draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-04.txt   draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-05.txt 
IPWAVE Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. IPWAVE Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University
Intended status: Informational July 16, 2018 Intended status: Informational October 22, 2018
Expires: January 17, 2019 Expires: April 25, 2019
IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement
and Use Cases and Use Cases
draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-04 draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-05
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses the problem statement and use cases on IP- This document discusses the problem statement and use cases on IP-
based vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of based vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main topics of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main scenarios of
vehicular networking are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- vehicular communications are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications.
First, this document surveys use cases using V2V, V2I, and V2X First, this document surveys use cases using V2V, V2I, and V2X
networking. Second, it analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based networking. Second, it analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based
vehicular networking and highlights the limitations and difficulties vehicular networking and highlights the limitations and difficulties
found on those protocols. Third, it presents a problem exploration found on those protocols. Third, it presents a problem exploration
for key aspects in IP-based vehicular networking, such as IPv6 for key aspects in IP-based vehicular networking, such as IPv6
Neighbor Discovery, Mobility Management, and Security & Privacy. For Neighbor Discovery, Mobility Management, and Security & Privacy. For
each key aspect, this document discusses a problem statement to each key aspect, this document discusses a problem statement to
analyze the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques and evaluate the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques and
requirements in IP-based vehicular networking. requirements in IP-based vehicular networking.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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skipping to change at page 2, line 28 skipping to change at page 2, line 28
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. V2V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. V2V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. V2I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. V2I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Analysis for Current Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Analysis for Existing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Existing Protocols for Vehicular Networking . . . . . . . 8
4.1.1. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.1. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.3. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.3. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.4. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.4. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.5. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.5. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.6. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.6. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.7. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.7. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2.2. Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.2. Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. Problem Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Problem Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.1. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1.4. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.3. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.3. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix A. Relevant Work Items to IPWAVE . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix A. Relevant Topics to IPWAVE Working Group . . . . . . 27
A.1. Vehicle Identity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A.1. Vehicle Identity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.2. Multihop V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A.2. Multihop V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.3. Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A.3. Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery . . . . . . . . 26 A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery . . . . . . . . 28
A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular- Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 networking-04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Appendix C. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix C. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Appendix D. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix D. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Vehicular networks have been focused on the driving safety, driving Vehicular networking studies have mainly focused on driving safety,
efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal driving efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels
for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in
the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the
5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless 5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless
communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking.
Also, the European Union (EU) made a law for radio spectrum for Also, the European Union (EU) passed a decision to allocate radio
safety-related applications of ITS with the frequency band of 5.875 - spectrum for safety-related and non-safety-related applications of
5.905 GHz, which is called Commission Decision 2008/671/EC ITS with the frequency band of 5.875 - 5.905 GHz, which is called
[EU-2008-671-EC]. Commission Decision 2008/671/EC [EU-2008-671-EC].
For driving safety services based on the DSRC, IEEE has standardized For direct inter-vehicular wireless connectivity, IEEE has amended
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards, such as WiFi standard 802.11 to enable driving safety services based on the
IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], IEEE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2], IEEE 1609.3 DSRC in terms of standards for the Wireless Access in Vehicular
[WAVE-1609.3], and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4]. Note that IEEE 802.11p Environments (WAVE) system. L1 and L2 issues are addressed in IEEE
has been published as IEEE 802.11 Outside the Context of a Basic 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p] for the PHY and MAC of the DSRC, while IEEE
Service Set (OCB) [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012. Along with these WAVE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2] covers security aspects, IEEE 1609.3
standards, IPv6 and Mobile IP protocols (e.g., MIPv4 and MIPv6) can [WAVE-1609.3] defines related services at network and transport
be extended to vehicular networks [RFC8200][RFC5944][RFC6275]. Also, layers, and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4] specifies the multi-channel
ETSI has standardized a GeoNetworking (GN) protocol operation. Note that IEEE 802.11p has been published as IEEE 802.11
[ETSI-GeoNetworking] and a protocol adaptation sub-layer from Outside the Context of a Basic Service Set (OCB) called IEEE
GeoNetworking to IPv6 [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. In addition, ISO has 802.11-OCB [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012.
standardized a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and
services for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM) Along with these WAVE standards, IPv6 [RFC8200] and Mobile IP
protocols (e.g., MIPv4 [RFC5944] and MIPv6 [RFC6275]) can be applied
(or easily modified) to vehicular networks. In Europe, ETSI has
standardized a GeoNetworking (GN) protocol [ETSI-GeoNetworking] and a
protocol adaptation sub-layer from GeoNetworking to IPv6
[ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. Note that a GN protocol is useful to route an
event or notification message to vehicles around a geographic
position, such as an acciendent area in a roadway. In addition, ISO
has approved a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and
services to be used for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM)
[ISO-ITS-IPv6]. [ISO-ITS-IPv6].
This document discusses problem statements and use cases related to This document discusses problem statements and use cases related to
IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems
(ITS), which is IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (ITS), which is denoted as IP Wireless Access in Vehicular
(IPWAVE). First, it surveys the use cases for using V2V, V2I, and Environments (IPWAVE). First, it surveys the use cases for using
V2X networking in the ITS. Second, for literature review, it V2V, V2I, and V2X networking in the ITS. Second, for literature
analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based vehicular networking and review, it analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based vehicular
highlights the limitations and difficulties found on those protocols. networking and highlights the limitations and difficulties found on
Third, for problem statement, it presents a problem exploration with those protocols. Third, for problem statement, it presents a problem
key aspects in IPWAVE, such as IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, Mobility exploration with key aspects in IPWAVE, such as IPv6 Neighbor
Management, and Security & Privacy. For each key aspect, it Discovery, Mobility Management, and Security & Privacy. For each key
discusses a problem statement to analyze the gap between the state- aspect of the problem statement, it analyzes the gap between the
of-the-art techniques and requirements in IP-based vehicular state-of-the-art techniques and the requirements in IP-based
networking. Also, it also discusses relevant work items to IPWAVE, vehicular networking. It also discusses potential topics relevant to
such as Vehicle Identities Management, Multihop V2X Communications, IPWAVE Working Group (WG), such as Vehicle Identities Management,
Multicast, DNS Naming Services, Service Discovery, and IPv6 over Multihop V2X Communications, Multicast, DNS Naming Services, Service
Cellular Networks. Therefore, with the problem statement, this Discovery, and IPv6 over Cellular Networks. Therefore, with the
document will open a door to develop key protocols for IPWAVE that problem statement, this document will open a door to develop key
will be essential to IP-based vehicular networks. protocols for IPWAVE that will be essential to IP-based vehicular
networks.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document uses the following definitions: This document uses the following definitions:
o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments" o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments"
[WAVE-1609.0]. [WAVE-1609.0].
o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management" o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management"
[RFC7333][RFC7429]. [RFC7333][RFC7429].
o Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has physical communication o Road-Side Unit (RSU): A node that has physical communication
devices (e.g., DSRC, Visible Light Communication, 802.15.4, LTE- devices (e.g., DSRC, Visible Light Communication, 802.15.4, LTE-
V2X, etc.) for wireless communications with vehicles and is also V2X, etc.) for wireless communications with vehicles and is also
connected to the Internet as a router or switch for packet connected to the Internet as a router or switch for packet
forwarding. An RSU is deployed either at an intersection or in a forwarding. An RSU is typically deployed on the road
road segment. infrastructure, either at an intersection or in a road segment,
but may also be located in car parking area.
o On-Board Unit (OBU): A node that has a DSRC device for wireless o On-Board Unit (OBU): A node that has a DSRC device for wireless
communications with other OBUs and RSUs. An OBU is mounted on a communications with other OBUs and RSUs, and may be connected to
vehicle. It is assumed that a radio navigation receiver (e.g., in-vehicle devices or networks. An OBU is mounted on a vehicle.
Global Positioning System (GPS)) is included in a vehicle with an It is assumed that a radio navigation receiver (e.g., Global
OBU for efficient navigation. Positioning System (GPS)) is included in a vehicle with an OBU for
efficient navigation.
o Vehicle Detection Loop (or Loop Detector): An inductive device o Vehicle Detection Loop (or Loop Detector): An inductive device
used for detecting vehicles passing or arriving at a certain used for detecting vehicles passing or arriving at a certain
point, for instance approaching a traffic light or in motorway point, for instance approaching a traffic light or in motorway
traffic. The relatively crude nature of the loop's structure traffic. The relatively crude nature of the loop's structure
means that only metal masses above a certain size are capable of means that only metal masses above a certain size are capable of
triggering the detection. triggering the detection.
o Vehicular Cloud: A cloud infrastructure for vehicular networks,
having compute nodes, storage nodes, and network nodes.
o Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road o Traffic Control Center (TCC): A node that maintains road
infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and loop infrastructure information (e.g., RSUs, traffic signals, and loop
detectors), vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle detectors), vehicular traffic statistics (e.g., average vehicle
speed and vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and speed and vehicle inter-arrival time per road segment), and
vehicle information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position, vehicle information (e.g., a vehicle's identifier, position,
direction, speed, and trajectory as a navigation path). TCC is direction, speed, and trajectory as a navigation path). TCC is
included in a vehicular cloud for vehicular networks. included in a vehicular cloud for vehicular networks.
3. Use Cases 3. Use Cases
skipping to change at page 5, line 41 skipping to change at page 6, line 7
Context-Aware Safety Driving (CASD) navigator [CASD] can help drivers Context-Aware Safety Driving (CASD) navigator [CASD] can help drivers
to drive safely by letting the drivers recognize dangerous obstacles to drive safely by letting the drivers recognize dangerous obstacles
and situations. That is, CASD navigator displays obstables or and situations. That is, CASD navigator displays obstables or
neighboring vehicles relevant to possible collisions in real-time neighboring vehicles relevant to possible collisions in real-time
through V2V networking. CASD provides vehicles with a class-based through V2V networking. CASD provides vehicles with a class-based
automatic safety action plan, which considers three situations, such automatic safety action plan, which considers three situations, such
as the Line-of-Sight unsafe, Non-Line-of-Sight unsafe and safe as the Line-of-Sight unsafe, Non-Line-of-Sight unsafe and safe
situations. This action plan can be performed among vehicles through situations. This action plan can be performed among vehicles through
V2V networking. V2V networking.
Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) [CA-Cuise-Control] helps Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) [CA-Cruise-Control] helps
vehicles to adapt their speed autonomously through V2V communication vehicles to adapt their speed autonomously through V2V communication
among vehicles according to the mobility of their predecessor and among vehicles according to the mobility of their predecessor and
successor vehicles in an urban roadway or a highway. CACC can help successor vehicles in an urban roadway or a highway. CACC can help
adjacent vehicles to efficiently adjust their speed in a cascade way adjacent vehicles to efficiently adjust their speed in a cascade way
through V2V networking. through V2V networking.
Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g., Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g.,
trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks
can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to
maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very
short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can
maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce
the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the
following vehicles to experience less air resistance. following vehicles to experience less air resistance.
Cooperative-environment-sensing use cases suggest that vehicles can Cooperative-environment-sensing use cases suggest that vehicles can
share environmental information from various sensors, such as radars, share environmental information from various vehicle-mounted sensors,
LiDARs and cameras, mounted on them with other vehicles and such as radars, LiDARs and cameras with other vehicles and
pedestrians. [Automotive-Sensing] introduces a millimeter-wave pedestrians. [Automotive-Sensing] introduces a millimeter-wave
vehicular communication for massive automotive sensing. Data vehicular communication for massive automotive sensing. Data
generated by those sensors can be substantially large, and these data generated by those sensors can be substantially large, and these data
shall be routed to different destinations. In addition, from the shall be routed to different destinations. In addition, from the
perspective of driverless vehicles, it is expected that driverless perspective of driverless vehicles, it is expected that driverless
vehicles can be mixed with driver vehicles. Through cooperative vehicles can be mixed with driver-operated vehicles. Through
environment sensing, driver vehicles can use environmental cooperative environment sensing, driver-operated vehicles can use
information sensed by driverless vehicles for better interaction with environmental information sensed by driverless vehicles for better
the context. interaction with the context.
3.2. V2I 3.2. V2I
The use cases of V2I networking discussed in this section include The use cases of V2I networking discussed in this section include
o Navigation service; o Navigation service;
o Energy-efficient speed recommendation service; o Energy-efficient speed recommendation service;
o Accident notification service. o Accident notification service.
A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive
Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking
interacts with TCC for the global road traffic optimization and can interacts with TCC for the large-scale/long-range road traffic
guide individual vehicles for appropriate navigation paths in real optimization and can guide individual vehicles for appropriate
time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+) [SAINTplus] can give the navigation paths in real time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+)
fast moving paths for emergency vehicles (e.g., ambulance and fire [SAINTplus] can give the fast moving paths for emergency vehicles
engine) toward accident spots while providing other vehicles with (e.g., ambulance and fire engine) toward accident spots while
efficient detour paths. providing other vehicles with efficient detour paths.
A TCC can recommend an energy-efficient speed to a vehicle driving in A TCC can recommend an energy-efficient speed to a vehicle driving in
different traffic environments. [Fuel-Efficient] studies fuel- different traffic environments. [Fuel-Efficient] studies fuel-
efficient route and speed plans for platooned trucks. efficient route and speed plans for platooned trucks.
The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency
vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks. vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks.
The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is
provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an
interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security
network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the
nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a
Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network
core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the
communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e., communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e.,
V2I) [FirstNet-Report], but DSRC-based vehicular networks can be used V2I) [FirstNet-Report], but it is expected that DSRC-based vehicular
for V2I in near future [DSRC]. networks [DSRC] will be available for V2I and V2V in near future.
3.3. V2X 3.3. V2X
The use case of V2X networking discussed in this section is The use case of V2X networking discussed in this section is
pedestrian protection service. pedestrian protection service.
A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation
Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I2P networking can reduce Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I2P networking can reduce
the collision of a pedestrian and a vehicle, which have a smartphone, the collision of a vehicle and a pedestrian carrying a smartphone
in a road network. Vehicles and pedestrians can communicate with equipped with the access technology with an RSU (e.g., WiFi).
each other via an RSU that delivers scheduling information for Vehicles and pedestrians can also communicate with each other via an
wireless communication to save the smartphones' battery. RSU that delivers scheduling information for wireless communication
in order to save the smartphones' battery through sleeping mode.
4. Analysis for Current Protocols For Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P), a vehicle and a pedestrian's
smartphone can directly communicate with each other via V2X without
the relaying of an RSU as in a V2V scenario such that the
pedestrian's smartphone is regarded as a vehicle with a wireless
media interface to be able to communicate with another vehicle. In
Vehicle-to-Device (V2D), a device can be a mobile node such as
bicycle and motorcycle, and can communicate directly with a vehicle
for collision avoidance.
4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking 4. Analysis for Existing Protocols
4.1. Existing Protocols for Vehicular Networking
We analyze the current protocols from the following aspects: We describe some currently existing protocols and proposed solutions
with respect to the following aspects that are relevant and essential
for vehicular networking:
o IPv6 over 802.11-OCB; o IPv6 over 802.11-OCB;
o IP address autoconfiguration; o IP address autoconfiguration;
o Routing; o Routing;
o Mobility management; o Mobility management;
o DNS naming service; o DNS naming service;
skipping to change at page 8, line 9 skipping to change at page 8, line 39
mapping for unicast and multicast, stateless autoconfiguration, and mapping for unicast and multicast, stateless autoconfiguration, and
subnet structure. Especially, an Ethernet Adaptation (EA) layer is subnet structure. Especially, an Ethernet Adaptation (EA) layer is
in charge of transforming some parameters between IEEE 802.11 MAC in charge of transforming some parameters between IEEE 802.11 MAC
layer and IPv6 network layer, which is located between IEEE layer and IPv6 network layer, which is located between IEEE
802.11-OCB's logical link control layer and IPv6 network layer. 802.11-OCB's logical link control layer and IPv6 network layer.
4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration 4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration
For IP address autoconfiguration, Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular For IP address autoconfiguration, Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular
address configuration (VAC) scheme using DHCP where elected leader- address configuration (VAC) scheme using DHCP where elected leader-
vehicles provide unique identifiers for IP address configurations vehicles provide unique identifiers for IP address configurations in
[Address-Autoconf]. Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address assignment vehicles [Address-Autoconf]. Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address
scheme using lane and position information [Address-Assignment]. assignment scheme using lane and position information
Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable address autoconfiguration [Address-Assignment]. Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable
scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks [GeoSAC]. Wetterwald et address autoconfiguration scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks
al. conducted a comprehensive study of the cross-layer identities [GeoSAC]. Wetterwald et al. conducted for heterogeneous vehicular
management in vehicular networks using multiple access network networks (i.e., employing multiple access technologies) a
technologies, which constitutes a fundamental element of the ITS comprehensive study of the cross-layer identities management, which
architecture [Identity-Management]. constitutes a fundamental element of the ITS architecture
[Identity-Management].
4.1.3. Routing 4.1.3. Routing
For routing, Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining For routing, Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining
IPv6 networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called IPv6 networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called
C2CNet) proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC), C2CNet) proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC),
which is an architecture using a geographic routing protocol which is an architecture using a geographic routing protocol
[VANET-Geo-Routing]. Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery [VANET-Geo-Routing]. Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery
scheme for VANET, called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and scheme for VANET, called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and
Discovery (LAGAD) mechanism [LAGAD]. Discovery (LAGAD) mechanism [LAGAD].
4.1.4. Mobility Management 4.1.4. Mobility Management
For mobility management, Chen et al. tackled the issue of network For mobility management, Chen et al. tackled the issue of network
fragmentation in VANET environments [IP-Passing-Protocol] by fragmentation in VANET environments [IP-Passing-Protocol] by
proposing a protocol that can postpone the time to release IP proposing a protocol that can postpone the time to release IP
addresses to the DHCP server and select a faster way to get the addresses to the DHCP server and select a faster way to get the
vehicle's new IP address, when the vehicle density is low or the vehicle's new IP address, when the vehicle density is low or the
speeds of vehicles are varied. Nguyen et al. proposed a hybrid speeds of vehicles are highly variable. Nguyen et al. proposed a
centralized-distributed mobility management called H-DMM to support hybrid centralized-distributed mobility management called H-DMM to
highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM]. [NEMO-LMS] proposed an architecture support highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM]. [NEMO-LMS] proposed an
to enable IP mobility for moving networks using a network-based architecture to enable IP mobility for moving networks using a
mobility scheme based on PMIPv6. Chen et al. proposed a network network-based mobility scheme based on PMIPv6. Chen et al. proposed
mobility protocol to reduce handoff delay and maintain Internet a network mobility protocol to reduce handoff delay and maintain
connectivity to moving vehicles in a highway [NEMO-VANET]. Lee et Internet connectivity to moving vehicles in a highway [NEMO-VANET].
al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility management Lee et al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility
scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the vehicle as a management scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the
mobile network, and provides a make-before-break mechanism when vehicle as a mobile network, and provides a make-before-break
vehicles switch to a new access network [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Peng mechanism when vehicles switch to a new access network
et al. proposed a novel mobility management scheme for integration of [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Peng et al. proposed a novel mobility
VANET and fixed IP networks [VNET-MM]. Nguyen et al. extended their management scheme for integration of VANET and fixed IP networks
previous works on a vehicular adapted DMM considering a Software- [VNET-MM]. Nguyen et al. extended their previous works on a
Defined Networking (SDN) architecture [SDN-DMM]. vehicular adapted DMM considering a Software-Defined Networking (SDN)
architecture [SDN-DMM].
4.1.5. DNS Naming Service 4.1.5. DNS Naming Service
For DNS naming service, Multicast DNS (mDNS) [RFC6762] allows devices For DNS naming service, Multicast DNS (mDNS) [RFC6762] allows devices
in one-hop communication range to resolve each other's DNS name into in one-hop communication range to resolve each other's DNS name into
the corresponding IP address in multicast. DNS Name the corresponding IP address in multicast. DNS Name
Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming service Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming service
for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale network. for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale network.
4.1.6. Service Discovery 4.1.6. Service Discovery
For service discovery, as a popular existing service discovery To discover instances of a demanded service in vehicular networks,
protocol, DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with mDNS DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with either DNSNA
[RFC6762] provides service discovery. Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND] [ID-DNSNA] or mDNS [RFC6762] provides vehicles with service discovery
by using standard DNS queries. Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND]
proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for the prefix and service proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for the prefix and service
discovery. discovery. Note that a DNS query for service discovery is unicasted
in DNSNA, but it is multicasted in both mDNS and Vehicular ND.
4.1.7. Security and Privacy 4.1.7. Security and Privacy
For security and privacy, Fernandez et al. proposed a secure For security and privacy, Fernandez et al. proposed a secure
vehicular IPv6 communication scheme using Internet Key Exchange vehicular IPv6 communication scheme using Internet Key Exchange
version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
[Securing-VCOMM]. Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme [Securing-VCOMM]. Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme
providing authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) providing authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)
services in vehicular networks [VNET-AAA]. services in vehicular networks [VNET-AAA].
4.2. General Problems
This section describes a vehicular network architecture for V2V, V2I,
and V2X communications. Then it analyzes the limitations of the
current protocols for vehicular networking.
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture
Figure 1 shows an architecture for V2I and V2V networking in a road
network. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road
network and are connected to a Vehicular Cloud through the Internet.
TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two vehicles
(Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1, and the
last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2. Vehicle1
can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication, and Vehicle2 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication. Vehicle1 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 via V2I communication.
In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be
considered for wireless communications. Also, in the vehicular
networks, control plane must be separated from data plane for
efficient mobility management and data forwarding. ID/Pseudonym
change for privacy requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling over the
wireless link should be avoided for performance efficiency. The
mobility information of a mobile device (e.g., vehicle), such as
trajectory, position, speed, and direction, can be used by the mobile
device and infrastructure nodes (e.g., TCC and RSU) for the
accommodation of proactive protocols because it is usually equipped
with a GPS receiver. Vehicles can use the TCC as its Home Network,
so the TCC maintains the mobility information of vehicles for
location management.
*-------------* *-------------*
* * .-------. * * +-------+
* Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC | * Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC |
* * ._______. * * +_______+
*-------------* *-------------*
^ ^ ^ ^
| | | |
| | | V2I V2I |
v v v v
.--------. .--------. +--------+ +--------+
| RSU1 |<----------->| RSU2 | | RSU1 |<----------->| RSU2 |
.________. .________. +________+ +________+
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
: : : : : :
: : : : : :
v v v v v v
.--------. .--------. .--------. +--------+ +--------+ +--------+
|Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=> |Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=>
| |<....>| |<....>| | | |<....>| |<....>| |
.________. .________. .________. +________+ V2V +________+ V2V +________+
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction
Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking
4.2. General Problems
This section describes a possible vehicular network architecture for
V2V, V2I, and V2X communications. Then it analyzes the limitations
of the current protocols for vehicular networking.
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture
Figure 1 shows a possible architecture for V2I and V2V networking in
a road network. It is assumed that RSUs as routers and vehicles with
OBU have wireless media interfaces (e.g., IEEE 802.11-OCB, LTE Uu and
Device-to-Device (D2D) (also known as PC5 [TS-23.285-3GPP]),
Bluetooth, and Light Fidelity (Li-Fi)) for V2I and V2V communication.
Also, it is assumed that such the wireless media interfaces are
autoconfigured with a global IPv6 prefix (e.g., 2001:DB8:1:1::/64) to
support both V2V and V2I networking. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2)
are deployed in the road network and are connected to a Vehicular
Cloud through the Internet. TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud
and the two vehicles (Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected
to RSU1, and the last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to
RSU2. Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication,
and Vehicle2 can communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication.
Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 employing
V2I (i.e., V2I2V) communication.
In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be
considered for wireless communications. Also, in the vehicular
networks, control plane must be separated from data plane for
efficient mobility management and data forwarding using Software-
Defined Networking (SDN) [SDN-DMM]. ID/Pseudonym change for privacy
requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling over the wireless link
should be avoided for performance efficiency. The mobility
information of a mobile (e.g., vehicle-mounted) device through a GPS
receiver in its vehicle, such as trajectory, position, speed, and
direction, can be used by the mobile device and infrastructure nodes
(e.g., TCC and RSU) for the accommodation of mobility-aware proactive
protocols. Vehicles can use the TCC as their Home Network having a
home agent for mobility management as in MIPv6 [RFC6275] and Proxy
Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) [RFC5213], so the TCC maintains the mobility
information of vehicles for location management.
Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for
I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. The standard WAVE does not I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. The standard WAVE does not
support both seamless communications for Internet services and multi- support both seamless communications for Internet services and multi-
hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node
(e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard (e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard
WAVE, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by the following three WAVE, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by the following three
schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6 address assignment schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6 address assignment
and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on PMIPv6 [RFC5213], and
(PMIPv6), and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications for I2V and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications for I2V and V2I networking.
V2I networking.
Baccelli et al. provided an analysis of the operation of IPv6 as it Baccelli et al. provided an analysis of the operation of IPv6 as it
has been described by the IEEE WAVE standards 1609 [IPv6-WAVE]. This has been described by the IEEE WAVE standards 1609 [IPv6-WAVE]. This
analysis confirms that the use of the standard IPv6 protocol stack in analysis confirms that the use of the standard IPv6 protocol stack in
WAVE is not sufficient. It recommebs that the IPv6 addressing WAVE is not sufficient. It recommends that the IPv6 addressing
assignment should follow considerations for ad-hoc link models, assignment should follow considerations for ad-hoc link models,
defined in [RFC5889] for nodes' mobility and link variability. defined in [RFC5889] for nodes' mobility and link variability.
Petrescu et al. proposed the joint IP networking and radio Petrescu et al. proposed the joint IP networking and radio
architecture for V2V and V2I communication in [Joint-IP-Networking]. architecture for V2V and V2I communication in [Joint-IP-Networking].
The proposed architecture considers an IP topology in a similar way The proposed architecture considers an IP topology in a similar way
as a radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would as a radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would
correspond to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. This correspond to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. This
architecture defines three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle, Range architecture defines three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle, Range
Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle. Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle.
4.2.1.1. V2I-based Internetworking +----------------+
(*)<........>(*) +----->| Vehicular Cloud|
This section discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's moving 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 | | | +----------------+
network and an RSU's fixed network. +------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| v | | v v |
(*)<..........>(*)
| | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64
.------------------------------. .---------------------------------.
| | | | | |
| .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. |
| | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | | | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | |
| ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| v v v | | v v v | | v v v | | v v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:1::/64 ^ | | ^ 2001:DB8:20:1::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:1::/64 ^ | | ^ 2001:DB8:20:1::/64 |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| v | | v | | v | | v |
| .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. .-------. |
| | Host2 | |Router2| | | |Router4| |Server1|...|ServerN| | | | Host2 | |Router2| | | |Router4| |Server1|...|ServerN| |
| ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| v v | | v v v | | v v | | v v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:20:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:20:2::/64 |
.______________________________. ._________________________________. +______________________________+ +_________________________________+
Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) RSU1 (Fixed Network1) Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) RSU1 (Fixed Network1)
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna
Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network
4.2.1.1. V2I-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's moving
network and an RSU's fixed network via V2I communication.
As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's
fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and
having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or
RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the
vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope
for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via
either V2I or V2V communication requires an exchange of network V2I communication requires an exchange of network prefix and other
prefix and other parameters. parameters through a prefix discovery mechanism, such as ND-based
prefix discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND]. For the ND-based prefix
discovery, network prefixs and parameters should be registered into a
vehicle's router and an RSU router with an external network interface
in advance.
The network parameter discovery collects networking information for The network parameter discovery collects networking information for
an IP communication between a vehicle and an RSU or between two an IP communication between a vehicle and an RSU or between two
neighboring vehicles, such as link layer, MAC layer, and IP layer neighboring vehicles, such as link layer, MAC layer, and IP layer
information. The link layer information includes wireless link layer information. The link layer information includes wireless link layer
parameters, such as wireless media (e.g., IEEE 802.11-OCB, LTE D2D parameters, such as wireless media (e.g., IEEE 802.11-OCB, LTE Uu and
(Device to Device), Bluetooth, and LiFi (Light Fidelity)) and a D2D, Bluetooth, and LiFi) and a transmission power level. Note that
transmission power level. Note that LiFi is a technology for light- LiFi is a technology for light-based wireless communication between
based wireless communication between devices in order to transmit devices in order to transmit both data and position. The MAC layer
both data and position. The MAC layer information includes the MAC information includes the MAC address of an external network interface
address of an external network interface for the internetworking with for the internetworking with another vehicle or RSU. The IP layer
another vehicle or RSU. The IP layer information includes the IP information includes the IP address and prefix of an external network
address and prefix of an external network interface for the interface for the internetworking with another vehicle or RSU.
internetworking with another vehicle or RSU.
Once the network parameter discovery and prefix exchange operations Once the network parameter discovery and prefix exchange operations
have been performed, packets can be transmitted between the vehicle's have been performed, packets can be transmitted between the vehicle's
moving network and the RSU's fixed network. DNS services should be moving network and the RSU's fixed network. DNS services should be
supported to enable name resolution for hosts or servers residing supported to enable name resolution for hosts or servers residing
either in the vehicle's moving network or the RSU's fixed network. either in the vehicle's moving network or the RSU's fixed network.
For these DNS services, a recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within each It is assumed that the DNS names of in-vehicle devices and their
internal network of a vehicle or RSU can be used for the hosts or service names are registered into a DNS server (i.e., recursive DNS
servers. server called RDNSS) in a vehicle or an RSU, as shown in Figure 2.
For service discovery, those DNS names and service names can be
advertised to neighboring vehicles through either DNS-based service
discovery mechanisms [RFC6762][RFC6763][ID-DNSNA] and ND-based
service discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND]. For the ND-based service
discovery, service names should be registered into a vehicle's router
and an RSU router with an external network interface in advance.
Refer to Section 4.1.5 and Section 4.1.6 for detailed information.
For these DNS services, an RDNSS within each internal network of a
vehicle or RSU can be used for the hosts or servers.
Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's moving network Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's moving network
and the RSU's fixed network. There exists an internal network and the RSU's fixed network. There exists an internal network
(Moving Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (Moving Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server
(RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers
(Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed (Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed
Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host
(Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of (Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of
servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road
networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation. networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation.
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called
fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC) fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC)
for I2V networking. for I2V networking.
4.2.1.2. V2V-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between the moving
networks of two neighboring vehicles.
Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two
neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving
Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the
two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and
Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2)
inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts
(Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4).
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3
(called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link
(e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking.
(*)<..........>(*) (*)<..........>(*)
| | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 | |
.------------------------------. .---------------------------------. +------------------------------+ +---------------------------------+
| | | | | | | v | | v |
| .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. |
| | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | | | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router5| |RDNSS3| | Host4 | |
| ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| v v v | | v v v | | v v v | | v v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:1::/64 ^ | | ^ 2001:DB8:30:1::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:1::/64 ^ | | ^ 2001:DB8:30:1::/64 |
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| v | | v | | v | | v |
| .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. | | .-------. .-------. |
| | Host2 | |Router2| | | |Router4| | Host4 | | | | Host2 | |Router2| | | |Router6| | Host5 | |
| ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. | | ._______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ | | ^ ^ | | ^ ^ | | ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| v v | | v v | | v v | | v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 |
.______________________________. ._________________________________. +______________________________+ +_________________________________+
Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2) Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2)
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna
Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks
4.2.1.2. V2V-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between the moving
networks of two neighboring vehicles via V2V communication.
Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two
neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving
Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the
two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and
Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2)
inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts
(Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4).
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3
(called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link
(e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking.
The differences between IPWAVE (including Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks The differences between IPWAVE (including Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
(VANET)) and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) are as follows: (VANET)) and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) are as follows:
o IPWAVE is not power-constrained operation; o IPWAVE is not power-constrained operation;
o Traffic can be sourced or sinked outside of IPWAVE; o Traffic can be sourced or sinked outside of IPWAVE;
o IPWAVE shall support both distributed and centralized operations; o IPWAVE shall support both distributed and centralized operations;
o No "sleep" period operation is required for energy saving. o No "sleep" period operation is required for energy saving.
skipping to change at page 14, line 25 skipping to change at page 15, line 33
The communication delay (i.e., latency) between two vehicular nodes The communication delay (i.e., latency) between two vehicular nodes
(vehicle and RSU) should be bounded to a certain threshold. For IP- (vehicle and RSU) should be bounded to a certain threshold. For IP-
based safety applications (e.g., context-aware navigation, adaptive based safety applications (e.g., context-aware navigation, adaptive
cruise control, and platooning) in vehicular network, this bounded cruise control, and platooning) in vehicular network, this bounded
data delivery is critical. The real implementations for such data delivery is critical. The real implementations for such
applications are not available, so the feasibility of IP-based safety applications are not available, so the feasibility of IP-based safety
applications is not tested yet. applications is not tested yet.
4.2.3. Security 4.2.3. Security
Security protects vehicles roaming in road networks from the attacks Strong security measures shall protect vehicles roaming in road
of malicious vehicular nodes, which are controlled by hackers. For networks from the attacks of malicious nodes, which are controlled by
safety applications, the cooperation among vehicles is assumed. hackers. For safety applications, the cooperation among vehicles is
Malicious vehicular nodes may disseminate wrong driving information assumed. Malicious nodes may disseminate wrong driving information
(e.g., location, speed, and direction) to make driving be unsafe. (e.g., location, speed, and direction) to make driving be unsafe.
Sybil attack, which tries to illude a vehicle with multiple false Sybil attack, which tries to illude a vehicle with multiple false
identities, disturbs a vehicle in taking a safe maneuver. identities, disturbs a vehicle in taking a safe maneuver.
Applications on IP-based vehicular networking, which are resilient to Applications on IP-based vehicular networking, which are resilient to
such a sybil attack, are not developed and tested yet. such a sybil attack, are not developed and tested yet.
4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling
For the protection of privacy, pseudonym for a vehicle's network For the protection of drivers' privacy, pseudonym for a vehicle's
interface is used, which the interface's identifier is changed network interface should be used, with the help of which the
periodically. Such a pseudonym affects an IPv6 address based on the interface's identifier can be changed periodically. Such a pseudonym
network interface's identifier, and a transport-layer session with an affects an IPv6 address based on the network interface's identifier,
IPv6 address pair. The pseudonym handling is not implemented and and a transport-layer (e.g., TCP) session with an IPv6 address pair.
test yet for applications on IP-based vehicular networking. The pseudonym handling is not implemented and tested yet for
applications on IP-based vehicular networking.
5. Problem Exploration 5. Problem Exploration
This section discusses key work items for IPWAVE, such as neighbor This section discusses key topics for IPWAVE WG, such as neighbor
discovery, mobility management, and security & privacy. discovery, mobility management, and security & privacy.
5.1. Neighbor Discovery 5.1. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol
suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with
vehicular networking (e.g., V2V, V2I, and V2X). The vehicles are vehicular networking (e.g., V2V, V2I, and V2X). The vehicles are
moving fast within the communication coverage of a vehicular node moving fast within the communication coverage of a vehicular node
(e.g., vehicle and RSU). The external link between two vehicular (e.g., vehicle and RSU). The external wireless link between two
nodes can be used for vehicular networking, as shown in Figure 2 and vehicular nodes can be used for vehicular networking, as shown in
Figure 3. Figure 2 and Figure 3.
ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor
Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed
vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA
interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring
vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA
interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA interval should increase for the NA messages to reduce collision
messages with lower collision probability. probability with other NA messages.
5.1.1. Link Model 5.1.1. Link Model
IPv6 protocols work under certain assumptions for the link model that IPv6 protocols work under certain assumptions for the link model that
do not necessarily hold in WAVE [IPv6-WAVE]. For instance, some IPv6 do not necessarily hold in WAVE [IPv6-WAVE]. For instance, some IPv6
protocols assume symmetry in the connectivity among neighboring protocols assume symmetry in the connectivity among neighboring
interfaces. However, interference and different levels of interfaces. However, interference and different levels of
transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a WAVE transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a WAVE
link model. link model.
Also, in an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all interfaces which are There is a relationship between a link and prefix, besides the
configured with the same subnet prefix are on the same IP link.
Hence, there is a relationship between link and prefix, besides the
different scopes that are expected from the link-local and global different scopes that are expected from the link-local and global
types of IPv6 addresses. Such a relationship does not hold in a WAVE types of IPv6 addresses. In an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all
link model due to node mobility and highly dynamic topology. interfaces which are configured with the same subnet prefix and with
on-link bit set can communicate with each other on an IP link or
extended IP links via ND proxy. Note that a subnet prefix can be
used by spanning multiple links as a multi-link subnet [RFC6775].
Also, note that IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration can be
performed in the multiple links where each of them is not assigned
with a unique subnet prefix, that is, all of them are configured with
the same subnet prefix [RFC4861][RFC4862]. A WAVE link model needs
to consider a multi-hop VANET over a multi-link subnet. Such a VANET
is usually a multi-link subnet consisting of multiple vehicles
interconnected by wireless communication range. Such a subnet has a
highly dynamic topology over time due to node mobility.
Thus, IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of a link for Thus, IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of an IPv6
an IPv6 prefix in terms of multicast in VANET. link corresponding to an IPv6 prefix even in a multi-link subnet
consisting of multiple vehicles and RSUs that are interconnected with
wireless communication range in vehicular networks.
5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym 5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym
As the ETSI GeoNetworking, for the sake of security and privacy, an In the ETSI standards, for the sake of security and privacy, an ITS
ITS station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network interface
interface identities (e.g., MAC address) and the corresponding IPv6 identities (e.g., MAC address) and the corresponding IPv6 addresses
addresses [Identity-Management]. Whenever the network interface [Identity-Management]. Whenever the network interface identifier
identifier changes, the IPv6 address based on the network interface changes, the IPv6 address based on the network interface identifier
identifier should be updated. For the continuity of an end-to-end should be updated. For the continuity of an end-to-end (E2E)
transport-layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, and SCTP) session, the IP addresses transport-layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, and SCTP) session, the new IP
of the transport-layer session should be notified to both the end addresses of the transport-layer session should be notified to both
points and the packets of the session should be forwarded to their the end points and the packets of the session should be forwarded to
destinations with the changed network interface identifier and IPv6 their destinations with the changed network interface identifier and
address. IPv6 address.
5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange 5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange
A vehicle and an RSU can have their internal network, as shown in A vehicle and an RSU can have their internal network, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3. In this case, nodes in within the internal Figure 2 and Figure 3. In this case, nodes in within the internal
networks of two vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) want to networks of two vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) want to
communicate with each other. For this communication, the network communicate with each other. For this communication on the wireless
prefix dissemination or exchange is required. It is assumed that a link, the network prefix dissemination or exchange is required. It
vehicular node has an external network interface and its internal is assumed that a vehicular node has an external network interface
network. The standard IPv6 ND needs to be extended for the and its internal network. The standard IPv6 ND needs to be extended
communication between the internal-network vehicular nodes by letting for the communication between the internal-network vehicular nodes by
each of them know the other side's prefix with a new ND option letting each of them know the other side's prefix with a new ND
[ID-Vehicular-ND]. option [ID-Vehicular-ND]. Thus, this ND extension for routing
functionality can reduce control traffic for routing in vehicular
networks.
5.1.4. Routing 5.1.4. Routing
For Neighbor Discovery in vehicular networks (called vehicular ND), For Neighbor Discovery in vehicular networks (called vehicular ND),
Ad Hoc routing is required for either unicast or multicast in the Ad Hoc routing is required for either unicast or multicast in the
links in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC]. Also, links in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC]. Also,
a rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6 address a rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6 address
conflicts in such links. conflicts in a multi-link subnet for both V2V and V2I by using a DAD
optimization [RFC6775].
5.2. Mobility Management 5.2. Mobility Management
The seamless connectivity and timely data exchange between two end The seamless connectivity and timely data exchange between two end
points requires an efficient mobility management including location points requires an efficient mobility management including location
management and handover. Most of vehicles are equipped with a GPS management and handover. Most of vehicles are equipped with a GPS
navigator as a dedicated navigation system or a smartphone App. With receiver as part of a dedicated navigation system or a corresponding
this GPS navigator, an efficient mobility management is possible by smartphone App. In the case where the provided location information
vehicles periodically reporting their current position and trajectory is precise enough, well-known temporary degradations in precision may
(i.e., navigation path) to TCC. TCC can predict the future positions occur due to system configuration or the adverse local environment.
of the vehicles with their mobility information (i.e., the current This precision is improved thanks to assistance by the RSUs or a
position, speed, direction, and trajectory) for location management. cellular system with this navigation system. With this GPS
navigator, an efficient mobility management is possible by vehicles
periodically reporting their current position and trajectory (i.e.,
navigation path) to TCC. TCC can predict the future positions of the
vehicles with their mobility information (i.e., the current position,
speed, direction, and trajectory) for location management.
With the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC can support RSUs to With the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC can support RSUs to
perform DAD, data packet routing, and horizontal/vertical handover in perform DAD, data packet routing, horizontal handover (i.e., handover
a proactive manner. When it is assigned a new IPv6 address belonging in wireless links using a homogeneous radio technology), and vertical
to a different subnet,a vehicle can skip the DAD operation, reducing handover (i.e., handover in wireless links using heterogeneous radio
IPv6 control traffic overhead. RSUs can efficiently forward data technologies) in a proactive manner. When it is assigned a new IPv6
packets from the wired network to a moving destination vehicle along address belonging to a different subnet, a vehicle can skip the DAD
its trajectory. RSUs can smoothly perform handover for the sake of a operation, reducing IPv6 control traffic overhead. RSUs can
moving vehicle along its trajectory. efficiently forward data packets from the wired network to a moving
destination vehicle along its trajectory. RSUs can smoothly perform
handover for the sake of a moving vehicle along its trajectory.
5.3. Security and Privacy 5.3. Security and Privacy
Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I, V2V, and V2X Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I, V2V, and V2X
networking in vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be networking in vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be
allowed to use vehicular networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and allowed to use vehicular networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and
mobile devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle mobile devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle
devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in
an RSU in a secure way. an RSU in a secure way.
A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along
with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to
efficiently authenticate a vehicle or a user through a road efficiently authenticate a vehicle or a user through a road
infrastructure node (e.g., RSU) connected to an authentication server infrastructure node (e.g., RSU) connected to an authentication server
in TCC. Also, Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificates can be in TCC. Also, Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificates can be
used for secure end-to-end vehicle communications. used for secure E2E vehicle communications.
For secure V2I communication, a secure channel between a mobile For secure V2I communication, a secure channel between a mobile
router in a vehicle and a fixed router in an RSU should be router in a vehicle and a fixed router in an RSU should be
established, as shown in Figure 2. Also, for secure V2V established, as shown in Figure 2. Also, for secure V2V
communication, a secure channel between a mobile router in a vehicle communication, a secure channel between a mobile router in a vehicle
and a mobile router in another vehicle should be established, as and a mobile router in another vehicle should be established, as
shown in Figure 3. shown in Figure 3.
To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle with its MAC address To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle with its MAC address
or IPv6 address, MAC address pseudonym should be provided to the or IPv6 address, MAC address pseudonym should be provided to the
vehicle; that is, each vehicle should periodically update its MAC vehicle; that is, each vehicle should periodically update its MAC
address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in
[RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses [RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses
should not interrupt the end-to-end communications between two should not interrupt the E2E communications between two vehicular
vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) in terms of transport layer. nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) in terms of transport layer for a long-
living higher-layer session. However, if this pseudonym is performed
without strong E2E confidentiality, there will be no privacy benefit
from changing MAC and IP addresses, because an adversary can see the
change of the MAC and IP addresses and track the vehicle with those
addresses.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document discussed security and privacy for IP-based vehicular This document discussed security and privacy for IP-based vehicular
networking. networking.
The security and privacy for key components in IP-based vehicular The security and privacy for key components in IP-based vehicular
networking, such as neighor discovery and mobility management, needs networking, such as neighbor discovery and mobility management, need
to be analyzed in depth. to be analyzed in depth.
7. Informative References 7. Informative References
[Address-Assignment] [Address-Assignment]
Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing
and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in
a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services
Computing Conference, December 2008. Computing Conference, December 2008.
skipping to change at page 18, line 22 skipping to change at page 20, line 5
Bhat, C., and R. W. Heath, "Millimeter-Wave Vehicular Bhat, C., and R. W. Heath, "Millimeter-Wave Vehicular
Communication to Support Massive Automotive Sensing", Communication to Support Massive Automotive Sensing",
IEEE Communications Magazine, December 2016. IEEE Communications Magazine, December 2016.
[Broadcast-Storm] [Broadcast-Storm]
Wisitpongphan, N., K. Tonguz, O., S. Parikh, J., Mudalige, Wisitpongphan, N., K. Tonguz, O., S. Parikh, J., Mudalige,
P., Bai, F., and V. Sadekar, "Broadcast Storm Mitigation P., Bai, F., and V. Sadekar, "Broadcast Storm Mitigation
Techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Wireless Techniques in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Wireless
Communications, December 2007. Communications, December 2007.
[CA-Cuise-Control] [CA-Cruise-Control]
California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology
(PATH), "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control", [Online] (PATH), "Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control", [Online]
Available: Available:
http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and- http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and-
connected-vehicles/cooperative-adaptive-cruise-control, connected-vehicles/cooperative-adaptive-cruise-control,
2017. 2017.
[CASD] Shen, Y., Jeong, J., Oh, T., and S. Son, "CASD: A [CASD] Shen, Y., Jeong, J., Oh, T., and S. Son, "CASD: A
Framework of Context-Awareness Safety Driving in Vehicular Framework of Context-Awareness Safety Driving in Vehicular
Networks", International Workshop on Device Centric Cloud Networks", International Workshop on Device Centric Cloud
skipping to change at page 19, line 51 skipping to change at page 21, line 30
Communications, September 2008. Communications, September 2008.
[H-DMM] Nguyen, T. and C. Bonnet, "A Hybrid Centralized- [H-DMM] Nguyen, T. and C. Bonnet, "A Hybrid Centralized-
Distributed Mobility Management for Supporting Highly Distributed Mobility Management for Supporting Highly
Mobile Users", IEEE International Conference on Mobile Users", IEEE International Conference on
Communications, June 2015. Communications, June 2015.
[ID-DNSNA] [ID-DNSNA]
Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name Jeong, J., Ed., Lee, S., and J. Park, "DNS Name
Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices", draft- Autoconfiguration for Internet of Things Devices", draft-
jeong-ipwave-iot-dns-autoconf-03 (work in progress), July jeong-ipwave-iot-dns-autoconf-04 (work in progress),
2018. October 2018.
[ID-Vehicular-ND] [ID-Vehicular-ND]
Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., Jo, Y., Jeong, J., and J. Lee, Jeong, J., Ed., Shen, Y., Jo, Y., Jeong, J., and J. Lee,
"IPv6 Neighbor Discovery for Prefix and Service Discovery "IPv6 Neighbor Discovery for Prefix and Service Discovery
in Vehicular Networks", draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular- in Vehicular Networks", draft-jeong-ipwave-vehicular-
neighbor-discovery-03 (work in progress), July 2018. neighbor-discovery-04 (work in progress), October 2018.
[Identity-Management] [Identity-Management]
Wetterwald, M., Hrizi, F., and P. Cataldi, "Cross-layer Wetterwald, M., Hrizi, F., and P. Cataldi, "Cross-layer
Identities Management in ITS Stations", The 10th Identities Management in ITS Stations", The 10th
International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, International Conference on ITS Telecommunications,
November 2010. November 2010.
[IEEE-802.11-OCB] [IEEE-802.11-OCB]
IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
Specifications", IEEE Std 802.11-2012, February 2012. Specifications", IEEE Std 802.11-2016, December 2016.
[IEEE-802.11p] [IEEE-802.11p]
IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium IEEE 802.11 Working Group, "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010. Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010.
[IP-Passing-Protocol] [IP-Passing-Protocol]
Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation", Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation",
skipping to change at page 22, line 16 skipping to change at page 23, line 45
"Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
September 2007. September 2007.
[RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007. Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.
[RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy [RFC4941] Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007. IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.
[RFC5213] Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
RFC 5213, August 2008.
[RFC5889] Baccelli, E. and M. Townsley, "IP Addressing Model in Ad [RFC5889] Baccelli, E. and M. Townsley, "IP Addressing Model in Ad
Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, September 2010. Hoc Networks", RFC 5889, September 2010.
[RFC5944] Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support in IPv4, Revised", [RFC5944] Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support in IPv4, Revised",
RFC 5944, November 2010. RFC 5944, November 2010.
[RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility [RFC6275] Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011. Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.
[RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762, [RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
February 2013. February 2013.
[RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service [RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013. Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. Bormann,
"Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power
Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC 6775,
November 2012.
[RFC7333] Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen, [RFC7333] Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen,
"Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management", "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management",
RFC 7333, August 2014. RFC 7333, August 2014.
[RFC7429] Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ. [RFC7429] Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ.
Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015. Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 8200, July 2017. (IPv6) Specification", RFC 8200, July 2017.
skipping to change at page 25, line 5 skipping to change at page 27, line 5
[WAVE-1609.3] [WAVE-1609.3]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking
Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016. Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016.
[WAVE-1609.4] [WAVE-1609.4]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel
Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016. Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016.
Appendix A. Relevant Work Items to IPWAVE Appendix A. Relevant Topics to IPWAVE Working Group
This section discusses relevant work items to IPWAVE: (i) vehicle This section discusses topics relevant to IPWAVE WG: (i) vehicle
identity management; (ii) multihop V2X; (iii) multicast; (iv) DNS identity management; (ii) multihop V2X; (iii) multicast; (iv) DNS
naming services and service discovery; (v) IPv6 over cellular naming services and service discovery; (v) IPv6 over cellular
networks. networks.
A.1. Vehicle Identity Management A.1. Vehicle Identity Management
A vehicle can have multiple network interfaces using different access A vehicle can have multiple network interfaces using different access
network technologies [Identity-Management]. These multiple network network technologies [Identity-Management]. These multiple network
interfaces mean multiple identities. To identify a vehicle with interfaces mean multiple identities. To identify a vehicle with
multiple indenties, a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be used multiple indenties, a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be used
skipping to change at page 25, line 33 skipping to change at page 27, line 33
multiple identities should be provided to vehicles in an efficient multiple identities should be provided to vehicles in an efficient
way to allow horizontal handover as well as vertical handover; note way to allow horizontal handover as well as vertical handover; note
that AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. that AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting.
A.2. Multihop V2X A.2. Multihop V2X
Multihop packet forwarding among vehicles in 802.11-OCB mode shows an Multihop packet forwarding among vehicles in 802.11-OCB mode shows an
unfavorable performance due to the common known broadcast-storm unfavorable performance due to the common known broadcast-storm
problem [Broadcast-Storm]. This broadcast-storm problem can be problem [Broadcast-Storm]. This broadcast-storm problem can be
mitigated by the coordination (or scheduling) of a cluster head in a mitigated by the coordination (or scheduling) of a cluster head in a
connected VANET or an RSU in an intersection area, which is a connected VANET or an RSU in an intersection area, where the cluster
coordinator for the access to wireless channels. head can work as a coodinator for the access to wireless channels.
A.3. Multicast A.3. Multicast
IP multicast in vehicular network environments is especially useful IP multicast in vehicular network environments is especially useful
for various services. For instance, an automobile manufacturer can for various services. For instance, an automobile manufacturer can
multicast a particular group/class/type of vehicles for service multicast a particular group/class/type of vehicles for service
notification. As another example, a vehicle or an RSU can notification. As another example, a vehicle or an RSU can
disseminate alert messages in a particular area [Multicast-Alert]. disseminate alert messages in a particular area [Multicast-Alert].
In general IEEE 802 wireless media, some performance issues about In general IEEE 802 wireless media, some performance issues about
multicast are found in [Multicast-802]. Since serveral procedures multicast are found in [Multicast-802]. Since several procedures and
and functions based on IPv6 use multicast for control-plane messages, functions based on IPv6 use multicast for control-plane messages,
such as Neighbor Discovery (called ND) and Service Discovery, such as Neighbor Discovery (ND) and Service Discovery,
[Multicast-802] describes that the ND process may fail due to [Multicast-802] describes that the ND process may fail due to
unreliable wireless link, causing failure of the DAD process. Also, unreliable wireless link, causing failure of the DAD process. Also,
the Router Advertisement messages can be lost in multicasting. the Router Advertisement messages can be lost in multicasting.
A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery
When two vehicular nodes communicate with each other with the DNS When two vehicular nodes communicate with each other using the DNS
name of the partner node, DNS naming service (i.e., DNS name name of the partner node, DNS naming service (i.e., DNS name
resolution) is required. As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, a resolution) is required. As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, a
recursive DNS server (called RDNSS) within an internal network can recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within an internal network can perform
perform such DNS name resolution for the sake of other vehicular such DNS name resolution for the sake of other vehicular nodes.
nodes.
A service discovery service is required for an application in a A service discovery service is required for an application in a
vehicular node to search for another application or server in another vehicular node to search for another application or server in another
vehicular node, which resides in either the same internal network or vehicular node, which resides in either the same internal network or
the other internal network. In V2I or V2V networking, as shown in the other internal network. In V2I or V2V networking, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3, such a service discovery service can be Figure 2 and Figure 3, such a service discovery service can be
provided by either DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] provided by either DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763]
with mDNS [RFC6762] or the vehicular ND with a new option for service with mDNS [RFC6762] or the vehicular ND with a new option for service
discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND]. discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND].
A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks
Recently, 3GPP has announced a new technical specification, Release Recently, 3GPP has announced a set of new technical specifications,
14 (3GPP-R14), which proposes an architecture enhancements for V2X such as Release 14 (3GPP-R14), which proposes an architecture
services using the modified sidelink interface that originally is enhancements for V2X services using the modified sidelink interface
designed for the LTE-D2D communications. 3GPP-R14 regulates that the that originally is designed for the LTE-D2D communications. 3GPP-R14
V2X services only support IPv6 implementation. 3GPP is also specifies that the V2X services only support IPv6 implementation.
investigating and discussing the evolved V2X services in the next 3GPP is also investigating and discussing the evolved V2X services in
generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G new radio (5G-NR), for the next generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G new radio (5G-NR),
advanced V2X communications and automated vehicles' applications. for advanced V2X communications and automated vehicles' applications.
A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE
Before 3GPP-R14, some researchers have studied the potential usage of Before 3GPP-R14, some researchers have studied the potential usage of
C-V2X communications. For example, [VMaSC-LTE] explores a multihop C-V2X communications. For example, [VMaSC-LTE] explores a multihop
cluster-based hybrid architecture using both DSRC and LTE for safety cluster-based hybrid architecture using both DSRC and LTE for safety
message dissemination. Most of the research consider a short message message dissemination. Most of the research considers a short
service for safety instead of IP datagram forwarding. In other C-V2X message service for safety instead of IP datagram forwarding. In
research, the standard IPv6 is assumed. other C-V2X research, the standard IPv6 is assumed.
The 3GPP technical specification [TS-23.285-3GPP] states that both IP The 3GPP technical specification [TS-23.285-3GPP] states that both IP
based and non-IP based V2X messages are supported, and only IPv6 is based and non-IP based V2X messages are supported, and only IPv6 is
supported for IP based messages. Moreover, [TS-23.285-3GPP] supported for IP based messages. Moreover, [TS-23.285-3GPP]
instructs that a UE autoconfigures a link- local IPv6 address by instructs that a UE autoconfigures a link-local IPv6 address by
following [RFC4862], but without sending Neighbor Solicitation and following [RFC4862], but without sending Neighbor Solicitation and
Neighbor Advertisement messages for DAD. Neighbor Advertisement messages for DAD. This is because a unique
prefix is allocated to each node by the 3GPP network, so the IPv6
addresses cannot be duplicate.
A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G
The emerging services, functions and applications in automotive The emerging services, functions, and applications, which are
industry spurs ehhanced V2X (eV2X)-based services in the future 5G developped in automotive industry, demand reliable and efficient
era. The 3GPP Technical Report [TR-22.886-3GPP] is studying new use communication infrastructure for road networks. Correspondingly, the
cases for V2X using 5G in the future. support of enhanced V2X (eV2X)-based services by future converged and
interoperable 5G systems is required. The 3GPP Technical Report
[TR-22.886-3GPP] is studying new use cases and the corresponding
service requirements for V2X (including V2V and V2I) using 5G in both
infrastructure mode and the sidelink variations in the future.
Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03 Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-04
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular- The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-03: networking-04:
o EU wireless channel allocation (frequency band 5.875 - 5.905 GHz) o In Section 1, the explanation about Geographic routing is added.
for vehicular networking was specified in Section 1.
o Relevant work items to IPWAVE is discussed in Appendix A as o In Section 4.2.1, an assumption is added for a wireless media
follows: (i) vehicle identity management; (ii) multihop V2X; (iii) interface of a vehicle and an RSU for V2V and V2I communication.
multicast; (iv) DNS naming services and service discovery; (v)
IPv6 over cellular networks. o In Section 5.1.1, a WAVE link model is clarified through the
comparison with the legacy IPv6 link model.
o Many places are corrected for better explanation along with typo
correction.
Appendix C. Acknowledgments Appendix C. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the
National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of
Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885). Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885).
This work was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program This work was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program
through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT)
(NRF-2013K1A1A2A02078326) and by the DGIST R&D Program of the MSIT (NRF-2013K1A1A2A02078326) and by the DGIST R&D Program of the MSIT
skipping to change at page 27, line 47 skipping to change at page 30, line 5
DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the HIGHTS project funded DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the HIGHTS project funded
by the European Commission I (636537-H2020). by the European Commission I (636537-H2020).
Appendix D. Contributors Appendix D. Contributors
This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly
benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval
Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest
University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi
(Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), Francois Simon (Pilot), (Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), Francois Simon (Pilot),
and Sri Gundavelli (Cisco). The authors sincerely appreciate their Sri Gundavelli (Cisco), Erik Nordmark, and Dirk von Hugo (Deutsche
contributions. Telekom). The authors sincerely appreciate their contributions.
The following are co-authors of this document: The following are co-authors of this document:
Nabil Benamar Nabil Benamar
Department of Computer Sciences Department of Computer Sciences
High School of Technology of Meknes High School of Technology of Meknes
Moulay Ismail University Moulay Ismail University
Morocco Morocco
Phone: +212 6 70 83 22 36 Phone: +212 6 70 83 22 36
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