draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-00.txt   draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-01.txt 
Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed. Networking Working Group J. Martocci, Ed.
Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc. Internet-Draft Johnson Controls Inc.
Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil Intended status: Informational Pieter De Mil
Expires: April 24, 2009 Ghent University IBCN Expires: April 29, 2009 Ghent University IBCN
W. Vermeylen W. Vermeylen
Arts Centre Vooruit Arts Centre Vooruit
October 24, 2008 Nicolas Riou
Schneider Electric
October 29, 2008
Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy Building Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and Lossy
Networks Networks
draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-00 draft-ietf-roll-building-routing-reqs-01
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that
any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is
aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she
becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of
BCP 79. BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2009. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 29, 2009.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
Abstract Abstract
The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has The Routing Over Low power and Lossy network (ROLL) Working Group has
been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy been chartered to work on routing solutions for Low Power and Lossy
networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building), networks (LLN) in various markets: Industrial, Commercial (Building),
Home and Urban. Pursuant to this effort, this document defines the Home and Urban. Pursuant to this effort, this document defines the
routing requirements for building automation. routing requirements for building automation.
Requirements Language Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
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1. Terminology....................................................4 1. Terminology....................................................4
2. Introduction...................................................4 2. Introduction...................................................4
2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology.................5 2.1. Facility Management System (FMS) Topology.................5
2.1.1. Introduction.........................................5 2.1.1. Introduction.........................................5
2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................6 2.1.2. Sensors/Actuators....................................6
2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................6 2.1.3. Area Controllers.....................................6
2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................6 2.1.4. Zone Controllers.....................................6
2.2. Installation Methods......................................7 2.2. Installation Methods......................................7
2.2.1. Wired Communication Media............................7 2.2.1. Wired Communication Media............................7
2.2.2. Device Density.......................................7 2.2.2. Device Density.......................................7
2.2.3. Installation Procedure...............................8 2.2.3. Installation Procedure...............................9
3. Building Automation Applications...............................9 3. Building Automation Applications...............................9
3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building........................9 3.1. Locking and Unlocking the Building.......................10
3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................10 3.2. Building Energy Conservation.............................10
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......10 3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment.......10
3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices..............................11 3.4. Life Cycle of Field Devices..............................11
3.5. Surveillance.............................................11 3.5. Surveillance.............................................11
3.6. Emergency................................................11 3.6. Emergency................................................11
3.7. Public Address...........................................11 3.7. Public Address...........................................12
4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................12 4. Building Automation Routing Requirements......................12
4.1. Installation.............................................12 4.1. Installation.............................................12
4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation.....................13 4.1.1. Zero-Configuration installation.....................13
4.1.2. Sleeping devices....................................13 4.1.2. Sleeping devices....................................13
4.1.3. Local Testing.......................................13 4.1.3. Local Testing.......................................13
4.1.4. Device Replacement..................................13 4.1.4. Device Replacement..................................13
4.2. Scalability..............................................13 4.2. Scalability..............................................14
4.2.1. Network Domain......................................14 4.2.1. Network Domain......................................14
4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................14 4.2.2. Peer-to-peer Communication..........................14
4.3. Mobility.................................................14 4.3. Mobility.................................................14
4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................14 4.3.1. Mobile Device Association...........................15
4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................15 4.4. Resource Constrained Devices.............................15
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........15 4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators..........15
4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers................15 4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers................15
4.4.3. Proxying for Constrained Devices....................15 4.5. Addressing...............................................15
4.5. Prioritized Routing......................................15 4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................16
4.5.1. Packet Prioritization...............................15 4.6. Manageability............................................16
4.6. Addressing...............................................16 4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................16
4.6.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast...........................16 4.6.2. Diagnostics.........................................16
4.7. Manageability............................................16 4.6.3. Route Tracking......................................16
4.7.1. Firmware Upgrades...................................16 4.7. Compatibility............................................16
4.7.2. Diagnostics.........................................16 4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................17
4.7.3. Route Tracking......................................17 4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................17
4.8. Compatibility............................................17 4.8. Route Selection..........................................17
4.8.1. IPv4 Compatibility..................................17 4.8.1. Path Cost...........................................17
4.8.2. Maximum Packet Size.................................17 4.8.2. Path Adaptation.....................................17
4.9. Route Selection..........................................17 4.8.3. Route Redundancy....................................17
4.9.1. Path Cost...........................................17 4.8.4. Route Discovery Time................................17
4.9.2. Path Adaptation.....................................18 4.8.5. Route Preference....................................18
4.9.3. Route Redundancy....................................18 4.8.6. Path Symmetry.......................................18
4.9.4. Route Discovery Time................................18 4.8.7. Path Persistence....................................18
4.9.5. Route Preference....................................18 5. Traffic Pattern...............................................18
4.9.6. Path Symmetry.......................................18
4.9.7. Path Persistence....................................18
4.10. Reliability.............................................18
4.10.1. Device Integrity...................................18
5. Traffic Pattern...............................................19
6. Open issues...................................................19 6. Open issues...................................................19
7. Security Considerations.......................................19 7. Security Considerations.......................................19
8. IANA Considerations...........................................20 8. IANA Considerations...........................................19
9. Acknowledgments...............................................20 9. Acknowledgments...............................................19
10. References...................................................20 10. References...................................................19
10.1. Normative References....................................20 10.1. Normative References....................................19
10.2. Informative References..................................20 10.2. Informative References..................................20
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................21 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements.................20
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............21 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements..............20
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................21 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations.................20
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................21 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability...........................20
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............21 11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol............20
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............21 11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol...............20
11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................21 11.1.5. Energy Harvested Sensors...........................21
11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................21 11.1.6. Communication Distance.............................21
11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................21 11.1.7. Automatic Gain Control.............................21
11.1.8. Cost...............................................22 11.1.8. Cost...............................................21
11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..22 11.2. Additional Installation and Commissioning Requirements..21
11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................22 11.2.1. Device Setup Time..................................21
11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................22 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network....................21
11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................22 11.3. Additional Network Requirements.........................21
11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................22 11.3.1. TCP/UDP............................................21
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................22 11.3.2. Data Rate Performance..............................22
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................22 11.3.3. High Speed Downloads...............................22
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................22 11.3.4. Interference Mitigation............................22
11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................23 11.3.5. Real-time Performance Measures.....................22
11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................23 11.3.6. Packet Reliability.................................22
11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................23 11.3.7. Merging Commissioned Islands.......................22
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................23 11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes......................23
Disclaimer of Validity...........................................25 11.4. Prioritized Routing.....................................23
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization..............................23
11.5. Constrained Devices.....................................23
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices...................23
11.6. Reliability.............................................23
11.6.1. Device Integrity...................................23
Disclaimer of Validity...........................................26
1. Terminology 1. Terminology
For description of the terminology used in this specification, please For description of the terminology used in this specification, please
see the Terminology ID referenced in Section 10.2 see the Terminology ID referenced in Section 10.1.
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently Commercial buildings have been fitted with pneumatic and subsequently
electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their electronic communication pathways connecting sensors to their
controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and controllers for over one hundred years. Recent economic and
technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to technical advances in wireless communication allow facilities to
increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution; increasingly utilize a wireless solution in lieu of a wired solution;
thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant thereby reducing installation costs while maintaining highly reliant
communication. Wireless solutions will be adapted from their communication. Wireless solutions will be adapted from their
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environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined environment and actuators that effect the environment as determined
by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are by the upper layers of the FMS topology. The sensors typically are
the leaves of the network tree structure providing environmental data the leaves of the network tree structure providing environmental data
into the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts into the system. The actuators are the sensors counterparts
modifying the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor modifying the characteristics of the system based on the input sensor
data and the applications deployed. data and the applications deployed.
2.1.3. Area Controllers 2.1.3. Area Controllers
An area describes a small physical locale within a building, An area describes a small physical locale within a building,
typically a room. As noted in Figure 1 the HVAC, Security and typically a room. HVAC (temperature and humidity) and Lighting (room
Lighting functions within a building address area or room level lighting, shades, solar loads) vendors oft times deploy area
applications. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor controllers. Area controls are fed by sensor inputs that monitor the
the environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found environmental conditions within the room. Common sensors found in
in many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature, many rooms that feed the area controllers include temperature,
occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors occupancy, lighting load, solar load and relative humidity. Sensors
found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air found in specialized rooms (such as chemistry labs) might include air
flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors. Room actuation includes flow, pressure, CO2 and CO particle sensors. Room actuation includes
temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains. temperature setpoint, lights and blinds/curtains.
2.1.4. Zone Controllers 2.1.4. Zone Controllers
Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area Zone Control supports a similar set of characteristics as the Area
Control albeit to an extended space. A zone is normally a logical Control albeit to an extended space. A zone is normally a logical
grouping or functional division of a commercial building. A zone may grouping or functional division of a commercial building. A zone may
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64 zones. Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a 64 zones. Wired systems typically tether many lights together into a
single zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently single zone. Wireless systems configure each fixture independently
to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs. to increase flexibility and reduce installation costs.
2.2.2.4. Physical Security Device Density 2.2.2.4. Physical Security Device Density
Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near Security systems are non-uniformly oriented with heavy density near
doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space. doors and windows and lighter density in the building interior space.
The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is The recent influx of interior and perimeter camera systems is
increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical increasing the security footprint. These cameras are atypical
endpoints requiring upwards to 1 Mbit/s data rates per camera as endpoints requiring upwards to 1 megabit/second (Mbit/s) data rates
contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS sensing per camera as contrasted by the few Kbits/s needed by most other FMS
equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on sensing equipment. Previously, camera systems had been deployed on
proprietary wired high speed network. More recent implementations proprietary wired high speed network. More recent implementations
utilize wired or wireless IP cameras integrated to the enterprise utilize wired or wireless IP cameras integrated to the enterprise
LAN. LAN.
2.2.3. Installation Procedure 2.2.3. Installation Procedure
Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the Wired FMS installation is a multifaceted procedure depending on the
extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement. extent of the system and the software interoperability requirement.
However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure However, at the sensor/actuator and controller level, the procedure
is typically a two or three step process. is typically a two or three step process.
Most FMS equipment is 24 VAC equipment that can be installed by a Most FMS equipment is 24 VAC equipment that can be installed by a
low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site during the low-voltage electrician. He/she arrives on-site during the
construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and ceiling construction of the building prior to the sheet wall and ceiling
installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space, easily installation. This allows him/her to allocate wall space, easily
land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor networks. land the equipment and run the wired controller and sensor networks.
The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not normally The Building Controllers and Enterprise network are not normally
installed until months later. The electrician completes his task by installed until months later. The electrician completes his task by
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between the devices and proper local operation of the devices. between the devices and proper local operation of the devices.
Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are Later in the installation cycle, the higher order controllers are
installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously installed, programmed and commissioned together with the previously
installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP installed sensors, actuators and controllers. In most cases the IP
network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are network is still not operable. The Building Controllers are
completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP completely commissioned using a crossover cable or a temporary IP
switch together with static IP addresses. switch together with static IP addresses.
Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added Once the IP network is operational, the FMS may optionally be added
to the enterprise network. Wireless installation will necessarily to the enterprise network. The wireless installation process must
need to keep the same work flow. The electrician will install the follow the same work flow. The electrician will install the products
products as before and run local functional tests between the as before and run local functional tests between the wireless devices
wireless devices to assure operation before leaving the job. The to assure operation before leaving the job. The electrician does
electrician does not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be not carry a laptop so the commissioning must be built into the device
built into the device operation. operation.
3. Building Automation Applications 3. Building Automation Applications
Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from Vooruit is an arts centre in a restored monument which dates from
1913. This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms 1913. This complex monument consists of over 350 different rooms
including a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as including a meeting rooms, large public halls and theaters serving as
many as 2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are many as 2500 guests. A number of use cases regarding Vooruit are
described in the following text. The situations and needs described described in the following text. The situations and needs described
in these use cases can also be found in all automated large in these use cases can also be found in all automated large
buildings, such as airports and hospitals. buildings, such as airports and hospitals.
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energy. To prevent this from happening, the janitor can program the energy. To prevent this from happening, the janitor can program the
building according to the day's schedule. This way lighting and HVAC building according to the day's schedule. This way lighting and HVAC
is turned on prior to the use of a room, and turned off afterwards. is turned on prior to the use of a room, and turned off afterwards.
Using such a system Vooruit has realized a saving of 35% on the gas Using such a system Vooruit has realized a saving of 35% on the gas
and electricity bills. and electricity bills.
3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment 3.3. Inventory and Remote Diagnosis of Safety Equipment
Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety Each month Vooruit is obliged to make an inventory of its safety
equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher equipment. This task takes two working days. Each fire extinguisher
(100), fire blanket (10), fire-resisted door (120) and evacuation (100), fire blanket (10), fire-resistant door (120) and evacuation
plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also plan (80) must be checked for presence and proper operation. Also
the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each the battery and lamp of every safety lamp must be checked before each
public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset public event (safety laws). Automating this process using asset
tracking and low-power wireless technologies would heavily cut into tracking and low-power wireless technologies would heavily cut into
working hours. working hours.
It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and It is important that these messages are delivered very reliably and
that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this that the power consumption of the sensors/actuators attached to this
safety equipment is kept at a very low level. safety equipment is kept at a very low level.
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The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be The local sensors and requisite actuators and controllers must be
testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication testable within the locale (e.g. room) to assure communication
connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic connectivity and local operation without requiring other systemic
devices. Routing must allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be devices. Routing must allow for temporary ad hoc paths to be
established that are updated as the network physically and established that are updated as the network physically and
functionally expands. functionally expands.
4.1.4. Device Replacement 4.1.4. Device Replacement
Replacement devices must be plug-and-play with no additional setup Replacement devices must be plug-and-play with no additional setup
than what is normally required for a new device. No bound compared to what is normally required for a new device. Devices
information from other nodes MUST need be reconfigured. referencing data in the replaced device MUST not need to be
reconfigured to the new device.
4.2. Scalability 4.2. Scalability
Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq. Building control systems are designed for facilities from 50000 sq.
ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must ft. to 1M+ sq. ft. The networks that support these systems must
cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities cost-effectively scale accordingly. In larger facilities
installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet installation may occur simultaneously on various wings or floors, yet
the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability the end system must seamlessly merge. Following are the scalability
requirements. requirements.
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4.4. Resource Constrained Devices 4.4. Resource Constrained Devices
Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4 Sensing and actuator device processing power and memory may be 4
orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional orders of magnitude less (i.e. 10,000x) than many more traditional
client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms must client devices on an IP network. The routing mechanisms must
therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices. therefore be tailored to fit these resource constrained devices.
4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators 4.4.1. Limited Processing Power Sensors/Actuators
The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be The software stack requirements for sensors and actuators MUST be
implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128kb of flash implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 128KB of flash
memory (including at least 32Kb for the application code) and no more memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more
than 8Kb of RAM (including at least 1Kb RAM available for the than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the
application). application).
4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers 4.4.2. Limited Processing Power Controllers
The software stack requirements for room controllers SHOULD be The software stack requirements for room controllers SHOULD be
implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 256kb of flash implementable in 8-bit devices with no more than 256KB of flash
memory (including at least 32Kb for the application code) and no more memory (including at least 32KB for the application code) and no more
than 8Kb of RAM (including at least 1Kb RAM available for the than 8KB of RAM (including at least 1KB RAM available for the
application) application)
4.4.3. Proxying for Constrained Devices 4.5. Addressing
Routing MUST support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery
and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible
on the network.
These devices MUST have a designated powered proxying device to which
packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained
device accesses the network.
4.5. Prioritized Routing
Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure
that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be
deferred while less critical application access the network.
4.5.1. Packet Prioritization
Routers MUST support quality of service prioritization to assure
timely response for critical FMS packets.
4.6. Addressing
Facility Management systems require different communication schema to Facility Management systems require different communication schema to
solicit or post network information. Broadcasts or anycasts need be solicit or post network information. Broadcasts or anycasts need be
used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the device used to resolve unresolved references within a device when the device
first joins the network. first joins the network.
As with any network communication, broadcasting should be minimized. As with any network communication, broadcasting should be minimized.
This is especially a problem for small embedded devices with limited This is especially a problem for small embedded devices with limited
network bandwidth. In many cases a global broadcast could be network bandwidth. In many cases a global broadcast could be
replaced with a multicast since the application knows the application replaced with a multicast since the application knows the application
domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network domain. Broadcasts and multicasts are typically used for network
joins and application binding in embedded systems. joins and application binding in embedded systems.
4.6.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast 4.5.1. Unicast/Multicast/Anycast
Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, multicast and broadcast Routing MUST support anycast, unicast, multicast and broadcast
services (or IPv6 equivalent). services (or IPv6 equivalent).
4.7. Manageability 4.6. Manageability
In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section In addition to the initial installation of the system (see Section
4.1), the ongoing maintenance of the system is equally important to 4.1), it is equally important for the ongoing maintenance of the
be simple and inexpensive. system to be simple and inexpensive.
4.7.1. Firmware Upgrades 4.6.1. Firmware Upgrades
To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support parallel To support high speed code downloads, routing MUST support parallel
downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee packet delivery. downloads to targeted devices yet guarantee packet delivery.
4.7.2. Diagnostics 4.6.2. Diagnostics
To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed To improve diagnostics, the network layer SHOULD be able to be placed
in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging in and out of 'verbose' mode. Verbose mode is a temporary debugging
mode that provides additional communication information including at mode that provides additional communication information including at
least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of least total number of packets sent, packets received, number of
failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table failed communication attempts, neighbor table and routing table
entries. entries.
4.7.3. Route Tracking 4.6.3. Route Tracking
Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as Route diagnostics SHOULD be supported providing information such as
path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with path quality; number of hops; available alternate active paths with
associated costs. associated costs.
4.8. Compatibility 4.7. Compatibility
The building automation industry adheres to application layer The building automation industry adheres to application layer
protocol standards to achieve vendor interoperability. These protocol standards to achieve vendor interoperability. These
standards are BACnet and LON. It is estimated that fully 80% of the standards are BACnet and LON. It is estimated that fully 80% of the
customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to customer bid requests received world-wide will require compliance to
one or both of these standards. ROLL routing will therefore need to one or both of these standards. ROLL routing will therefore need to
dovetail to these application protocols to assure acceptance in the dovetail to these application protocols to assure acceptance in the
building automation industry. These protocols have been in place for building automation industry. These protocols have been in place for
over 10 years. Many sites will require backwards compatibility with over 10 years. Many sites will require backwards compatibility with
the existing legacy devices. the existing legacy devices.
4.8.1. IPv4 Compatibility 4.7.1. IPv4 Compatibility
The routing protocol MUST define a communication scheme to assure The routing protocol MUST define a communication scheme to assure
compatibility of IPv4 and IPv6 devices. compatibility of IPv4 and IPv6 devices.
4.8.2. Maximum Packet Size 4.7.2. Maximum Packet Size
Routing MUST support packet sizes to 1526 octets (to be backwards Routing MUST support packet sizes to 1526 octets (to be backwards
compatible with 802.3 subnetworks) compatible with 802.3 subnetworks)
4.9. Route Selection 4.8. Route Selection
Route selection determines reliability and quality of the Route selection determines reliability and quality of the
communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over communication paths among the devices. Optimizing the routes over
time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are time resolve any nuances developed at system startup when nodes are
asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation asynchronously adding themselves to the network. Path adaptation
will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost will reduce latency if the path costs consider hop count as a cost
attribute. attribute.
4.9.1. Path Cost 4.8.1. Path Cost
The routing protocol MUST support a range of metrics and optimize The routing protocol MUST support a range of metrics and optimize
(constrained) path according to these metrics. These metrics SHOULD (constrained) path according to these metrics. These metrics SHOULD
include signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count and include signal strength, available bandwidth, hop count and
communication error rates. communication error rates.
4.9.2. Path Adaptation 4.8.2. Path Adaptation
Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g. Communication paths MUST adapt toward the chosen metric(s) (e.g.
signal quality) optimality in time. signal quality) optimality in time.
4.9.3. Route Redundancy 4.8.3. Route Redundancy
To reduce real-time latency, the network layer SHOULD be configurable To reduce real-time latency, the network layer SHOULD be configurable
to allow secondary and tertiary paths to be established and used upon to allow secondary and tertiary paths to be established and used upon
failure of the primary path. failure of the primary path.
4.9.4. Route Discovery Time 4.8.4. Route Discovery Time
Route discovery occurring during packet transmission MUST not exceed Route discovery occurring during packet transmission MUST not exceed
120 msecs. 120 msecs.
4.9.5. Route Preference 4.8.5. Route Preference
The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to The route discovery mechanism SHOULD allow a source node (sensor) to
dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred dictate a configured destination node (controller) as a preferred
routing path. routing path.
4.9.6. Path Symmetry 4.8.6. Path Symmetry
The network layer SHOULD support both asymmetric and symmetric routes The network layer SHOULD support both asymmetric and symmetric routes
as requested by the application layer. When the application layer as requested by the application layer. When the application layer
selects asymmetry the network layer MAY elect to find either selects asymmetry the network layer MAY elect to find either
asymmetric or symmetric routes. When the application layer requests asymmetric or symmetric routes. When the application layer requests
symmetric routes, then only symmetric routes MUST be utilized. symmetric routes, then only symmetric routes MUST be utilized.
4.9.7. Path Persistence 4.8.7. Path Persistence
Devices SHOULD optionally persist communication paths across boots
4.10. Reliability
4.10.1. Device Integrity
Commercial Building devices MUST all be periodically scanned to To eliminate high network traffic in power-fail or brown-out
assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm conditions previously established routes SHOULD be remembered and
information as needed. Network routers SHOULD maintain previous invoked prior to establishing new routes for those devices reentering
packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network the network.
overhead.
5. Traffic Pattern 5. Traffic Pattern
The independent nature of the automation systems within a building The independent nature of the automation systems within a building
plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time plays heavy onto the network traffic patterns. Much of the real-time
sensor data stays within the local environment. Alarming and other sensor data stays within the local environment. Alarming and other
event data will percolate to higher layers. event data will percolate to higher layers.
Systemic data may be either polled or event based. Polled data Systemic data may be either polled or event based. Polled data
systems will generate a uniform packet load on the network. This systems will generate a uniform packet load on the network. This
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J. P. Vasseur, Ted Humpal and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged J. P. Vasseur, Ted Humpal and Zach Shelby are gratefully acknowledged
for their contributions to this document. for their contributions to this document.
This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot. This document was prepared using 2-Word-v2.0.template.dot.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03
draft-ietf-roll-terminology-00.txt
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
''RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical Characteristics of ''RS-485 EIA Standard: Standard for Electrical Characteristics of
Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced Digital Multipoint Generators and Receivers for use in Balanced Digital Multipoint
''BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and Automation ''BACnet: A Data Communication Protocol for Building and Automation
Control Networks'' ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004'', 2004 Control Networks'' ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2004'', 2004
''LON: OPEN DATA COMMUNICATION IN BUILDING AUTOMATION, CONTROLS AND ''LON: OPEN DATA COMMUNICATION IN BUILDING AUTOMATION, CONTROLS AND
BUILDING MANAGEMENT - BUILDING NETWORK PROTOCOL - PART 1: PROTOCOL BUILDING MANAGEMENT - BUILDING NETWORK PROTOCOL - PART 1: PROTOCOL
STACK'', 11/25/2005 STACK'', 11/25/2005
Terminology in Low power And Lossy Networks: draft-vasseur-roll-
terminology-02.txt
[I-D.ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs]
Brandt, A., ''Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low Power and
Lossy Networks'',
draft-ietf-roll-home-routing-reqs-03 (work in progress), September
2008
11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements 11. Appendix A: Additional Building Requirements
Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed Appendix A contains additional building requirements that were deemed
out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary out of scope for the routing document yet provided ancillary
informational substance to the reader. The requirements will need to informational substance to the reader. The requirements will need to
be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building be addressed by ROLL or other WGs before adoption by the building
automation industry will be considered. automation industry will be considered.
11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements 11.1. Additional Commercial Product Requirements
11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations 11.1.1. Wired and Wireless Implementations
Solutions MUST support both wired and wireless implementations. Solutions MUST support both wired and wireless implementations.
11.1.2. World-wide Applicability 11.1.2. World-wide Applicability
Wireless devices MUST be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band Wireless Wireless devices MUST be supportable at the 2.4Ghz ISM band.
devices SHOULD be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands as well. Wireless devices SHOULD be supportable at the 900 and 868 ISM bands
as well.
11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol 11.1.3. Support of the BACnet Building Protocol
Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the
BACnet protocol. BACnet protocol.
11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol 11.1.4. Support of the LON Building Protocol
Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the Devices implementing the ROLL features MUST be able to support the
LON protocol. LON protocol.
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11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network 11.2.2. Unavailability of an IT network
Product commissioning MUST be performed by an application engineer Product commissioning MUST be performed by an application engineer
prior to the installation of the IT network. prior to the installation of the IT network.
11.3. Additional Network Requirements 11.3. Additional Network Requirements
11.3.1. TCP/UDP 11.3.1. TCP/UDP
Connection based and connectionless services MUST be supported Connection based and connectionless services MUST be supported
11.3.2. Data Rate Performance 11.3.2. Data Rate Performance
An effective data rate of 20kbps is the lowest acceptable operational An effective data rate of 20kbits/s is the lowest acceptable
data rate acceptable on the network. operational data rate acceptable on the network.
11.3.3. High Speed Downloads 11.3.3. High Speed Downloads
Devices receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon Devices receiving a download MAY cease normal operation, but upon
completion of the download MUST automatically resume normal completion of the download MUST automatically resume normal
operation. operation.
11.3.4. Interference Mitigation 11.3.4. Interference Mitigation
The network MUST automatically detect interference and migrate the The network MUST automatically detect interference and migrate the
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Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times Subsystems are commissioned by various vendors at various times
during building construction. These subnetworks MUST seamlessly during building construction. These subnetworks MUST seamlessly
merge into networks and networks MUST seamlessly merge into merge into networks and networks MUST seamlessly merge into
internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system. internetworks since the end user wants a holistic view of the system.
11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes 11.3.8. Adjustable System Table Sizes
Routing MUST support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per Routing MUST support adjustable router table entry sizes on a per
node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices. node basis to maximize limited RAM in the devices.
11.4. Prioritized Routing
Network and application routing prioritization is required to assure
that mission critical applications (e.g. Fire Detection) cannot be
deferred while less critical application access the network.
11.4.1. Packet Prioritization
Routers MUST support quality of service prioritization to assure
timely response for critical FMS packets.
11.5. Constrained Devices
The network may be composed of a heterogeneous mix of full, battery
and energy harvested devices. The routing protocol must support
these constrained devices.
11.5.1. Proxying for Constrained Devices
Routing MUST support in-bound packet caches for low-power (battery
and energy harvested) devices when these devices are not accessible
on the network.
These devices MUST have a designated powered proxying device to which
packets will be temporarily routed and cached until the constrained
device accesses the network.
11.6. Reliability
11.6.1. Device Integrity
Commercial Building devices MUST all be periodically scanned to
assure that the device is viable and can communicate data and alarm
information as needed. Network routers SHOULD maintain previous
packet flow information temporally to minimize overall network
overhead.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jerry Martocci Jerry Martocci
Johnson Control Johnson Control
507 E. Michigan Street 507 E. Michigan Street
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53202
USA USA
Phone: 414.524.4010 Phone: 414.524.4010
Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com Email: jerald.p.martocci@jci.com
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