draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-01.txt   draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-02.txt 
Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed. Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc. Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil
Expires: April 29, 2009 Ghent University IBCN Expires: July 14, 2009 Ghent University IBCN
W. Vermeylen W. Vermeylen
Arts Centre Vooruit Arts Centre Vooruit
Nicolas Riou Nicolas Riou
Schneider Electric Schneider Electric
October 29, 2008 January 14, 2009
Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-01 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-02
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Abstract Abstract
The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has
been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy
networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building), networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building),
Home and Urban. Pursuant to this effort, this document defines the Home and Urban. Pursuant to this effort, this document defines the
routing requirements for building automation. routing requirements for building automation.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
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document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Terminology....................................................4 1. Terminology....................................................4
2. Introduction...................................................4 2. Introduction...................................................4
2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology.................5 2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology.................5
2.1.1. Introduction.........................................5 2.1.1. Introduction.........................................5
2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................6 2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................6
2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................6 2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................6
2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................6 2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................7
2.2. Installation Methods......................................7 2.2. Installation Methods......................................7
2.2.1. Wired Communication Media............................7 2.2.1. Wired Communication Media............................7
2.2.2. Device Density.......................................7 2.2.2. Device Density.......................................7
2.2.3. Installation Procedure...............................9 2.2.3. Installation Procedure...............................9
3. Building Automation Applications...............................9 3. Building Automation Applications..............................10
3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building.......................10 3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building.......................10
3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................10 3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................10
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......10 3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......11
3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices..............................11 3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices..............................11
3.5. Surveillance.............................................11 3.5. Surveillance.............................................11
3.6. Emergency................................................11 3.6. Emergency................................................12
3.7. Public Address...........................................12 3.7. Public Address...........................................12
4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................12 4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................12
4.1. Installation.............................................12 4.1. Installation.............................................13
4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation.....................13 4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation.....................13
4.1.2. Sleeping devices....................................13 4.1.2. Sleeping devices....................................13
4.1.3. Local Testing.......................................13 4.1.3. Local Testing.......................................14
4.1.4. Device Replacement..................................13 4.1.4. Device Replacement..................................14
4.2. Scalability..............................................14 4.2. Scalability..............................................15
4.2.1. Network Domain......................................14 4.2.1. Network Domain......................................15
4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................14 4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................15
4.3. Mobility.................................................14 4.3. Mobility.................................................15
4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................15 4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................15
4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................15 4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................16
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........15 4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........16
4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers................15 4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers................16
4.5. Addressing...............................................15 4.5. Addressing...............................................16
4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................16 4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................16
4.6. Manageability............................................16 4.6. Manageability............................................17
4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................16 4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................17
4.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................16 4.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................17
4.6.3. Route Tracking......................................16 4.6.3. Route Tracking......................................17
4.7. Compatibility............................................16 4.7. Compatibility............................................17
4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................17 4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................18
4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................17 4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................18
4.8. Route Selection..........................................17 4.8. Route Selection..........................................18
4.8.1. Path Cost...........................................17 4.8.1. Path Cost...........................................18
4.8.2. Path Adaptation.....................................17 4.8.2. Path Adaptation.....................................18
4.8.3. Route Redundancy....................................17 4.8.3. Route Redundancy....................................18
4.8.4. Route Discovery Time................................17 4.8.4. Route Discovery Time................................18
4.8.5. Route Preference....................................18 4.8.5. Route Preference....................................19
4.8.6. Path Symmetry.......................................18 4.8.6. Path Persistence....................................19
4.8.7. Path Persistence....................................18 5. Traffic Pattern...............................................19
5. Traffic Pattern...............................................18 6. Open issues...................................................20
6. Open issues...................................................19 7. Security Considerations.......................................20
7. Security Considerations.......................................19 8. IANA Considerations...........................................20
8. IANA Considerations...........................................19 9. Acknowledgments...............................................20
9. Acknowledgments...............................................19 10. References...................................................20
10. References...................................................19 10.1. Normative References....................................20
10.1. Normative References....................................19 10.2. Informative References..................................21
10.2. Informative References..................................20 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................21
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................20 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............21
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............20 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................21
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................20 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................21
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................20 11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............21
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............20 11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............21
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............20 11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................22
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................21 11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................22
11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................21 11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................22
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................21 11.1.8. Cost...............................................22
11.1.8. Cost...............................................21 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..22
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..21 11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................22
11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................21 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................22
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................21 11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................22
11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................21 11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................22
11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................21 11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................23
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................22 11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................23
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................22 11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................23
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................22 11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................23
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................22 11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................23
11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................22 11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................23
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................22 11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................24
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................23 11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................24
11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................23 11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................24
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................23 11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................24
11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................23 11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................24
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................23 11.6. Reliability.............................................24
11.6. Reliability.............................................23 11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................24
11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................23
Disclaimer of Validity...........................................26
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
For description of the terminology used in this specification, please For description of the terminology used in this specification, please
see the Terminology ID referenced in Section 10.1. see the Terminology ID referenced in Section 10.1.
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently
electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their
controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and
technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to
increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution; increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution;
thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant
communication. Wireless solutions will be adapted from their communication.
existing wired counterparts in many of the building applications
including, but not limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air The cost benefits and ease of installation of wireless sensors allow
Conditioning (HVAC), Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator customers to further instrument their facilities with additional
systems. These devices will be developed to reduce installation sensors; providing tighter control while yielding increased energy
costs; while increasing installation and retrofit flexibility. savings.
Wireless solutions will be adapted from their existing wired
counterparts in many of the building applications including, but not
limited to Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC),
Lighting, Physical Security, Fire, and Elevator systems. These
devices will be developed to reduce installation costs; while
increasing installation and retrofit flexibility, as well as
increasing the sensing fidelity to improve efficiency and building
service quality.
Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered. Actuators and area Sensing devices may be battery or mains powered. Actuators and area
controllers will be mains powered. controllers will be mains powered.
Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of Facility Management Systems (FMS) are deployed in a large set of
vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government vertical markets including universities; hospitals; government
facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical facilities; Kindergarten through High School (K-12); pharmaceutical
manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office manufacturing facilities; and single-tenant or multi-tenant office
buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5 buildings. These buildings range in size from 100K sqft structures (5
story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story story office buildings), to 1M sqft skyscrapers (100 story
skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon. skyscrapers) to complex government facilities such as the Pentagon.
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discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring discussion since they typically deal in communication rates requiring
WLAN communication technologies). WLAN communication technologies).
2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology 2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology
2.1.1. Introduction 2.1.1. Introduction
To understand the network systems requirements of a facility To understand the network systems requirements of a facility
management system in a commercial building, this document uses a management system in a commercial building, this document uses a
framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the framework to describe the basic functions and composition of the
system. An FMS is a horizontally layered system of sensors, system. An FMS is a hierarchical system of sensors, actuators,
actuators, controllers and user interface devices. Additionally, an controllers and user interface devices based on spatial extent.
FMS may also be divided vertically across alike, but different Additionally, an FMS may also be divided functionally across alike,
building subsystems such as HVAC, Fire, Security, Lighting, Shutters but different building subsystems such as HVAC, Fire, Security,
and Elevator control systems as denoted in Figure 1. Lighting, Shutters and Elevator control systems as denoted in Figure
1.
Much of the makeup of an FMS is optional and installed at the behest Much of the makeup of an FMS is optional and installed at the behest
of the customer. Sensors and actuators have no standalone of the customer. Sensors and actuators have no standalone
functionality. All other devices support partial or complete functionality. All other devices support partial or complete
standalone functionality. These devices can optionally be tethered standalone functionality. These devices can optionally be tethered
to form a more cohesive system. The customer requirements dictate to form a more cohesive system. The customer requirements dictate
the level of integration within the facility. This architecture the level of integration within the facility. This architecture
provides excellent fault tolerance since each node is designed to provides excellent fault tolerance since each node is designed to
operate in an independent mode if the higher layers are unavailable. operate in an independent mode if the higher layers are unavailable.
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Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices Figure 1: Building Systems and Devices
2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators 2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators
As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional As Figure 1 indicates an FMS may be composed of many functional
stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building stacks or silos that are interoperably woven together via Building
Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the Applications. Each silo has an array of sensors that monitor the
environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are
the leaves of the network tree structure providing environmental data the fringe of the network structure providing environmental data into
into the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts modifying the
modifying the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor characteristics of the system based on the input sensor data and the
data and the applications deployed. applications deployed.
2.1.3. Area Controllers 2.1.3. Area Controllers
An area describes a small physical locale within a building, An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room
lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area
controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the
environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in
many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature, many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors
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Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are
installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously
installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP
network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are
completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP
switch together with static IP addresses. switch together with static IP addresses.
Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added
to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must
follow the same work flow. The electrician will install the products follow the same work flow. The electrician will install the products
as before and run local functional tests between the wireless devices as before and run local functional tests between the wireless device
to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does
not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device
operation. operation.
The wireless installation process must follow the same work flow.
The electrician will install the products as before and run local
functional tests between the wireless devices to assure operation
before leaving the job. The electrician does not carry a laptop so
the commissioning must be built into the device operation.
3. Building Automation Applications 3. Building Automation Applications
Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from
1913. This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms 1913. This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms
including a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as including a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as
many as 2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are many as 2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are
described in the following text. The situations and needs described described in the following text. The situations and needs described
in these use cases can also be found in all automated large in these use cases can also be found in all automated large
buildings, such as airports and hospitals. buildings, such as airports and hospitals.
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and electricity bills. and electricity bills.
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment 3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment
Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety
equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher
(100), fire blanket (10), fire-resistant door (120) and evacuation (100), fire blanket (10), fire-resistant door (120) and evacuation
plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also
the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each
public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset
tracking and low-power wireless technologies would heavily cut into tracking and low-power wireless technologies would reduce a heavy
working hours. burden on working hours.
It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and
that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this
safety equipment is kept at a very low level. safety equipment is kept at a very low level.
3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices 3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices
Some field devices (e.g. smoke detectors) must be replaced Some field devices (e.g. smoke detectors) are replaced periodically.
periodically. Devices must be easily added and deleted from the The ease by which devices are added and deleted from the network is
network to support augmenting sensors/actuators during construction. very important to support augmenting sensors/actuators during
construction.
A secure mechanism is needed to remove the old device and install the A secure mechanism is needed to remove the old device and install the
new device. New devices need to be authenticated before they can new device. New devices need to be authenticated before they can
participate in the routing process of the LLN. After the participate in the routing process of the LLN. After the
authentication, zero-configuration of the routing protocol is authentication, zero-configuration of the routing protocol is
necessary. necessary.
3.5. Surveillance 3.5. Surveillance
Ingress and egress are real-time applications needing response times Ingress and egress are real-time applications needing response times
below 500msec. Each door must support local programming to restrict below 500msec, for example for cardkey authorization. It must be
use on a per person basis with respect to time-of-day and person possible to configure doors individually to restrict use on a per
entering. While much of the application is localized at the door, person basis with respect to time-of-day and person entering. While
tamper, door ajar, forced entry must be routed to one or more fixed much of the surveillance application involves sensing and actuation
or mobile user devices within 5 seconds. at the door and communication with the centralized security system,
other aspects, including tamper, door ajar, and forced entry
notification, are to be delivered to one or more fixed or mobile user
devices within 5 seconds.
3.6. Emergency 3.6. Emergency
In case of an emergency it is very important that all the visitors be In case of an emergency it is very important that all the visitors be
evacuated as quickly as possible. The fire and smoke detectors have evacuated as quickly as possible. The fire and smoke detectors set
to set off an alarm, and alert the mobile personnel on their user off an alarm and alert the mobile personnel on their user device
device (e.g. PDA). All emergency exits have to be instantly unlocked (e.g. PDA). All emergency exits are instantly unlocked and the
and the emergency lighting has to guide the visitors to these exits. emergency lighting guides the visitors to these exits. The necessary
The necessary sprinklers have to be activated and the electricity sprinklers are activated and the electricity grid monitored if it
grid has to be monitored if it becomes necessary to shut down some becomes necessary to shut down some parts of the building. Emergency
parts of the building. Emergency services have to be notified services are notified instantly.
instantly.
A wireless system could bring in some extra safety features. A wireless system could bring in some extra safety features.
Locating fire fighters and guiding them through the building could be Locating fire fighters and guiding them through the building could be
a life-saving application. a life-saving application.
These life critical applications must take routing precedence over These life critical applications ought to take precedence over other
other network traffic. Commands entered during these emergencies network traffic. Commands entered during these emergencies have to
must be properly authenticated by device, user, and command request. be properly authenticated by device, user, and command request.
3.7. Public Address 3.7. Public Address
It should be possible to send audio and text messages to the visitors It should be possible to send audio and text messages to the visitors
in the building. These messages can be very diverse, e.g. ASCII text in the building. These messages can be very diverse, e.g. ASCII text
boards displaying the name of the event in a room, audio boards displaying the name of the event in a room, audio
announcements such as delays in the program, lost and found children, announcements such as delays in the program, lost and found children,
evacuation orders, etc. evacuation orders, etc.
The control network must be able to readily sense the audience in an The control network is expected be able to readily sense the presence
area and deliver applicable message content. of an audience in an area and deliver applicable message content.
4. Building Automation Routing Requirements 4. Building Automation Routing Requirements
Following are the building automation routing requirements for a Following are the building automation routing requirements for a
network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control network used to integrate building sensor actuator and control
products. These requirements have been limited to routing products. These requirements have been limited to routing
requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any requirements only. These requirements are written not presuming any
preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio preordained network topology, physical media (wired) or radio
technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements technology (wireless). See Appendix A for additional requirements
that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will that have been deemed outside the scope of this document yet will
pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems. pertain to the successful deployment of building automation systems.
4.1. Installation 4.1. Installation
Building control systems typically are installed and tested by Building control systems typically are installed and tested by
electricians having little computer knowledge and no network electricians having little computer knowledge and no network
knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the knowledge whatsoever. These systems are often installed during the
building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in building construction phase before the drywall and ceilings are in
place. There is never an IP network in place during this place. For new construction projects, the building enterprise IP
installation. network is not in place during installation of the building control
system.
In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers In retrofit applications, pulling wires from sensors to controllers
can be costly and in some applications (e.g. museums) not feasible. can be costly and in some applications (e.g. museums) not feasible.
Local (ad hoc) testing of sensors and room controllers must be Local (ad hoc) testing of sensors and room controllers must be
completed before the tradesperson can complete his/her work. System completed before the tradesperson can complete his/her work. This
level commissioning will later be deployed using a more computer testing allows the tradesperson to verify correct client (e.g. light
savvy person with access to a commissioning device (e.g. a laptop switch) and server (e.g. light ballast) before leaving the jobsite.
computer). The completely installed and commissioned IP network may In traditional wired systems correct operation of a light
or may not be in place at this time. Following are the installation switch/ballast pair was as simple as flipping on the light switch.
routing requirements. In wireless applications, the tradesperson has to assure the same
operation, yet be sure the operation of the light switch is
associated to the proper ballast.
System level commissioning will later be deployed using a more
computer savvy person with access to a commissioning device (e.g. a
laptop computer). The completely installed and commissioned
enterprise IP network may or may not be in place at this time.
Following are the installation routing requirements.
4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation 4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation
It MUST be possible to fully commission network devices without It MUST be possible to fully commission network devices without
requiring any additional commissioning device (e.g. laptop). The requiring any additional commissioning device (e.g. laptop). The
device MAY support up to sixteen integrated switches to uniquely device MAY support up to sixteen integrated switches to uniquely
identify the device on the network. identify the device on the network.
4.1.2. Sleeping devices 4.1.2. Sleeping devices
Sensing devices must be able to utilize battery power or Energy Sensing devices will, in cases, utilize battery power or energy
Harvesting techniques for power. This presumes a need for devices harvesting techniques for power and will operate in a mostly sleeping
that most often sleep. Routing must support these catatonic devices mode to maintain power consumption within a modest budget. Routing
to assure that established routes do not utilize sleeping devices. MUST recognize the constraints associated the power budget of such
It must also define routing rules when these devices need to access low duty cycle devices. If such devices provide routing, rather than
the network. Communication to these devices must be bidirectional. merely host connectivity, the energy costs associated with such
Routing must support proxies that can cache the inbound data for the routing need to fit within the power budget. If the mechanisms for
sleeping device until the device awakens. Routing must understand duty cycling dictate very long response times or specific temporal
the selected proxy for the sleeping device. scheduling, routing and forwarding will need to take such constraints
into account.
Batteries must be operational for at least 5 years when the sensing Communication to these mostly sleeping devices MUST be bidirectional.
device is transmitting its data (e.g. 64 bytes) once per minute. Typically, batteries need to be operational for at least 5 years when
This requires that sleeping devices must have minimal network access the sensing device is transmitting its data(e.g. 64 bytes) once per
time when they awake and transmit onto the network. minute. This requires that sleeping devices must have minimal link
on time when they awake and transmit onto the network. Moreover,
maintaining the ability to receive inbound data must be accomplished
with minimal link on time.
In many cases, proxies with unconstrained power budgets are used to
cache the inbound data for a sleeping device until the device
awakens. In such cases, routing MUST recognize the selected proxy
for the sleeping device.
4.1.3. Local Testing 4.1.3. Local Testing
The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be
testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication
connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic
devices. Routing must allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be devices. Routing must allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be
established that are updated as the network physically and established that are updated as the network physically and
functionally expands. functionally expands.
4.1.4. Device Replacement 4.1.4. Device Replacement
Replacement devices must be plug-and-play with no additional setup Replacement devices need to be plug-and-play with no additional setup
compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices
referencing data in the replaced device MUST not need to be referencing data in the replaced device must be able to reference
reconfigured to the new device. data in its replacement without being reconfigured to refer to the
new device. Thus, such a reference cannot be a hardware identifier,
such as the MAC address, nor a hardcoded route. If such a reference
is an IP address, the replacement device must be assigned the IP
addressed previously bound to the replaced device. Or if the logical
equivalent of a hostname is used for the reference, it must be
translated to the replacement IP address.
4.2. Scalability 4.2. Scalability
Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq. Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must
cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities
installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability
requirements. requirements.
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4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication 4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication
The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast The data domain for commercial FMS systems may sprawl across a vast
portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in portion of the physical domain. For example, a chiller may reside in
the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling the facility's basement due to its size, yet the associated cooling
towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return towers will reside on the roof. The cold-water supply and return
pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback pipes serpentine through all the intervening floors. The feedback
control loops for these systems require data from across the control loops for these systems require data from across the
facility. facility.
Network devices must be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner A network device must be able to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner
with all other devices on the network. Thus the routing protocol MUST with any other device on the network. Thus, the routing protocol MUST
provide routes to any other devices without being subject to a provide routes between arbitrary hosts within the appropriate
constrained path via a gating device. administrative domain.
4.3. Mobility 4.3. Mobility
Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within Most devices are affixed to walls or installed on ceilings within
buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings buildings. Hence the mobility requirements for commercial buildings
are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of are few. However, in wireless environments location tracking of
occupants and assets is gaining favor. occupants and assets is gaining favor.
4.3.1. Mobile Device Association 4.3.1. Mobile Device Association
Mobile devices SHOULD be capable of unjoining (handing-off) from an Mobile devices SHOULD be capable of unjoining (handing-off) from an
old network joining onto a new network within 15 seconds. old network joining onto a new network within 15 seconds.
4.4. Resource Constrained Devices 4.4. Resource Constrained Devices
Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4 Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4
orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional
client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms must client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms MUST
therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices. therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices.
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators 4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators
The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be
implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128KB of flash implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128KB of flash
memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more
than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the
application). application).
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services (or IPv6 equivalent). services (or IPv6 equivalent).
4.6. Manageability 4.6. Manageability
In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section
4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the 4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the
system to be simple and inexpensive. system to be simple and inexpensive.
4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades 4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades
To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support parallel To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support transports
downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee packet delivery. that provide parallel downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee
packet delivery.
4.6.2. Diagnostics 4.6.2. Diagnostics
To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed
in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging
mode that provides additional communication information including at mode that provides additional communication information including at
least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of
failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table
entries. entries.
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standards are BACnet and LON. It is estimated that fully 80% of the standards are BACnet and LON. It is estimated that fully 80% of the
customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to
one or both of these standards. ROLL routing will therefore need to one or both of these standards. ROLL routing will therefore need to
dovetail to these application protocols to assure acceptance in the dovetail to these application protocols to assure acceptance in the
building automation industry. These protocols have been in place for building automation industry. These protocols have been in place for
over 10 years. Many sites will require backwards compatibility with over 10 years. Many sites will require backwards compatibility with
the existing legacy devices. the existing legacy devices.
4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility 4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility
The routing protocol MUST define a communication scheme to assure The routing protocol MUST support intercommunication among IPv4 and
compatibility of IPv4 and IPv6 devices. IPv6 devices..
4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size 4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size
Routing MUST support packet sizes to 1526 octets (to be backwards Routing MUST support packet sizes to 1526 octets (to be backwards
compatible with 802.3 subnetworks) compatible with 802.3 subnetworks)
4.8. Route Selection 4.8. Route Selection
Route selection determines reliability and quality of the Route selection determines reliability and quality of the
communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over
time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are
asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation
will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost
attribute. attribute.
4.8.1. Path Cost 4.8.1. Path Cost
The routing protocol MUST support a range of metrics and optimize The routing protocol MUST support a metric of route quality and
(constrained) path according to these metrics. These metrics SHOULD optimize path selection according to such metrics within constraints
include signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count and established for links along the paths. These metrics SHOULD reflect
communication error rates. metrics such as signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count,
energy availability and communication error rates.
4.8.2. Path Adaptation 4.8.2. Path Adaptation
Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g. Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g.
signal quality) optimality in time. signal quality) optimality in time.
4.8.3. Route Redundancy 4.8.3. Route Redundancy
To reduce real-time latency, the network layer SHOULD be configurable The network layer SHOULD be configurable to allow secondary and
to allow secondary and tertiary paths to be established and used upon tertiary paths to be established and used upon failure of the primary
failure of the primary path. path.
4.8.4. Route Discovery Time 4.8.4. Route Discovery Time
Route discovery occurring during packet transmission MUST not exceed Mission critical commercial applications (e.g. Fire,Security) require
120 msecs. reliable communication and guaranteed end-to-end delivery of all
messages in a timely fashion. Application layer time-outs must be
selected judiciously to cover anomalous conditions such as lost
packets and/or path discoveries; yet not be set too large to over
damp the network response. Route discovery occurring during packet
transmission MUST not exceed 120 msecs.
4.8.5. Route Preference 4.8.5. Route Preference
The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to
dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred
routing path. routing path.
4.8.6. Path Symmetry 4.8.6. Path Persistence
The network layer SHOULD support both asymmetric and symmetric routes
as requested by the application layer. When the application layer
selects asymmetry the network layer MAY elect to find either
asymmetric or symmetric routes. When the application layer requests
symmetric routes, then only symmetric routes MUST be utilized.
4.8.7. Path Persistence
To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out
conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and
invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering
the network. the network.
5. Traffic Pattern 5. Traffic Pattern
The independent nature of the automation systems within a building The independent nature of the automation systems within a building
plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time
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Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed
out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary
informational substance to the reader. The requirements will need to informational substance to the reader. The requirements will need to
be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building
automation industry will be considered. automation industry will be considered.
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations
Solutions MUST support both wired and wireless implementations. Solutions must support both wired and wireless implementations.
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability
Wireless devices MUST be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band. Wireless devices must be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band.
Wireless devices SHOULD be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands Wireless devices should be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands
as well. as well.
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol 11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol
Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the Devices implementing the ROLL features should support the BACnet
BACnet protocol. protocol.
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol 11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol
Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the Devices implementing the ROLL features should support the LON
LON protocol. protocol.
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors 11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors
RFDs SHOULD target for operation using viable energy harvesting RFDs should target for operation using viable energy harvesting
techniques such as ambient light, mechanical action, solar load, air techniques such as ambient light, mechanical action, solar load, air
pressure and differential temperature. pressure and differential temperature.
11.1.6. Communication Distance 11.1.6. Communication Distance
A source device may be upwards to 1000 feet from its destination. A source device may be upwards to 1000 feet from its destination.
Communication MUST be established between these devices without Communication may need to be established between these devices
needing to install other intermediate 'communication only' devices without needing to install other intermediate 'communication only'
such as repeaters devices such as repeaters
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control 11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control
For wireless implementations, the device radios SHOULD incorporate For wireless implementations, the device radios should incorporate
automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet transfer and automatic transmit power regulation to maximize packet transfer and
minimize network interference regardless of network size or density. minimize network interference regardless of network size or density.
11.1.8. Cost 11.1.8. Cost
The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to The total installed infrastructure cost including but not limited to
the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the the media, required infrastructure devices (amortized across the
number of devices); labor to install and commission the network MUST number of devices); labor to install and commission the network must
not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations. not exceed $1.00/foot for wired implementations.
Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more Wireless implementations (total installed cost) must cost no more
than 80% of wired implementations. than 80% of wired implementations.
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements
11.2.1. Device Setup Time 11.2.1. Device Setup Time
Network setup by the installer MUST take no longer than 20 seconds Network setup by the installer must take no longer than 20 seconds
per device installed. per device installed.
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network
Product commissioning MUST be performed by an application engineer Product commissioning must be performed by an application engineer
prior to the installation of the IT network. prior to the installation of the IT network.
11.3. Additional Network Requirements 11.3. Additional Network Requirements
11.3.1. TCP/UDP 11.3.1. TCP/UDP
Connection based and connectionless services MUST be supported Connection based and connectionless services must be supported
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance 11.3.2. Data Rate Performance
An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable
operational data rate acceptable on the network. operational data rate acceptable on the network.
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads 11.3.3. High Speed Downloads
Devices receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon Devices receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon
completion of the download MUST automatically resume normal completion of the download must automatically resume normal
operation. operation.
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation 11.3.4. Interference Mitigation
The network MUST automatically detect interference and migrate the The network must automatically detect interference and seamlessly
network to a better 802.15.4 channel to improve communication. migrate the network hosts channel to improve communication. Channel
Channel changes and nodes response to the channel change MUST occur changes and nodes response to the channel change must occur within 60
within 60 seconds. seconds.
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures 11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures
A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node A node transmitting a 'request with expected reply' to another node
MUST send the message to the destination and receive the response in must send the message to the destination and receive the response in
not more than 120 msec. This response time SHOULD be achievable with not more than 120 msec. This response time should be achievable with
5 or less hops in each direction. This requirement assumes network 5 or less hops in each direction. This requirement assumes network
quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the destination node. quiescence and a negligible turnaround time at the destination node.
11.3.6. Packet Reliability 11.3.6. Packet Reliability
Reliability MUST meet the following minimum criteria : Reliability must meet the following minimum criteria :
< 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three < 1% MAC layer errors on all messages; After no more than three
retries retries
< .1% Network layer errors on all messages; < .1% Network layer errors on all messages;
After no more than three additional retries; After no more than three additional retries;
< 0.01% Application layer errors on all messages. < 0.01% Application layer errors on all messages.
Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once Therefore application layer messages will fail no more than once
every 100,000 messages. every 100,000 messages.
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands 11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands
Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times
during building construction. These subnetworks MUST seamlessly during building construction. These subnetworks must seamlessly
merge into networks and networks MUST seamlessly merge into merge into networks and networks must seamlessly merge into
internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system. internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system.
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes 11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes
Routing MUST support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per Routing must support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per
node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices. node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices.
11.4. Prioritized Routing 11.4. Prioritized Routing
Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure
that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be
deferred while less critical application access the network. deferred while less critical application access the network.
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization 11.4.1. Packet Prioritization
Routers MUST support quality of service prioritization to assure Routers must support quality of service prioritization to assure
timely response for critical FMS packets. timely response for critical FMS packets.
11.5. Constrained Devices 11.5. Constrained Devices
The network may be composed of a heterogeneous mix of full, battery The network may be composed of a heterogeneous mix of full, battery
and energy harvested devices. The routing protocol must support and energy harvested devices. The routing protocol must support
these constrained devices. these constrained devices.
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices 11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices
Routing MUST support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery Routing must support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery
and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible
on the network. on the network.
These devices MUST have a designated powered proxying device to which These devices must have a designated powered proxying device to which
packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained
device accesses the network. device accesses the network.
11.6. Reliability 11.6. Reliability
11.6.1. Device Integrity 11.6.1. Device Integrity
Commercial Building devices MUST all be periodically scanned to Commercial Building devices must all be periodically scanned to
assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm
information as needed. Network routers SHOULD maintain previous information as needed. Network routers should maintain previous
packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network
overhead. overhead.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jerry Martocci Jerry Martocci
Johnson Control Johnson Control
507 E. Michigan Street 507 E. Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202
USA USA
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Wouter Vermeylen Wouter Vermeylen
Arts Centre Vooruit Arts Centre Vooruit
??? ???
Ghent 9000 Ghent 9000
Belgium Belgium
Phone: ??? Phone: ???
Fax: ??? Fax: ???
Email: wouter@vooruit.be Email: wouter@vooruit.be
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