Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working Group                           R. Taylor
Internet-Draft                                    Airbus Defence & Space
Intended status: Standards Track                              S. Ratliff
Expires: February 24, 2019 January 26, 2020                                     VT iDirect
                                                         August 23, 2018
                                                           July 25, 2019

                     DLEP Link Identifier Extension
                 draft-ietf-manet-dlep-lid-extension-04
                 draft-ietf-manet-dlep-lid-extension-05

Abstract

   There exists a class of modems that would benefit from supporting the

   The Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) [RFC8175] but do not present a
   single Layer 2 network domain as required by DLEP.  Such devices may
   be:

   o  Modems that maintain describes a varying link
   protocol for modems to some upstream backbone
      network infrastructure, where advertise the ability status of wireless links between
   reachable destinations to announce link state
      and attached routers.  The core specification
   of the protocol assumes that every modem in the radio network has an
   attached DLEP metrics is desired, but router, and requires that the concept MAC address of a the DLEP destination
   interface on the attached router for be used to identify the backbone does not apply.  Examples of such devices
      can include LTE modems, IEEE 802.11 stations not destination
   in ad-hoc mode, the network, for purposes of reporting the state and some satellite terminals.

   o  Modems that provide Layer 3 wide area network connectivity between
      devices, where remote DLEP destinations do exist, but are not
      directly reachable by MAC address, such as modems quality of
   the link to that contain
      embedded routing functionality. destination.

   This document introduces an optional extension to the core describes a DLEP
   specification, Extension allowing DLEP to be used between routers and modems that operate in this way.

   Note:

   o  This document is intended as an extension to do not
   meet the core strict requirement above to use DLEP
      specification, to describe link
   availability and readers are expected quality to be fully conversant
      with one or more destinations reachable beyond
   a device on the operation of core DLEP. Layer 2 domain.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 24, 2019. January 26, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Operation . .   3
     1.2.  Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.3.  Requirements  . .   3
     2.1.  Identifier Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Negotiation . . .   3
   2.  Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  New Data Items . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Identifier Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Link Identifier Length Data Item  .
     2.2.  Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Link Identifier Data Item . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  New Data Items  . . . .   6
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  IANA Considerations
     3.1.  Link Identifier Length Data Item  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Link Identifier Data Item . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  References . . . . . .   6
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Normative References
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.2.  Informative
   6.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7   8

1.  Introduction

   The Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP) [RFC8175] describes a
   protocol for modems to advertise the status of wireless links between
   reachable destinations to attached routers.  The core specification
   of the protocol assumes that every modem in the radio network has an
   attached DLEP router, and requires that the MAC address of the DLEP
   interface on the attached router is be used to identify the destination
   in the network network, for purposes of reporting the state and quality of
   the link to that destination.

   This document describes a DLEP Extension allowing modems that do not
   meet the strict requirement that DLEP must be implemented on a single
   Layer 2 domain above to use DLEP to describe link
   availability and quality to one or more destinations reachable beyond
   a local or remote device on the Layer 2 domain.  A

   As with core DLEP, a router can use this knowledge to influence any
   routing or flow-control decisions regarding traffic to this
   destination, understanding that such traffic flows via Layer 3.

1.1.  Terminology

   Local Layer 2 domain:  The Layer 2 domain that links the router and
      modem participants of the current DLEP session.

   Layer 3 DLEP Destination:  A DLEP Destination that is not directly
      addressable within the local Layer 2 domain, but is reachable via
      a node addressable within the local Layer 2 domain.

   Gateway Node:  The last device with a MAC address reachable in the
      local Layer 2 domain on the path from the DLEP router participant,
      towards the Layer 3 destination may DLEP Destination.  This device is commonly the
      DLEP peer modem but could be an attached another DLEP router, Destination in the case of
   a modem Layer
      2 domain.

1.2.  Applicability

   This extension was designed primarily to address the following use
   cases:

   1.  A radio system that does not operate in Layer 2 bridge mode, but
       instead provides Layer 3 wide area network connectivity between
   devices, or destinations, often
       using its own embedded Layer 3 routing function.

   2.  A point-to-multipoint tunnel system, such as an SD-WAN
       deployment, where the tunnel provider acts as a logical destination modem, having
       knowledge of the characteristics of the underlay network, and
       providing that describes information as availability and metrics between
       tunnel endpoints in the overlay network.

   3.  A modem that provides connectivity to a set remote wide-area network
       via a wireless link, but the concept of attached
   subnets, when referring a Layer 2 reachable
       remote router does not apply.  An example of such a modem would
       be an LTE device or 802.11 station that provides variable
       connectivity to some upstream backbone network
   infrastructure.

1.1. the Internet.

   This list of use-cases is not exhaustive, and this extension may well
   be applicable to future, currently unforeseen, use-cases.

1.3.  Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119.
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Operation

   To refer to a Layer 3 DLEP Destination, the DLEP session participant
   adds a Link Identifier Data Item (Section 3.2) to the relevant
   Destination Message, and (as usual) includes a MAC Address Data Item.
   When paired with a Link Identifier Data Item, the MAC Address Data
   Item MUST contain the MAC address of the last reachable node in the
   Layer 2 domain beyond which the Layer 3 DLEP Destination resides.
   For example, if the over-the-air network is not a single Layer 2
   domain, the MAC Address Data Item might be the address of the LAN-
   side interface of the local modem.  Alternatively, when used with
   some kind of backbone infrastructure, the MAC Address Data Item would
   be the address of the last device reachable on the local Layer 2
   domain.  However, how such remote destinations are discovered is
   beyond the scope of this specification. Gateway Node.

   As only modems are initially aware of Layer 3 DLEP Destinations, Link
   Identifier Data Items referring to a new link MUST first appear in a
   DLEP Destination Up Message from the modem to the router.  Once a
   link has been identified in this way, Link Identifier Data Items MAY may
   be used by either DLEP participant during the lifetime of a DLEP
   session.  Because of this, a router MUST NOT send a DLEP Destination
   Announce Message containing a Link Identifier Data Item referring to
   a link that has not been mentioned in a prior DLEP Destination Up
   Message.  If a modem receives such a message, it MUST terminate the
   session by issuing a Session Termination Message containing a Status
   Data Item with status code set to 131 'Invalid Destination' and
   transition to the Session Termination state.

   Because the MAC Address associated with any DLEP Destination Message
   containing a Link Identifier Data Item is not the Layer 2 address of
   the final destination, all DLEP Destination Up Messages containing a
   Link Identifier Data Item MUST contain Layer 3 information.  In the
   case of modems that provide Layer 3 wide area network connectivity
   between devices, this means one or more IPv4 or IPv6 Address Data
   Items providing the Layer 3 address of the final destination.  When
   referring to some upstream backbone network infrastructure, this
   means one or more IPv4 or IPv6 Attached Subnet Data Items, for
   example: '0.0.0.0/0' or '::/0'.  This allows the DLEP peer router to
   understand the properties of the link to those routes.

   When the DLEP peer router wishes to forward route packets to the Layer 3
   destination or subnet, DLEP
   Destination, the MAC address associated with the link Gateway Node MUST be
   used as the Layer 2 destination of the packet packet, if it wishes to use
   the modem network to forward the packet.

   As most mainstream routers expect to populate their routing information base with the IP
   address of the next hop router towards a destination, implementations
   supporting this extension SHOULD announce at least one or more valid IPv4 or
   IPv6 addresses of the last
   reachable Layer 2 device, i.e. the device with the corresponding MAC
   Address.

   If the last reachable Layer 2 device is not Gateway Node, this removes the DLEP peer modem, then need for the modem SHOULD announce a DLEP Destination with
   router to use an additional IP address resolution protocol before
   adding the required MAC
   Address without including a Link Identifier Data Item. route to its routing information base.

2.1.  Identifier Restrictions

   A Link Identifier is by default 4 octets in length.  If a modem
   wishes to use a Link Identifier of a different length, it MUST be
   announced using the Link Identifier Length Data Item (Section 3.1)
   contained in the DLEP Session Initialization Response message sent by
   the modem to the router.

   During the lifetime of a DLEP session, the length of Link Identifiers
   MUST remain constant, i.e. the Length field of the Link Identifier
   Data Item MUST NOT differ between destinations.

   The method for generating Link Identifiers is a modem implementation
   matter and out of scope of this document.  Routers MUST NOT must not make any
   assumptions about the meaning of Link Identifiers, or how Link
   Identifiers are generated.

   Within a single DLEP session, all Link Identifiers MUST be unique per
   MAC Address.  This means that a Layer 3 DLEP Destination is uniquely
   identified by the pair: {MAC Address,Link Identifier}.

   Link Identifiers MUST NOT be reused, i.e. a {MAC Address,Link
   Identifier} pair that has been used to refer to one Layer 3 DLEP
   Destination MUST NOT be recycled to refer to a different destination
   within the lifetime of a single DLEP session.

2.2.  Negotiation

   To use this extension, as with all DLEP extensions, the extension
   MUST be announced during DLEP session initialization.  A router
   advertises support by including the value 'Link Identifiers' (TBD1),
   Section 5, Identifiers', TBD1
   (Section 5), in the Extension Data Item within the Session
   Initialization Message.  A modem advertises support by including the
   value 'Link Identifiers' (TBD1) in the Extension Data Item within the
   Session Initialization Response Message.  If both DLEP peers
   advertise support for this extension then the Link Identifier Data
   Item MAY Items
   can be used. included in DLEP Messages.

   If a modem requires support for this extension in order to describe
   destinations, and the router does not advertise support, then the
   modem MUST NOT include a Link Identifier Data Item in any DLEP
   Message.  However, the modem SHOULD NOT immediately terminate the
   DLEP session, rather it SHOULD use session-wide a combination of DLEP Session
   Messages and DLEP Attached Subnet Data Items to
   announce provide general information about all reachable destinations via the
   modem.  By doing this, a modem allows a router not supporting this
   extension to at least make a best guess at the state of any reachable
   network.  A modem MUST NOT attempt to re-use the MAC Address Data
   Item to perform some kind of sleight-of-hand, assuming that the
   router will notice the DLEP Peer Type of the modem is special in some
   way.
   information.

3.  New Data Items

   This extension introduces two new DLEP Data Items: the Link
   Identifier Data Item (Section 3.2) used to identify a Layer 3 link at
   or beyond a destination, and the Link Identifier Length Data Item
   (Section 3.1) used to announce the length of Link Identifiers at
   session initialization.

3.1.  Link Identifier Length Data Item

   The Link Identifier Length Data Item is used by a DLEP modem
   implementation to specify the length of Link Identifier Data Items.
   It MUST be used during Session Initialization, contained in a Session
   Initialization Response Message, if the specified length is not the
   default value of 4 octets.

   The Link Identifier Length Data Item MAY be used during Session
   Initialization, contained in a Session Initialization Response
   Message.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Data Item Type                | Length                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Link Identifier Length        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Data Item Type:  TBD2, Section 5  TBD2 (Section 5)

   Length:  2

   Link Identifier Length:  The length, in octets, of Link Identifiers
      used by the DLEP modem for this session.

   A Link Identifier Length Data Item that specifies a Link Identifier
   Length of 4 octets (the default) is valid, even if it has no effect.

3.2.  Link Identifier Data Item

   The Link Identifier Data Item MAY be used wherever a MAC Address Data
   Item is defined as usable in core DLEP.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Data Item Type                | Length                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                   Link Identifier...                          :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Data Item Type:  TBD3, Section 5  TBD3 (Section 5)
   Length:  The length of the Data Item, by default 4, but may be
      different if a Link Identifier Length Data Item (Section 3.1) has
      been announced during session initialization.

   Link Identifier:  The unique identifier of the Layer 3 destination. DLEP
      Destination.  This Link Identifier has no implicit meaning and is
      only used to discriminate between multiple links.

4.  Security Considerations

   As an extension to the core DLEP protocol, the security
   considerations of that protocol apply to this extension.  This
   extension adds no additional security mechanisms or features.

   None of the features introduced by this extension require extra
   consideration by an implementation.

5.  IANA Considerations

   Upon approval of this document, IANA is requested to:

   o  Assign a new DLEP Extensions Registry value (TBD1) from the
      Specification Required section, named "Link Identifiers".

   o  Assign a new DLEP Data Item Type Values Registry value (TBD2) from
      the Specification Required section, named "Link Identifier
      Length".

   o  Assign a new DLEP Data Item Type Values Registry value (TBD3) from
      the Specification Required section, named "Link Identifier".

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8175]  Ratliff, S., Jury, S., Satterwhite, D., Taylor, R., and B.
              Berry, "Dynamic Link Exchange Protocol (DLEP)", RFC 8175,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8175, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8175>.

6.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

Authors' Addresses

   Rick Taylor
   Airbus Defence & Space
   Quadrant House
   Celtic Springs
   Coedkernew
   Newport  NP10 8FZ
   UK

   Email: rick.taylor@airbus.com

   Stan Ratliff
   VT iDirect
   13861 Sunrise Valley Drive, Suite 300
   Herndon, VA  20171
   USA

   Email: sratliff@idirect.net