automatically detect interference and seamlessly
migrate the network hosts channel to improve communication. Channel migrate the network hosts channel to improve communication. Channel
changes and nodes response to the channel change must occur within 60 changes and nodes response to the channel change must occur within 60
seconds. seconds.
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures 11.3.3. Real-time Performance Measures
A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node
must send the message to the destination and receive the response in must send the message to the destination and receive the response in
not more than 120 msec. This response time should be achievable with not more than 120 msec. This response time should be achievable with
5 or less hops in each direction. This requirement assumes network 5 or less hops in each direction. This requirement assumes network
quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the destination node. quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the destination node.
11.3.6. Packet Reliability 11.3.4. Packet Reliability
Reliability must meet the following minimum criteria : Reliability must meet the following minimum criteria :
< 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three < 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three
retries retries
< .1% Network layer errors on all messages; < .1% Network layer errors on all messages;
After no more than three additional retries; After no more than three additional retries;
< 0.01% Application layer errors on all messages. < 0.01% Application layer errors on all messages.
Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once
every 100,000 messages. every 100,000 messages.
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands 11.3.5. Merging Commissioned Islands
Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times
during building construction. These subnetworks must seamlessly during building construction. These subnetworks must seamlessly
merge into networks and networks must seamlessly merge into merge into networks and networks must seamlessly merge into
internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system. internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system.
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes 11.3.6. Adjustable System Table Sizes
Routing must support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per Routing must support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per
node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices. node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices.
11.4. Prioritized Routing 11.3.7. Communication Distance
Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure A source device may be upwards to 1000 feet from its destination.
that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be Communication may need to be established between these devices
deferred while less critical application access the network. without needing to install other intermediate 'communication only'
devices such as repeaters.
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization 11.3.8. Automatic Gain Control
Routers must support quality of service prioritization to assure For wireless implementations, the device radios should incorporate
timely response for critical FMS packets. automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet transfer and
minimize network interference regardless of network size or density.
11.5. Constrained Devices 11.3.9. IPv4 Compatibility
The network may be composed of a heterogeneous mix of full, battery The routing protocol must support cost-effective intercommunication
and energy harvested devices. The routing protocol must support among IPv4 and IPv6 devices.
these constrained devices.
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices 11.3.10. Proxying for Sleeping Devices
Routing must support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery Routing must support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery
and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible
on the network. on the network.
These devices must have a designated powered proxying device to which These devices must have a designated powered proxying device to which
packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained
device accesses the network. device accesses the network.
11.6. Reliability 11.3.11. Device and Network Integrity
11.6.1. Device Integrity
Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to
assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm
information as needed. Network routers should maintain previous information as needed. Network routers should maintain previous
packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network
overhead. overhead.
11.7. Path Persistence 11.4. Additional Performance Requirements
11.4.1. Data Rate Performance
An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable
operational data rate acceptable on the network.
11.4.2. Firmware Upgrades
To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support transports
that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee
packet delivery. In cases where the spatial position of the devices
requires multiple hops, the algorithm must recurse through the
network until all targeted devices have been serviced. Devices
receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon completion
of the download must automatically resume normal operation.
11.4.3. Prioritized Routing
Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure
that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be
deferred while less critical application access the network.
11.4.4. Path Persistence
To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out
conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and
invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering
the network. the network.
11.5. Additional Network Security Requirements
11.5.1. Encryption Levels
Encryption SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Encryption SHOULD be fully
configurable on-site. Encryption policy and updates SHOULD be
transmittable over-the-air and in-the-clear.
11.5.2. Security Policy Flexibility
In most facilities authentication and encryption will be turned off
during installation.
More complex encryption policies might be put in force at
commissioning time. New encryption policies MUST be allowed to be
presented to all devices in the LLN over the network without needing
to visit each device.
12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases 12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases
Appendix B contains FMS use-cases that describes the use of sensors Appendix B contains FMS use-cases that describes the use of sensors
and controllers for various applications with a commercial building and controllers for various applications with a commercial building
and how they interplay with energy conservation and life-safety and how they interplay with energy conservation and life-safety
applications. applications.
The Vooruit arts centre is a restored monument which dates from 1913. The Vooruit arts centre is a restored monument which dates from 1913.
This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms including This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms including
a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as many as a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as many as
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