Mboned Working Group                                      Roger Kermode
Internet Engineering Task Force                           Motorola
8 November 1998                                            Dave Thaler
22 January 1999                                           Microsoft
Expires 8 May 22 July 1999

                Scoped Address Discovery Protocol (SADP)

Status of this Memo

     This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts Internet-Draft and is in full conformance
     with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

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   This document defines a an application-layer protocol, the Scoped
   Address Discovery Protocol (SADP), for discovering the scoped
   multicast address(es) associated with a session at particular scopes
   within a hierarchically nested set of multicast zones. scopes.  SADP is
   designed to work within the context of Multicast Address Allocation
   [MAAA] consisting of the MZAP [MZAP], MASC [MASC], and AAP [AAP]
   protocols. [MAAA]. It is intended that SADP will provide the
   necessary general services for reliable multicast and searching
   applications to use expanding-zone expanding-scope searches in lieu of the well
   known, but less efficient expanding-ring search.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). (1999).  All Rights Reserved.


   Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1

   1.  Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3

   2.  Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    4

   3.  Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    5    6
     3.1 Session Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6
     3.2 Session Member Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6
     3.3 SADP Server Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    7

   4.  Packet Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8
     4.1 SADP Request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
     4.2 SADP Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10
     4.2 SADP New Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11

   5.  Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11

   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12   11

   7.  Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12   11

   8.  References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12   11

   9.  Author's Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13   12

   10. Full Copyright Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13   12

1. Introduction

   Administrative scoping [RFC2365] provide provides a useful means for limiting
   the spread of IP multicast traffic acros across the Internet. Unlike Time-
   To-Live (TTL) scoping, administrative scoping provides the means to
   ensure that, for a given scope and ignoring packet loss, the same set
   of nodes will receive a message, regardless of which node sent the
   message. Thus, the use of administrative scoping greatly simplifies
   the design of multicast protocols that require localization, since
   the non-reception of sent packets is solely due to loss and not

   The Multicast Zone Announcement Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol (MZAP) [MZAP] (MADCAP)
   [MADCAP] will provide applications with the means for discovering the
   various scopes that are locally visible at each point in the
   Internet. In addition, MZAP The determination of which scopes nest inside each other
   will also provide be performed by the means for determining and announcing which
   scope zones completely encapsulate others. This additional Multicast-Scope Zone Announcement Protocol
   (MZAP) [MZAP]. MZAP's ability to provide this service will allow scope zones
   scopes to be arranged into hierarchies which so that applications can then used
   use expanding zone scope searches instead of the less efficient and more
   problematic expanding-ring (TTL) searches. One example of how expanding-zone
   expanding-scope searches provide increased localization can be found
   in the Scoped Hybrid Automatic Repear Repeat reQuest with Forward Error
   Correction (SHARQFEC) reliable multicast protocol [SHARQFEC].

   While expanding-ring searches use one multicast address and
   increasing TTLs, expanding-zone expanding-scope searches involve changing the
   multicast addresses for each attempt at a different scope. For well-
   known services, these addresses can be obtained by applying an IANA-
   assigned offset from the top of the scope's address range.
   Applications, on the other hand, generally require the use of
   dynamically allocated addresses with offsets that will most likely
   vary from scope to scope.

   SADP builds upon the Multicast Address Allocation Architecture [MAAA]
   by adding a new application-layer service that allows applications to
   discover the relevant multicast address(es) associated with a session
   at each level in a hierarchy of scope zones. scopes.

   SADP does not provide the means to allocate an address should one not
   be present for a session in a particular zone. In this case the
   application should use the Address
   Allocation Protocol (AAP) [AAP] take steps to allocate a new obtain an address for the
   scope, which can that scope and
   then be announced announce it to other application instances
   within that join that scope
   at a later time. One proposed mechanism for allocating addresses is
   the scope. Multicast Address Dynamic Allocation Protocol (MADCAP) [MADCAP].

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2. Overview

   Administrative scoping affords the ability to create network
   partitions or zones in which multicast traffic addressed to one of a
   block of addresses assigned to that zone will be limited to that
   zone. The boundary of the zone is enforced by Zone Border Routers
   (ZBRs) that reside at the edges of the zone. ZBRs must be carefully
   configured so that traffic addressed within the zone does not pass
   outside the zone.  This  Ensuring consistency among boundary routers can be
   a non trivial non-trivial task, and hence the Multicast Zone Announcement
   Protocol (MZAP) [MZAP], which is used to announce the existence of
   zones, also provides the mechanisms to detect ZBR misconfigurations.

                     . . . . . . . . .   +B+------>
                    .                 . /
                   .                   *
                   .             <---+A*--------+C+--->
                    .                + .
                     .              /  .
                      .  Zone X <---  .
                       . . . . . . ...

  A, B, C - Routers  * - border interface    + - interface  . - border

          Figure 1: Admin scope zone border example

   Zones may be of different sizes and can also overlap. In addition to
   the services of zone announcement and fault detection, MZAP also
   provides mechanisms for determining and announcing the existence of
   zones that nest inside others as shown in Figure 2.

      +-----------+       +-----------+      +-------------+
      | zone a    |       | zone c    |      | zone e      |
      |   +------+|       |    +------+      |    . . . . .|.. .|. .
      |   |zone b||       |    |zone d|      |    : zone f |  :
      |   +------+|       |    |      |      |    :        |  :
      +-----------+       +----+------+      +-------------+  :
                                                  : . . . . ..: . :

    (a) "Contained"    (b) "Common Border"  (c) "Overlap"
         zone b nests       zone d nests         zones e and f
         inside zone a      inside zone c        do not nest

               Figure 2: Zone nesting examples
   This feature allows admin scope zones to be arranged in a hierarchy
   as shown in Figure 3. The ability to nest admin scope zones in
   hierarchies like that shown in Figure 3 is useful since it affords
   localization through expanding-zone expanding-scope searches. For example, consider
   a distributed application with session members distributed evenly
   through out zone a. A session member in zone scope e, would perform a
   search by multicasting a query within zone scope e, and if unsuccessful,
   expand the scope to search in zone scope b, and eventually zone scope a if so

     . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .. .             zone .
    .            scope a                 .      Zone      Scope Boundaries
   .                                      .      . = zone scope  a
  .  ______________       ______________  _______________      ________________ .     - = zones scopes b,c
  . /    zone    scope b    \    /   zone  scope c       \ .    # = zones scopes d,e,f, & g
  .|                 |  |                  |.
  .|  ####    ####  #####    ##### |  |  ####    ####  #####    #####  |.
  .| #zone#  #zone# #scope#  #scope#|  |   | #zone#  #zone# #scope#  #scope# |.
   .\ # d  #  # e  # |  | # f  #   #  g # /.
    .\ ### #### /     \    #####/     ####     #### /.
         .\___________/       \____________/.
     .\____________/      _____________/.
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

       Figure 3 : Admin Scope Zone Nesting Hierarchy example

   In order for expanding-zone expanding-scope searches to be feasible, session members
   must be able to determine two things:

   o which zones scopes are involved in the hierarchy for a particular

   o what address(es) are to be used for communicating with other
     session members within the zones involved in the hierarchy. these scopes.

   SADP affords the ability to discover this information by using a
   single multicast group at inside each scope [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] for
   communication between SADP servers (see section 3.2) and the members
   of various sessions. New members to a session use the channels
   provided by the addresses to query existing SADP servers and session
   members as to which specific zones scopes are valid and which zones scopes to
   use.  Since there is only one multicast address used per admin scope
   zone for this purpose, members of a particular session will ignore
   traffic intended for members of another session.

3. Usage

   In this section we summarize how session members can use SADP to
   determine which admin zones are used by the session's hierarchy and
   also the address(es) within these zones that are used by the current
   session members should such addresses exist.

3.1 Session Identifiers

   Each session that uses admin administrative scoping will use be identified by a Globally Unique
   Session Identifier (GUSID) (SID) that will distinguish it from all other
   sessions. This GUSID will consists corresponds to the address of a 128bit integer that is
   allocated dynamically using the process described group
   used in [UUID]. The
   GUSID will be allocated by the session creator and will largest scope zone. Applications that require multiple
   addresses shall be used to
   associate traffic with a particular session regardless of decomposed into multiple individual sessions which
   multicast scoped address the traffic is sent to.
   will then be treated independently.

3.2 Session Member Operation

   Several predefined administrative scopes already exist [RFC2365]:

   o Link Local: Traffic is only carried across one physical link.

   o Local:      Traffic is restricted to a specific network region.

   o Global:     The entire multicast enabled network.

   By definition Link Local zones scopes nest inside Local zone scopes which in
   nests nest inside the Global zone. Scope. Other zones scopes may exist between the
   local and global scopes. These zones scopes are constructed by the union of
   the admin scope zones that correspond to two or more topologically
   adjacent local zones scopes and are announced to routers within their
   confines using MZAP [MZAP].

   The general algorithm that new members to a session should use to
   determine which zones scopes and addresses are involved in the hierarchy
   for a particular session is as follows:

   1) Determine the GUSID, largest zone, scope, and addresses address for the largest
      zone scope for
      the session. (this task is beyond the scope of this document,
      but can be assumed to involve some kind of out-of-band

   2) Starting with the SADP group [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] for the
      local scope, issue a SADP Request (SADP_REQ) message
      containing the GUSID SID address.

   3) Wait for a response on the SADP [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] address
      for at least [SADP-REQ-TIMEOUT] seconds. If no response is
      heard, wait for some small amount of time, and then
      repeat the request at the same scope.

   4) If after a total of 3 attempts at a given scope, no response
      has been received, increase the scope to the next largest zone scope
      and repeat step
      2. steps 2 and 3. In cases where there are two
      non-nesting zones scopes larger than the
      current current, try one zone scope and
      then the other, should the first zone scope not result in a reply.


   5) Continue steps 2) 2), 3), and 3) 4) until the largest zone scope has been
      queried or a response has been heard.

   In cases where the scope must be increased in order to find a session
   member that can reply, the new session member MAY decide to add
   levels to the hierarchy in order to increase localization for future
   session members. New session members that decide to take this step
   will use the existing addresses as discovered using SADP and request
   new ones using AAP [AAP]. ones.  (e.g., via MADCAP [MADCAP]). Upon the successful
   allocation of a new address for use in the hierarchy, the new session
   member shall announce the new address via a SADP_NEW_ADDR message to
   the [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] address for the scope in which the address
   was allocated. This will cause the address to be cached by any SADP
   servers within the new address's scope.

   SADP servers and existing session members, upon hearing an SADP_REQ
   message from a new session member from [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] at a
   particular scope will issue an SADP Response (SADP_RESP) to the
   [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP] at the same scope after waiting for a random
   amount of time (T) that is calculated as follows:

   Choose a random value X from a  uniform random interval [0:1]   Let
   C = 256   Set
   T = [SADP-SUPPRESSION-INTERVAL] log( C*X + 1) / log(C)

   Should a member receive a SADP_RESP before its timer it expires it
   SHALL suppress its own response. This method ensures that close to
   one session member will respond.


3.3 SADP Server Operation

   Were SADP to be deployed in a wide scale session with the members of
   various sessions to use SADP between each other it would quickly
   cause catastrophic congestion. The reason for this is that whenever a
   new node joined a sparsely populated session with a large maximum
   scope, it would inevitably end up sending SADP_REQs to every scope up
   until the largest scope. Thus the highly likely occurrence of having
   a global and continental scope zones scopes combined with numerous sparse
   sessions (probably on the order of 10,000 to 100,000) would quickly
   cause SADP_REQ flooding at the continental scope.

   To address this shortcoming SADP allows, and in fact encourages, the
   deployment of SADP servers. These servers subscribe to the [SADP-
   RELATIVE-GROUP] for each zone scope they are in and cache the SADP_RESP
   messages they receive at each scope. Having cached and merged the
   responses for sessions at various scopes, they can then respond to
   SADP_REQs heard at lower scopes using the information heard at the
   larger scope(s). Should a SADP server hear a SADP_REQ at some
   intermediate scope it MUST NOT announce address information for
   scopes smaller than one on which the SADP_REQ was received.

   The effect of allowing larger-scoped information to be announced at
   lower scopes by SADP servers significantly reduces the number of
   scopes a new session will have to query. New session members now need
   only expand the scope until a SADP server is found. This is a marked
   improvement over the case where no SADP servers exist and the search
   must continue until an existing session member is found.

               Scope b Boundary
      Scope a        :  Scope a and Scope b
     _________       :      ____________                _____________
    /         \      :     /            \              /             \
    |Source at| _____:___\ |SADP Server | /___________ | New Session |
    |Scope a  | SADP_RESP/ | Scopes a,b | \ SADP_REQ   | Member      |
    \_________/      :     \____________/ ___________\ | Scopes a,b  |
                     :                      SADP_RESP/ \_____________/
         Figure 4 : SADP Server acting as proxy session member

4. Packet Formats

   All SADP messages are sent over UDP, with a destination port of
   [SADP-PORT]. THe The common SADP message header (which follows the UDP
   header), is shown below,

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   |    Version    |     PTYPE     |NumScop|AddrFam|    NameLen    |
   |                        Message Origin                         |
   |                        Session ID (Hi)                        |
   |                        Session ID (Mid Hi)     |
   |                        Session ID (Mid Lo)                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+   Num Scopes  |                        Session ID (Lo)  Addr Family  |
   |                          Session Name                         |
   +                               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                               |     Padding (if needed)                  Largest Scope Group Address                  |
                         Authentication Block
   Version: 8 bits
      The version defined in this document is version 0.

   Packet Type (PTYPE): 8 bits
      The packet types defined in this document are:
         0: SADP Request
         1: SADP Response
         2: SADP New Address

   Number of Scope Entries (NumScop) (Num Scopes) : 4 bits
      The number of scope entries present within a SADP_RESP
      message. This field should be set to zero for SADP_REQ messages.

   Address Family (AddrFam): 4 bits
      This indicates the format of the following packet.  The following
      values are defined by this document:
          0: IPv4
          1: IPv6

   Message Origin: 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
      This gives the IP IANA-assigned address of the interface that originated the family number to be
      used for address contained in this message. Currently assigned
      values are listed in RFC 1700 [RFC1700]. The values for IP
      addresses are:
          IPv4: 1
          IPv6: 2

   Session ID Address: 128 32 bits
      This (IPv4) or 128 bit number uniquely identifies a session.

   Name Len:
      The length, in bytes, of the Session Name field.

   Session Name: multiple of 8 bits (IPv6)
      The Zone Name is an ISO 10646 character string in UTF-8 encoding
      [RFC2279] indicating the name given to the session (e.g.:
      ``42ndIETF-Chicago''). It should be relatively short and MUST be
      less than 256 bytes in length. All the session members SHOULD be
      configured to give the same Session Name, or a zero length string
      MAY be given.  A zero length string is taken to mean that another
      session member is expected group address corresponding to be configured with the session
      name. Having ALL the members largest scope for this
      hierarchy of a session announce zero length
      names should be considered an error.

   Padding (if needed):
      The SADP header is padded with null bytes until it is 4-byte
      aligned. addresses.

   Authentication Block:
      The Authentication Block provides information which can be used
      to confirm that the sender of the SADP message is a valid member
      of the session. Session Members that cannot confirm that the
      sender of an SADP Request Message MAY ignore it, while new
      session members that receiver receive an SADP Response Message MUST
      ignore it. (the (The format of the authentication block is to be

4.1 SADP Request

   SADP Request (SADP_REQ) Messages have PTYPE=0, and are sent by new
   session members that wish to learn which administrative scopes and
   multicast addresses to use within a particular session. SADP_REQ
   Messages are sent according to the algorithm described in 3.2.

4.2 SADP Response

   The SADP Response (SADP_RESP) Message has PTYPE=1, and is sent in
   response to a SADP_REQ Message. Message to the same scope from which the
   SADP_REQ was received. It contains the list of address that
   are is to be used by
   an application instance within a session within for each scope. scope that nests
   within the scope to which the SADP_REQ was sent. (N.B. This includes
   the scope to which the SADP_REQ was sent) Session members that
   transmit SADP Response Messages MUST NOT include zone scope and address
   information for scopes that are known to overlap or be smaller larger than
   that of the address scope upon which the triggering SADP Request SADP_REQ Message was received.

   The format for a SADP Response Message is shown below:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
                              SADP Header
   |  MBZ  | SCOP                    Scope Start Address 1                      |  NumSessAddr
   |            MBZ                    Scope 1 Session Address                    |
                               . . . . . . .
   |                     Zone                    Scope Start Address 1 N                      |
   |                     Zone Stop                    Scope N Session Address 1                    |
   |                     Zone 1

   Scope X Start Address : 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
       The smallest address for the block of multicast addresses
       associated with a scope. If a scope X is valid for the range to, this field will be set to

   Scope X Session Address : 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
       Address to be used for the named scope.

4.2 SADP New Address

   The SADP New Address (SADP_NEW_ADDR) Message has PTYPE=2. It is
   transmitted by session members that have attempted to find an address
   for a particular scope, failed, and have then subsequently allocated
   a new address for use in the session at that scope.  Its purpose is
   to inform other members of the session of the existence of this newly
   allocated address and its availability for subsequent use.

   Should two members attempt to announce a new address to the same
   scope at the same time, their SADP_NEW_ADDR messages will result in a
   collision. SADP_NEW_ADDR collisions are resolved by the session
   members picking the lower of the two addresses.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1                  |
                             . . . . . . .
   |                     Zone 1 Session Address K                  |
                              SADP Header
   |  MBZ  | SCOP  |  NumSessAddr  |            MBZ                |
   |                     Zone                     Scope Start Address N                      |
   |                     Zone Stop Address N                       |
   |                     Zone N Session Address 1                       |
                             . . . . . . .
   |                     Zone N                  New Scope Session Address L                    |
   SCOP : 4 bits
       The SCOP value associated with the zone as defined in RFC 1884
       [RFC1884] for IPv6 and RFC 2365 [RFC2365] for IPv4.

   NumSessAddr : 8 bits
       The number of session address per scope zone that are included.
       Addresses will be listed in ascending order. The correspondence
       between address and channel function is the responsibility of
       the session application.

   MBZ :
       Must Be Zero, these bits must be set to zero, but may be used
       for other functions later revision of the protocol.

   Zone X

   Scope Start Address : 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
       The smallest address for the block of multicast addresses
       associated with a zone. scope. If a zone scope X is valid for the range to, this field will be set to

   Zone X Stop

   New Scope Session Address : 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
       The largest address for the block
       Address of multicast addresses
       associated with a zone. If a zone X is valid for the range to, this field will be set to

   Zone X Session Address Y : 32 bits (IPv4) or 128 bits (IPv6)
       Up newly allocated group to Y address may be included used for a zone address entry, where
       Y is equal to the NumSessAddr value for entry X.
       specified scope.

5. Constants

   [SADP-RELATIVE-GROUP]: The relative group with each scope zone, scope, to which
   session members send SADP Requests and Responses. All sessions application
   instances that use administratively scoped multicast SADP for constructing hierarchies of scopes MUST
   subscribe to this
   address. address for each scope which nests within the
   session scope, in order to ensure that each application instance uses
   the hierarchy in the most efficient manner.

   [SADP-REQ-TIMEOUT]: The time after which a session member that sends
   SADP Request should wait before concluding that no session members
   are present at the current scope. Default value is 3 seconds.

   [SADP-SUPPRESSION-INTERVAL]: The interval over which a session member
   chooses a random delay before responding to SADP Request. Default
   value 2 seconds.

6. Security Considerations

   SADP employs distributed mechanisms to allow new session members to
   learn of the existence of session-specific admin scoped multicast
   address. This fact lay lays SADP open to attack by malicious hosts that
   could potentially mis-inform new session members of incorrect
   addresses, thereby affecting a man-in-the-middle attack.

   To prevent attacks of this nature by non-session members from
   occurring all SADP messages are signed by the sender. However, this
   measure does not prevent malicious hosts from joining a session and
   then performing the same attack. Hence, SADP's security depends upon
   a suitable gating process for new-member admittance combined with (as
   yet to be determined) mechanisms that allow spoofed SADP messages to
   be identified for removal before processing.

7. Acknowledgments

   The Author Authors would like to acknowledge Mark Handley and Dave Thaler for the helpful
   discussions and feedback which helped shape and refine this document.

8. References

   [AAP]      Handley,

   [MADCAP]   Patel. B.V., Shah, M., "The Hanna, S.R., "Multicast Address
              Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol", Protocol (MADCAP)", Internet
              Draft, August 1998. draft-ietf-malloc-madcap-03.txt, February 1999.

   [MAAA]     Handley, M., Thaler, D., and D. Estrin, "The Internet
              Multicast Address Allocation Architecture", Internet
              Draft, December 1997.

   [MZAP]     Handley, M., Thaler, D., "Multicast-Scope Zone
              Announcement Protocol (MZAP)",
              draft-ietf-mboned-mzap-02.txt, Internet-Draft, August,

   [RFC1700]  Reynolds, J., Postel, J., "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1700,
              October 1994.

   [RFC1884]  Hinden, R., Deering, S., "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 1884, December 1995.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2279]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.

   [RFC2365]  Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP,
              RFC 2365, July 1998.

   [SHARQFEC] Kermode, R., "Scoped Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest with
              Forward Error Correction (SHARQFEC)", ACM SIGCOMM98,
              Vancouver Canada, September 1998.

   [UUID]     Leach, J., Salz, R., "UUIDs and GUIDs",
              draft-leach-uuids-guids-01.txt, Internet-Draft, February,

9. Author's Address Authors' Addresses

   Roger Kermode
   Chicago Corporate Australia Research Laboratories
   1301 East Algonquiin Rd, MS IL02-2712
   Schaumburg, IL 60196

   Phone: (847) 538 4587 Centre
   12 Lord St.
   Botany, NSW 2091

   David Thaler
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98052

10. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998). (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
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