draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-02.txt   draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-03.txt 
Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed. Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc. Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil
Expires: July 14, 2009 Ghent University IBCN Expires: August 2, 2009 Ghent University IBCN
W. Vermeylen W. Vermeylen
Arts Centre Vooruit Arts Centre Vooruit
Nicolas Riou Nicolas Riou
Schneider Electric Schneider Electric
January 14, 2009 February 2, 2009
Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-02 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-03
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Drafts.
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on July 14, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2009.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Terminology....................................................4 1. Terminology....................................................4
2. Introduction...................................................4 2. Introduction...................................................4
2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology.................5 3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology......................5
2.1.1. Introduction.........................................5 3.1. Introduction..............................................5
2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................6 3.2. Sensors/Actuators.........................................6
2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................6 3.3. Area Controllers..........................................7
2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................7 3.4. Zone Controllers..........................................7
2.2. Installation Methods......................................7 4. Installation Methods...........................................7
2.2.1. Wired Communication Media............................7 4.1. Wired Communication Media.................................7
2.2.2. Device Density.......................................7 4.2. Device Density............................................8
2.2.3. Installation Procedure...............................9 4.2.1. HVAC Device Density..................................8
3. Building Automation Applications..............................10 4.2.2. Fire Device Density..................................8
3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building.......................10 4.2.3. Lighting Device Density..............................9
3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................10 4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density.....................9
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......11 4.3. Installation Procedure....................................9
3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices..............................11 5. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................10
3.5. Surveillance.............................................11 5.1. Installation.............................................10
3.6. Emergency................................................12 5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation.....................11
3.7. Public Address...........................................12 5.1.2. Sleeping Devices....................................11
4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................12 5.1.3. Local Testing.......................................11
4.1. Installation.............................................13 5.1.4. Device Replacement..................................12
4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation.....................13 5.2. Scalability..............................................12
4.1.2. Sleeping devices....................................13 5.2.1. Network Domain......................................12
4.1.3. Local Testing.......................................14 5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication..........................12
4.1.4. Device Replacement..................................14 5.3. Mobility.................................................13
4.2. Scalability..............................................15 5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements..........................13
4.2.1. Network Domain......................................15 5.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................14
4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................15 5.4.1. Limited Processing Power for Non-routing Devices....14
4.3. Mobility.................................................15 5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routing Devices........14
4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................15 5.5. Addressing...............................................14
4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................16 5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................14
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........16 5.6. Manageability............................................14
4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers................16 5.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................15
4.5. Addressing...............................................16 5.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................15
4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................16 5.6.3. Route Tracking......................................15
4.6. Manageability............................................17 5.7. Route Selection..........................................15
4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................17 5.7.1. Path Cost...........................................15
4.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................17 5.7.2. Path Adaptation.....................................16
4.6.3. Route Tracking......................................17 5.7.3. Route Redundancy....................................16
4.7. Compatibility............................................17 5.7.4. Route Discovery Time................................16
4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................18 5.7.5. Route Preference....................................16
4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................18 6. Traffic Pattern...............................................16
4.8. Route Selection..........................................18 7. Security Considerations.......................................17
4.8.1. Path Cost...........................................18 7.1. Security Requirements....................................18
4.8.2. Path Adaptation.....................................18 7.1.1. Authentication......................................18
4.8.3. Route Redundancy....................................18 7.1.2. Encryption..........................................18
4.8.4. Route Discovery Time................................18 7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies.........................19
4.8.5. Route Preference....................................19 8. IANA Considerations...........................................19
4.8.6. Path Persistence....................................19 9. Acknowledgments...............................................19
5. Traffic Pattern...............................................19 10. References...................................................19
6. Open issues...................................................20 10.1. Normative References....................................19
7. Security Considerations.......................................20 10.2. Informative References..................................20
8. IANA Considerations...........................................20 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................20
9. Acknowledgments...............................................20 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............20
10. References...................................................20 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................20
10.1. Normative References....................................20 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................20
10.2. Informative References..................................21
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................21
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............21
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................21
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................21
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............21 11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............21
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............21 11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............21
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................22 11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................21
11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................22 11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................21
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................22 11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................21
11.1.8. Cost...............................................22 11.1.8. Cost...............................................21
11.1.9. IPv4 Compatibility.................................21
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..22 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..22
11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................22 11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................22
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................22 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................22
11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................22 11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................22
11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................22 11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................22
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................23 11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................22
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................23 11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................22
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................23 11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................22
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................23 11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................22
11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................23 11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................22
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................23 11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................23
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................24 11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................23
11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................24 11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................23
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................24 11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................23
11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................24 11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................23
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................24 11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................24
11.6. Reliability.............................................24 11.6. Reliability.............................................24
11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................24 11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................24
11.7. Path Persistence........................................24
12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases....................................24
12.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building......................25
12.2. Building Energy Conservation............................25
12.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment......25
12.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices.............................26
12.5. Surveillance............................................26
12.6. Emergency...............................................26
12.7. Public Address..........................................27
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
For description of the terminology used in this specification, please For description of the terminology used in this specification, please
see the Terminology ID referenced in Section 10.1. see [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology].
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently
electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their
controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and
technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to
increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution; increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution;
thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant
communication. communication.
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Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired
counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not
limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC),
Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator systems. These Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator systems. These
devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while
increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as
increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building
service quality. service quality.
Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered. Actuators and area Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered. Actuators and area
controllers will be mains powered. controllers will be mains powered. Still it is envisioned to see a
mix of wired and wireless sensors and actuators within buildings.
Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of
vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government
facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical
manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office
buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5 buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5
story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story
skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon. skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon.
The described topology is meant to be the model to be used in all The described topology is meant to be the model to be used in all
these types of environments, but clearly must be tailored to the these types of environments, but clearly must be tailored to the
building class, building tenant and vertical market being served. building class, building tenant and vertical market being served.
The following sections describe the sensor, actuator, area controller The following sections describe the sensor, actuator, area controller
and zone controller layers of the topology. (NOTE: The Building and zone controller layers of the topology. (NOTE: The Building
Controller and Enterprise layers of the FMS are excluded from this Controller and Enterprise layers of the FMS are excluded from this
discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring
WLAN communication technologies). LAN/WLAN communication technologies).
2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology Section 3 describes FMS architectures commonly installed in
commercial buildings. Section 4 describes installation methods
deployed for new and remodeled construction. Appendix B describes
various FMS use-cases and the interaction with humans for energy
conservation and life-safety applications.
2.1.1. Introduction Sections 3, 4, and Appendix B are mainly included for educational
purposes. The aim of this document is to provide the set of IPv6
routing requirements for LLNs in buildings as described in Section 5.
3. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology
3.1. Introduction
To understand the network systems requirements of a facility To understand the network systems requirements of a facility
management system in a commercial building, this document uses a management system in a commercial building, this document uses a
framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the
system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators, system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators,
controllers and user interface devices based on spatial extent. controllers and user interface devices based on spatial extent.
Additionally, an FMS may also be divided functionally across alike, Additionally, an FMS may also be divided functionally across alike,
but different building subsystems such as HVAC, Fire, Security, but different building subsystems such as HVAC, Fire, Security,
Lighting, Shutters and Elevator control systems as denoted in Figure Lighting, Shutters and Elevator control systems as denoted in Figure
1. 1.
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Actuators | | | | | T | | N | | R | | O | Actuators | | | | | T | | N | | R | | O |
| | | | | Y | | G | | S | | R | | | | | | Y | | G | | S | | R |
Sensors | | | | | | | | | | | | Sensors | | | | | | | | | | | |
+------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+ +------+
Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices
2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators 3.2. Sensors/Actuators
As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional
stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building
Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the
environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are
the fringe of the network structure providing environmental data into the fringe of the network structure providing environmental data into
the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts modifying the the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts modifying the
characteristics of the system based on the input sensor data and the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor data and the
applications deployed. applications deployed.
2.1.3. Area Controllers 3.3. Area Controllers
An area describes a small physical locale within a building, An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room
lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area
controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the
environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in
many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature, many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors
found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air
flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors. Room actuation includes flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors. Room actuation includes
temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains. temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains.
2.1.4. Zone Controllers 3.4. Zone Controllers
Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area
Control albeit to an extended space. A zone is normally a logical Control albeit to an extended space. A zone is normally a logical
grouping or functional division of a commercial building. A zone may grouping or functional division of a commercial building. A zone may
also coincidentally map to a physical locale such as a floor. also coincidentally map to a physical locale such as a floor.
Zone Control may have direct sensor inputs (smoke detectors for Zone Control may have direct sensor inputs (smoke detectors for
fire), controller inputs (room controllers for air-handlers in HVAC) fire), controller inputs (room controllers for air-handlers in HVAC)
or both (door controllers and tamper sensors for security). Like or both (door controllers and tamper sensors for security). Like
area/room controllers, zone controllers are standalone devices that area/room controllers, zone controllers are standalone devices that
operate independently or may be attached to the larger network for operate independently or may be attached to the larger network for
more synergistic control. more synergistic control.
2.2. Installation Methods 4. Installation Methods
2.2.1. Wired Communication Media 4.1. Wired Communication Media
Commercial controllers are traditionally deployed in a facility using Commercial controllers are traditionally deployed in a facility using
twisted pair serial media following the EIA-485 electrical standard twisted pair serial media following the EIA-485 electrical standard
operating nominally at 38400 to 76800 baud. This allows runs to 5000 operating nominally at 38400 to 76800 baud. This allows runs to 5000
ft without a repeater. With the maximum of three repeaters, a single ft without a repeater. With the maximum of three repeaters, a single
communication trunk can serpentine 15000 ft. EIA-485 is a multi-drop communication trunk can serpentine 15000 ft. EIA-485 is a multi-drop
media allowing upwards to 255 devices to be connected to a single media allowing upwards to 255 devices to be connected to a single
trunk. trunk.
Most sensors and virtually all actuators currently used in Most sensors and virtually all actuators currently used in
commercial buildings are "dumb", non-communicating hardwired devices. commercial buildings are "dumb", non-communicating hardwired devices.
However, sensor buses are beginning to be deployed by vendors which However, sensor buses are beginning to be deployed by vendors which
are used for smart sensors and point multiplexing. The Fire are used for smart sensors and point multiplexing. The Fire
industry deploys addressable fire devices, which usually use some industry deploys addressable fire devices, which usually use some
form of proprietary communication wiring driven by fire codes. form of proprietary communication wiring driven by fire codes.
2.2.2. Device Density 4.2. Device Density
Device density differs depending on the application and as dictated Device density differs depending on the application and as dictated
by the local building code requirements. The following sections by the local building code requirements. The following sections
detail typical installation densities for different applications. detail typical installation densities for different applications.
2.2.2.1. HVAC Device Density 4.2.1. HVAC Device Density
HVAC room applications typically have sensors/actuators and HVAC room applications typically have sensors/actuators and
controllers spaced about 50ft apart. In most cases there is a 3:1 controllers spaced about 50ft apart. In most cases there is a 3:1
ratio of sensors/actuators to controllers. That is, for each room ratio of sensors/actuators to controllers. That is, for each room
there is an installed temperature sensor, flow sensor and damper there is an installed temperature sensor, flow sensor and damper
actuator for the associated room controller. actuator for the associated room controller.
HVAC equipment room applications are quite different. An air handler HVAC equipment room applications are quite different. An air handler
system may have a single controller with upwards to 25 sensors and system may have a single controller with upwards to 25 sensors and
actuators within 50 ft of the air handler. A chiller or boiler is actuators within 50 ft of the air handler. A chiller or boiler is
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installed per floor, but many times service a wing, building or the installed per floor, but many times service a wing, building or the
entire complex via a central plant. entire complex via a central plant.
These numbers are typical. In special cases, such as clean rooms, These numbers are typical. In special cases, such as clean rooms,
operating rooms, pharmaceuticals and labs, the ratio of sensors to operating rooms, pharmaceuticals and labs, the ratio of sensors to
controllers can increase by a factor of three. Tenant installations controllers can increase by a factor of three. Tenant installations
such as malls would opt for packaged units where much of the sensing such as malls would opt for packaged units where much of the sensing
and actuation is integrated into the unit. Here a single device and actuation is integrated into the unit. Here a single device
address would serve the entire unit. address would serve the entire unit.
2.2.2.2. Fire Device Density 4.2.2. Fire Device Density
Fire systems are much more uniformly installed with smoke detectors Fire systems are much more uniformly installed with smoke detectors
installed about every 50 feet. This is dictated by local building installed about every 50 feet. This is dictated by local building
codes. Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet. codes. Fire pull boxes are installed uniformly about every 150 feet.
A fire controller will service a floor or wing. The fireman's fire A fire controller will service a floor or wing. The fireman's fire
panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in panel will service the entire building and typically is installed in
the atrium. the atrium.
2.2.2.3. Lighting Device Density 4.2.3. Lighting Device Density
Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed Lighting is also very uniformly installed with ballasts installed
approximately every 10 feet. A lighting panel typically serves 48 to approximately every 10 feet. A lighting panel typically serves 48 to
64 zones. Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a 64 zones. Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a
single zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently single zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently
to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs. to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs.
2.2.2.4. Physical Security Device Density 4.2.4. Physical Security Device Density
Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near
doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space. doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space.
The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is
increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical
endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates
per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS
sensing equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on sensing equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on
proprietary wired high speed network. More recent implementations proprietary wired high speed network. More recent implementations
utilize wired or wireless IP cameras integrated to the enterprise utilize wired or wireless IP cameras integrated to the enterprise
LAN. LAN.
2.2.3. Installation Procedure 4.3. Installation Procedure
Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the
extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement. extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement.
However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure
is typically a two or three step process. is typically a two or three step process.
Most FMS equipment is 24 VAC equipment that can be installed by a Most FMS equipment will utilize 24 VAC power sources that can be
low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site during the installed by a low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site
construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and ceiling during the construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and
installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space, easily ceiling installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space,
land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor networks. easily land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor
The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not normally networks. The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not
installed until months later. The electrician completes his task by normally installed until months later. The electrician completes his
running a wire verification procedure that shows proper continuity task by running a wire verification procedure that shows proper
between the devices and proper local operation of the devices. continuity between the devices and proper local operation of the
devices.
Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are
installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously
installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP
network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are
completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP
switch together with static IP addresses. switch together with static IP addresses.
Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added
to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must
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to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does
not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device
operation. operation.
The wireless installation process must follow the same work flow. The wireless installation process must follow the same work flow.
The electrician will install the products as before and run local The electrician will install the products as before and run local
functional tests between the wireless devices to assure operation functional tests between the wireless devices to assure operation
before leaving the job. The electrician does not carry a laptop so before leaving the job. The electrician does not carry a laptop so
the commissioning must be built into the device operation. the commissioning must be built into the device operation.
3. Building Automation Applications 5. Building Automation Routing Requirements
Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from
1913. This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms
including a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as
many as 2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are
described in the following text. The situations and needs described
in these use cases can also be found in all automated large
buildings, such as airports and hospitals.
3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building
The member of the cleaning staff arrives first in the morning
unlocking the building (or a part of it) from the control room. This
means that several doors are unlocked; the alarms are switched off;
the heating turns on; some lights switch on, etc. Similarly, the
last person leaving the building has to lock the building. This will
lock all the outer doors, turn the alarms on, switch off heating and
lights, etc.
The ''building locked'' or ''building unlocked'' event needs to be
delivered to a subset of all the sensors and actuators. It can be
beneficial if those field devices form a group (e.g. ''all-sensors-
actuators-interested-in-lock/unlock-events). Alternatively, the area
and zone controllers could form a group where the arrival of such an
event results in each area and zone controller initiating unicast or
multicast within the LLN.
This use case is also described in the home automation, although the
requirement about preventing the "popcorn effect" draft [I-D.ietf-
roll-home-routing-reqs] can be relaxed a little bit in building
automation. It would be nice if lights, roll-down shutters and other
actuators in the same room or area with transparent walls execute the
command around (not 'at') the same time (a tolerance of 200 ms is
allowed).
3.2. Building Energy Conservation
A room that is not in use should not be heated, air conditioned or
ventilated and the lighting should be turned off. In a building with
a lot of rooms it can happen quite frequently that someone forgets to
switch off the HVAC and lighting. This is a real waste of valuable
energy. To prevent this from happening, the janitor can program the
building according to the day's schedule. This way lighting and HVAC
is turned on prior to the use of a room, and turned off afterwards.
Using such a system Vooruit has realized a saving of 35% on the gas
and electricity bills.
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment
Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety
equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher
(100), fire blanket (10), fire-resistant door (120) and evacuation
plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also
the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each
public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset
tracking and low-power wireless technologies would reduce a heavy
burden on working hours.
It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and
that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this
safety equipment is kept at a very low level.
3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices
Some field devices (e.g. smoke detectors) are replaced periodically.
The ease by which devices are added and deleted from the network is
very important to support augmenting sensors/actuators during
construction.
A secure mechanism is needed to remove the old device and install the
new device. New devices need to be authenticated before they can
participate in the routing process of the LLN. After the
authentication, zero-configuration of the routing protocol is
necessary.
3.5. Surveillance
Ingress and egress are real-time applications needing response times
below 500msec, for example for cardkey authorization. It must be
possible to configure doors individually to restrict use on a per
person basis with respect to time-of-day and person entering. While
much of the surveillance application involves sensing and actuation
at the door and communication with the centralized security system,
other aspects, including tamper, door ajar, and forced entry
notification, are to be delivered to one or more fixed or mobile user
devices within 5 seconds.
3.6. Emergency
In case of an emergency it is very important that all the visitors be
evacuated as quickly as possible. The fire and smoke detectors set
off an alarm and alert the mobile personnel on their user device
(e.g. PDA). All emergency exits are instantly unlocked and the
emergency lighting guides the visitors to these exits. The necessary
sprinklers are activated and the electricity grid monitored if it
becomes necessary to shut down some parts of the building. Emergency
services are notified instantly.
A wireless system could bring in some extra safety features.
Locating fire fighters and guiding them through the building could be
a life-saving application.
These life critical applications ought to take precedence over other
network traffic. Commands entered during these emergencies have to
be properly authenticated by device, user, and command request.
3.7. Public Address
It should be possible to send audio and text messages to the visitors
in the building. These messages can be very diverse, e.g. ASCII text
boards displaying the name of the event in a room, audio
announcements such as delays in the program, lost and found children,
evacuation orders, etc.
The control network is expected be able to readily sense the presence
of an audience in an area and deliver applicable message content.
4. Building Automation Routing Requirements
Following are the building automation routing requirements for a Following are the building automation routing requirements for a
network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control
products. These requirements have been limited to routing products. These requirements have been limited to routing
requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any
preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio
technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements
that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will
pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems. pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems.
4.1. Installation 5.1. Installation
Building control systems typically are installed and tested by Building control systems typically are installed and tested by
electricians having little computer knowledge and no network electricians having little computer knowledge and no network
knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the
building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in
place. For new construction projects, the building enterprise IP place. For new construction projects, the building enterprise IP
network is not in place during installation of the building control network is not in place during installation of the building control
system. system.
In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers
skipping to change at page 13, line 34 skipping to change at page 11, line 13
In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same
operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is
associated to the proper ballast. associated to the proper ballast.
System level commissioning will later be deployed using a more System level commissioning will later be deployed using a more
computer savvy person with access to a commissioning device (e.g. a computer savvy person with access to a commissioning device (e.g. a
laptop computer). The completely installed and commissioned laptop computer). The completely installed and commissioned
enterprise IP network may or may not be in place at this time. enterprise IP network may or may not be in place at this time.
Following are the installation routing requirements. Following are the installation routing requirements.
4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation 5.1.1. Zero-Configuration Installation
It MUST be possible to fully commission network devices without It MUST be possible to fully commission network devices without
requiring any additional commissioning device (e.g. laptop). The requiring any additional commissioning device (e.g. laptop).
device MAY support up to sixteen integrated switches to uniquely
identify the device on the network.
4.1.2. Sleeping devices 5.1.2. Sleeping Devices
Sensing devices will, in cases, utilize battery power or energy Sensing devices will, in some cases, utilize battery power or energy
harvesting techniques for power and will operate in a mostly sleeping harvesting techniques for power and will operate mostly in a sleep
mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget. Routing mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget. The
MUST recognize the constraints associated the power budget of such routing protocol MUST take into account device characteristics such
low duty cycle devices. If such devices provide routing, rather than as power budget. If such devices provide routing, rather than merely
merely host connectivity, the energy costs associated with such host connectivity, the energy costs associated with such routing
routing need to fit within the power budget. If the mechanisms for needs to fit within the power budget. If the mechanisms for duty
duty cycling dictate very long response times or specific temporal cycling dictate very long response times or specific temporal
scheduling, routing and forwarding will need to take such constraints scheduling, routing will need to take such constraints into account.
into account.
Communication to these mostly sleeping devices MUST be bidirectional.
Typically, batteries need to be operational for at least 5 years when Typically, batteries need to be operational for at least 5 years when
the sensing device is transmitting its data(e.g. 64 bytes) once per the sensing device is transmitting its data(e.g. 64 bytes) once per
minute. This requires that sleeping devices must have minimal link minute. This requires that sleeping devices must have minimal link
on time when they awake and transmit onto the network. Moreover, on time when they awake and transmit onto the network. Moreover,
maintaining the ability to receive inbound data must be accomplished maintaining the ability to receive inbound data must be accomplished
with minimal link on time. with minimal link on time.
In many cases, proxies with unconstrained power budgets are used to In many cases, proxies with unconstrained power budgets are used to
cache the inbound data for a sleeping device until the device cache the inbound data for a sleeping device until the device
awakens. In such cases, routing MUST recognize the selected proxy awakens. In such cases, the routing protocol MUST discover the
for the sleeping device. capability of a node to act as a proxy during path calculation;
deliver the packet to the assigned proxy for later delivery to the
sleeping device upon its next awake cycle.
4.1.3. Local Testing 5.1.3. Local Testing
The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be
testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication
connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic
devices. Routing must allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be devices. Routing should allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be
established that are updated as the network physically and established that are updated as the network physically and
functionally expands. functionally expands.
4.1.4. Device Replacement 5.1.4. Device Replacement
Replacement devices need to be plug-and-play with no additional setup Replacement devices need to be plug-and-play with no additional setup
compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices
referencing data in the replaced device must be able to reference referencing data in the replaced device must be able to reference
data in its replacement without being reconfigured to refer to the data in its replacement without being reconfigured to refer to the
new device. Thus, such a reference cannot be a hardware identifier, new device. Thus, such a reference cannot be a hardware identifier,
such as the MAC address, nor a hardcoded route. If such a reference such as the MAC address, nor a hard-coded route. If such a reference
is an IP address, the replacement device must be assigned the IP is an IP address, the replacement device must be assigned the IP
addressed previously bound to the replaced device. Or if the logical addressed previously bound to the replaced device. Or if the logical
equivalent of a hostname is used for the reference, it must be equivalent of a hostname is used for the reference, it must be
translated to the replacement IP address. translated to the replacement IP address.
4.2. Scalability 5.2. Scalability
Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq. Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must
cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities
installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability
requirements. requirements.
4.2.1. Network Domain 5.2.1. Network Domain
The routing protocol MUST be able to support networks with at least The routing protocol MUST be able to support networks with at least
1000 routers and 1000 hosts. Subnetworks (e.g. rooms, primary 2000 nodes supporting at least 1000 routing devices and 1000 non-
equipment) within the network must support upwards to 255 sensors routing device. Subnetworks (e.g. rooms, primary equipment) within
and/or actuators. the network must support upwards to 255 sensors and/or actuators.
.
4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication 5.2.2. Peer-to-Peer Communication
The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast
portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in
the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling
towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return
pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback
control loops for these systems require data from across the control loops for these systems require data from across the
facility. facility.
A network device must be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner A network device must be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner
with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST
provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate
administrative domain. administrative domain.
4.3. Mobility 5.3. Mobility
Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within
buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings
are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of
occupants and assets is gaining favor. occupants and assets is gaining favor. Asset tracking applications
require monitoring movement with granularity of a minute. This soft
real-time performance requirement is reflected in the performance
requirements below.
4.3.1. Mobile Device Association 5.3.1. Mobile Device Requirements
Mobile devices SHOULD be capable of unjoining (handing-off) from an To minimize network dynamics, mobile devices SHOULD not be allowed to
old network joining onto a new network within 15 seconds. act as forwarding devices (routers) for other devices in the LLN.
4.4. Resource Constrained Devices A mobile device that moves within an LLN SHOULD reestablish end-to-
end communication to a fixed device also in the LLN within 2 seconds.
The network convergence time should be less than 5 seconds once the
mobile device stops moving.
A mobile device that moves outside of an LLN SHOULD reestablish end-
to-end communication to a fixed device in the new LLN within 5
seconds. The network convergence time should be less than 5 seconds
once the mobile device stops moving.
A mobile device that moves outside of one LLN into another LLN SHOULD
reestablish end-to-end communication to a fixed device in the old LLN
within 10 seconds. The network convergence time should be less than
10 seconds once the mobile device stops.
A mobile device that moves outside of one LLN into another LLN SHOULD
reestablish end-to-end communication to another mobile device in the
new LLN within 20 seconds. The network convergence time should be
less than 30 seconds once the mobile devices stop moving.
A mobile device that moves outside of one LLN into another LLN SHOULD
reestablish end-to-end communication to a mobile device in the old
LLN within 30 seconds. The network convergence time should be less
than 30 seconds once the mobile devices stop moving.
5.4. Resource Constrained Devices
Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4 Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4
orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional
client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms MUST client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms must
therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices. therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices.
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators 5.4.1. Limited Processing Power for Non-routing Devices.
The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be The software size requirement for non-routing devices (e.g. sleeping
implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128KB of flash sensors and actuators) SHOULD be implementable in 8-bit devices with
memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more no more than 128KB of memory.
than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the
application).
4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers 5.4.2. Limited Processing Power for Routing Devices
The software stack requirements for room controllers SHOULD be The software size requirements for routing devices (e.g. room
implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 256KB of flash controllers) SHOULD be implementable in 8-bit devices with no more
memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more than 256KB of flash memory.
than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the
application)
4.5. Addressing 5.5. Addressing
Facility Management systems require different communication schema to Facility Management systems require different communication schemes
solicit or post network information. Broadcasts or anycasts need be to solicit or post network information. Broadcasts or anycasts need
used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the device be used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the
first joins the network. device first joins the network.
As with any network communication, broadcasting should be minimized. As with any network communication, broadcasting should be minimized.
This is especially a problem for small embedded devices with limited This is especially a problem for small embedded devices with limited
network bandwidth. In many cases a global broadcast could be network bandwidth. In many cases a global broadcast could be
replaced with a multicast since the application knows the application replaced with a multicast since the application knows the application
domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network
joins and application binding in embedded systems. joins and application binding in embedded systems.
4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast 5.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast
Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, multicast and broadcast Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, and multicast.
services (or IPv6 equivalent).
4.6. Manageability 5.6. Manageability
In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section
4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the 4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the
system to be simple and inexpensive. system to be simple and inexpensive.
4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades 5.6.1. Firmware Upgrades
To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support transports To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support transports
that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee
packet delivery. packet delivery. In cases where the spatial position of the devices
requires multiple hops, the algorithm must recurse through the
network until all targeted devices have been serviced.
4.6.2. Diagnostics 5.6.2. Diagnostics
To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed
in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging
mode that provides additional communication information including at mode that provides additional communication information including at
least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of least total number of routing packets sent and received, number of
failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table routing failure (no route available), neighbor table, and routing
entries. table entries.
4.6.3. Route Tracking 5.6.3. Route Tracking
Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as
path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with
associated costs. associated costs. Path quality is the relative measure of 'goodness'
of the selected source to destination path as compared to alternate
4.7. Compatibility paths. This composite value may be measured as a function of hop
count, signal strength, available power, existing active paths or any
The building automation industry adheres to application layer other criteria deemed by ROLL as the path cost differentiator.
protocol standards to achieve vendor interoperability. These
standards are BACnet and LON. It is estimated that fully 80% of the
customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to
one or both of these standards. ROLL routing will therefore need to
dovetail to these application protocols to assure acceptance in the
building automation industry. These protocols have been in place for
over 10 years. Many sites will require backwards compatibility with
the existing legacy devices.
4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility
The routing protocol MUST support intercommunication among IPv4 and
IPv6 devices..
4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size
Routing MUST support packet sizes to 1526 octets (to be backwards
compatible with 802.3 subnetworks)
4.8. Route Selection 5.7. Route Selection
Route selection determines reliability and quality of the Route selection determines reliability and quality of the
communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over
time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are
asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation
will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost
attribute. attribute.
4.8.1. Path Cost 5.7.1. Path Cost
The routing protocol MUST support a metric of route quality and The routing protocol MUST support a metric of route quality and
optimize path selection according to such metrics within constraints optimize path selection according to such metrics within constraints
established for links along the paths. These metrics SHOULD reflect established for links along the paths. These metrics SHOULD reflect
metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count, metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count,
energy availability and communication error rates. energy availability and communication error rates.
4.8.2. Path Adaptation 5.7.2. Path Adaptation
Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g. Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g.
signal quality) optimality in time. signal quality) optimality in time.
4.8.3. Route Redundancy 5.7.3. Route Redundancy
The network layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and The network layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and
tertiary paths to be established and used upon failure of the primary tertiary paths to be established and used upon failure of the primary
path. path.
4.8.4. Route Discovery Time 5.7.4. Route Discovery Time
Mission critical commercial applications (e.g. Fire,Security) require Mission critical commercial applications (e.g. Fire, Security)
reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of all require reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of
messages in a timely fashion. Application layer time-outs must be all messages in a timely fashion. Application layer time-outs must
selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost be selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost
packets and/or path discoveries; yet not be set too large to over packets and/or path discoveries; yet not be set too large to over
damp the network response. Route discovery occurring during packet damp the network response. If route discovery occurs during packet
transmission MUST not exceed 120 msecs. transmission time, it SHOULD NOT add more than 120ms of latency to
the packet delivery time.
4.8.5. Route Preference
The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to
dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred
routing path.
4.8.6. Path Persistence 5.7.5. Route Preference
To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out Route cost algorithms SHOULD allow the installer to optionally select
conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and 'preferred' paths based on the known spatial layout of the
invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering communicating devices.
the network.
5. Traffic Pattern 6. Traffic Pattern
The independent nature of the automation systems within a building The independent nature of the automation systems within a building
plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time
sensor data stays within the local environment. Alarming and other sensor data stays within the local environment. Alarming and other
event data will percolate to higher layers. event data will percolate to higher layers.
Systemic data may be either polled or event based. Polled data Systemic data may be either polled or event based. Polled data
systems will generate a uniform packet load on the network. This systems will generate a uniform packet load on the network. This
architecture has proven not scalable. Most vendors have developed architecture has proven not scalable. Most vendors have developed
event based systems which passes data on event. These systems are event based systems which pass data on event. These systems are
highly scalable and generate low data on the network at quiescence. highly scalable and generate low data on the network at quiescence.
Unfortunately, the systems will generate a heavy load on startup Unfortunately, the systems will generate a heavy load on startup
since all the initial data must migrate to the controller level. since all the initial data must migrate to the controller level.
They also will generate a temporary but heavy load during firmware They also will generate a temporary but heavy load during firmware
upgrades. This latter load can normally be mitigated by performing upgrades. This latter load can normally be mitigated by performing
these downloads during off-peak hours. these downloads during off-peak hours.
Devices will need to reference peers occasionally for sensor data or Devices will need to reference peers occasionally for sensor data or
to coordinate across systems. Normally, though, data will migrate to coordinate across systems. Normally, though, data will migrate
from the sensor level upwards through the local, area then from the sensor level upwards through the local, area then
supervisory level. Bottlenecks will typically form at the funnel supervisory level. Bottlenecks will typically form at the funnel
point from the area controllers to the supervisory controllers. point from the area controllers to the supervisory controllers.
6. Open issues Initial system startup after a controlled outage or unexpected power
failure puts tremendous stress on the network and on the routing
Other items to be addressed in further revisions of this document algorithms. An FMS system is comprised of a myriad of control
include: algorithms at the room, area, zone, and enterprise layers. When
these control algorithms are at quiescence, the real-time data
changes are small and the network will not saturate. However, upon
any power loss, the control loops and real-time data quickly atrophy.
A ten minute outage may take many hours to regain control.
All known open items completed Upon restart all lines-powered devices power-on instantaneously.
However due to application startup and self tests, these devices will
attempt to join the network randomly. Empirical testing indicates
that routing paths acquired during startup will tend to be very
oblique since the available neighbor lists are incomplete. This
demands an adaptive routing protocol to allow for path optimization
as the network stabilizes.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
Security policies, especially wireless encryption and overall device Security policies, especially wireless encryption and device
authentication need to be considered. These issues are out of scope authentication needs to be considered, especially with concern to the
for the routing requirements, but could have an impact on the impact on the processing capabilities and additional latency incurred
processing capabilities of the sensors and controllers. on the sensors, actuators and controllers.
As noted above, the FMS systems are typically highly configurable in FMS systems are typically highly configurable in the field and hence
the field and hence the security policy is most often dictated by the the security policy is most often dictated by the type of building to
type of building to which the FMS is being installed. which the FMS is being installed. Single tenant owner occupied
office buildings installing lighting or HVAC control are candidates
for implementing low or even no security on the LLN. Antithetically,
military or pharmaceutical facilities require strong security
policies. As noted in the installation procedures above, security
policies must be facile to allow no security during the installation
phase (prior to building occupancy), yet easily raise the security
level network wide during the commissioning phase of the system.
7.1. Security Requirements
7.1.1. Authentication
Authentication SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Authentication SHOULD
be fully configurable on-site. Authentication policy and updates MUST
be transmittable over-the-air. Authentication SHOULD occur upon
joining or rejoining a network. However, once authenticated devices
SHOULD not need to reauthenticate themselves with any other devices
in the LLN. Packets may need authentication at the source and
destination nodes, however, packets routed through intermediate hops
should not need to be reauthenticated at each hop.
7.1.2. Encryption
7.1.2.1. Encryption Levels
Encryption SHOULD be optional on the LLN. Encryption SHOULD be fully
configurable on-site. Encryption policy and updates SHOULD be
transmittable over-the-air and in-the-clear.
7.1.2.2. Security Policy Flexibility
In most facilities authentication and encryption will be turned off
during installation.
More complex encryption policies might be put in force at
commissioning time. New encryption policies MUST be allowed to be
presented to all devices in the LLN over the network without needing
to visit each device.
7.1.2.3. Encryption Types
Data encryption of packets MUST optionally be supported by use of
either a network wide key and/or application key. The network key
would apply to all devices in the LLN. The application key would
apply to a subset of devices on the LLN.
The network key and application keys would be mutually exclusive.
Forwarding devices in the mesh MUST be able to forward a packet
encrypted with an application key without needing to have the
application key.
7.1.2.4. Packet Encryption
The encryption policy MUST support encryption of the payload only or
the entire packet. Payload only encryption would eliminate the
decryption/re-encryption overhead at every hop.
7.1.3. Disparate Security Policies
Due to the limited resources of an LLN, the security policy defined
within the LLN MUST be able to differ from that of the rest of the IP
network within the facility yet packets MUST still be able to route
to or through the LLN from/to these networks.
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document includes no request to IANA.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
J. P. Vasseur, Ted Humpal and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged In addition to the authors, J. P. Vasseur, David Culler, Ted Humpal
for their contributions to this document. and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged for their contributions
to this document.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03 [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
draft-ietf-roll-terminology-00.txt
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
''RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical Characteristics of [1] [I-D.ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs] Brandt, A., Buron, J., and
Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced Digital Multipoint G. Porcu, "Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power
''BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and Automation and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-06 (work
Control Networks'' ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004'', 2004 in progress), November 2008.
''LON: OPEN DATA COMMUNICATION IN BUILDING AUTOMATION, CONTROLS AND [2] [I-D.ietf-roll-indus-routing-reqs] Networks, D., Thubert,
BUILDING MANAGEMENT - BUILDING NETWORK PROTOCOL - PART 1: PROTOCOL P., Dwars, S., and T. Phinney, "Industrial Routing Requirements
STACK'', 11/25/2005 in Low Power and Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-indus-
routing-reqs-03 (work in progress), December 2008.
[3] [I-D.ietf-roll-terminology]Vasseur, J., "Terminology in Low
power And Lossy Networks", draft-ietf-roll-terminology-00 (work
in progress), October 2008.
[4] "RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical
Characteristics of Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced
[5] "BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and
Automation Control Networks" ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004",
2004
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements
Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed Appendix A contains additional informative building requirements that
out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary were deemed out of scope for the routing document yet provided
informational substance to the reader. The requirements will need to ancillary informational substance to the reader. The requirements
be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building should be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the
automation industry will be considered. building automation industry.
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations
Solutions must support both wired and wireless implementations. Solutions must support both wired and wireless implementations.
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability
Wireless devices must be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band. Wireless devices must be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band.
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11.1.8. Cost 11.1.8. Cost
The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to
the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the
number of devices); labor to install and commission the network must number of devices); labor to install and commission the network must
not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations. not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations.
Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more
than 80% of wired implementations. than 80% of wired implementations.
11.1.9. IPv4 Compatibility
The routing protocol must support cost-effective intercommunication
among IPv4 and IPv6 devices.
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements
11.2.1. Device Setup Time 11.2.1. Device Setup Time
Network setup by the installer must take no longer than 20 seconds Network setup by the installer must take no longer than 20 seconds
per device installed. per device installed.
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network
Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer
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11.6. Reliability 11.6. Reliability
11.6.1. Device Integrity 11.6.1. Device Integrity
Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to
assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm
information as needed. Network routers should maintain previous information as needed. Network routers should maintain previous
packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network
overhead. overhead.
11.7. Path Persistence
To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out
conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and
invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering
the network.
12. Appendix B: FMS Use-Cases
Appendix B contains FMS use-cases that describes the use of sensors
and controllers for various applications with a commercial building
and how they interplay with energy conservation and life-safety
applications.
The Vooruit arts centre is a restored monument which dates from 1913.
This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms including
a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as many as
2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are described
in the following text. The situations and needs described in these
use cases can also be found in all automated large buildings, such as
airports and hospitals.
12.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building
The member of the cleaning staff arrives first in the morning
unlocking the building (or a part of it) from the control room. This
means that several doors are unlocked; the alarms are switched off;
the heating turns on; some lights switch on, etc. Similarly, the
last person leaving the building has to lock the building. This will
lock all the outer doors, turn the alarms on, switch off heating and
lights, etc.
The "building locked" or "building unlocked" event needs to be
delivered to a subset of all the sensors and actuators. It can be
beneficial if those field devices form a group (e.g. "all-sensors-
actuators-interested-in-lock/unlock-events). Alternatively, the area
and zone controllers could form a group where the arrival of such an
event results in each area and zone controller initiating unicast or
multicast within the LLN.
This use case is also described in the home automation, although the
requirement about preventing the "popcorn effect" I-D.ietf-roll-home-
routing-reqs] can be relaxed a bit in building automation. It would
be nice if lights, roll-down shutters and other actuators in the same
room or area with transparent walls execute the command around (not
'at') the same time (a tolerance of 200 ms is allowed).
12.2. Building Energy Conservation
A room that is not in use should not be heated, air conditioned or
ventilated and the lighting should be turned off or dimmed. In a
building with many rooms it can happen quite frequently that someone
forgets to switch off the HVAC and lighting, thereby wasting valuable
energy. To prevent this occurrence, the facility manager might
program the building according to the day's schedule. This way
lighting and HVAC is turned on prior to the use of a room, and turned
off afterwards. Using such a system Vooruit has realized a saving of
35% on the gas and electricity bills.
12.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment
Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety
equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher
(100), fire blanket (10), fire-resistant door (120) and evacuation
plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also
the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each
public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset
tracking and low-power wireless technologies would reduce a heavy
burden on working hours.
It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and
that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this
safety equipment is kept at a very low level.
12.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices
Some field devices (e.g. smoke detectors) are replaced periodically.
The ease by which devices are added and deleted from the network is
very important to support augmenting sensors/actuators during
construction.
A secure mechanism is needed to remove the old device and install the
new device. New devices need to be authenticated before they can
participate in the routing process of the LLN. After the
authentication, zero-configuration of the routing protocol is
necessary.
12.5. Surveillance
Ingress and egress are real-time applications needing response times
below 500msec, for example for cardkey authorization. It must be
possible to configure doors individually to restrict use on a per
person basis with respect to time-of-day and person entering. While
much of the surveillance application involves sensing and actuation
at the door and communication with the centralized security system,
other aspects, including tamper, door ajar, and forced entry
notification, are to be delivered to one or more fixed or mobile user
devices within 5 seconds.
12.6. Emergency
In case of an emergency it is very important that all the visitors be
evacuated as quickly as possible. The fire and smoke detectors set
off an alarm and alert the mobile personnel on their user device
(e.g. PDA). All emergency exits are instantly unlocked and the
emergency lighting guides the visitors to these exits. The necessary
sprinklers are activated and the electricity grid monitored if it
becomes necessary to shut down some parts of the building. Emergency
services are notified instantly.
A wireless system could bring in some extra safety features.
Locating fire fighters and guiding them through the building could be
a life-saving application.
These life critical applications ought to take precedence over other
network traffic. Commands entered during these emergencies have to
be properly authenticated by device, user, and command request.
12.7. Public Address
It should be possible to send audio and text messages to the visitors
in the building. These messages can be very diverse, e.g. ASCII text
boards displaying the name of the event in a room, audio
announcements such as delays in the program, lost and found children,
evacuation orders, etc.
The control network is expected be able to readily sense the presence
of an audience in an area and deliver applicable message content.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jerry Martocci Jerry Martocci
Johnson Control Johnson Control
507 E. Michigan Street 507 E. Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202
USA USA
Phone: 414.524.4010 Phone: 414.524.4010
Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com
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