draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03.txt   draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-04.txt 
IPWAVE Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. IPWAVE Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University Internet-Draft Sungkyunkwan University
Intended status: Informational July 2, 2018 Intended status: Informational July 16, 2018
Expires: January 3, 2019 Expires: January 17, 2019
IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (IPWAVE): Problem Statement
and Use Cases and Use Cases
draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03 draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-04
Abstract Abstract
This document discusses problem statement and use cases on IP-based This document discusses the problem statement and use cases on IP-
vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of based vehicular networks, which are considered a key component of
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main topics of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The main topics of
vehicular networking are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- vehicular networking are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking.
First, this document surveys use cases using V2V, V2I, and V2X First, this document surveys use cases using V2V, V2I, and V2X
networking. Second, this document analyzes current protocols for networking. Second, it analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based
vehicular networking and general problems on those current protocols. vehicular networking and highlights the limitations and difficulties
Third, this document does problem exploration for key aspects in IP- found on those protocols. Third, it presents a problem exploration
based vehicular networking, such as IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB, IPv6 for key aspects in IP-based vehicular networking, such as IPv6
Neighbor Discovery, Mobility Management, Vehicle Identities Neighbor Discovery, Mobility Management, and Security & Privacy. For
Management, Multihop V2X Communications, Multicast, DNS Naming each key aspect, this document discusses a problem statement to
Services, Service Discovery, IPv6 over Cellular Networks, Security analyze the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques and
and Privacy. For each key aspect, this document discusses problem requirements in IP-based vehicular networking.
statement to analyze the gap between the state-of-the-art techniques
and requirements in IP-based vehicular networking.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 3, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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skipping to change at page 2, line 30 skipping to change at page 2, line 30
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. V2V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. V2V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. V2I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. V2I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.3. V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. Analysis for Current Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Analysis for Current Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.1. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.3. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.3. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.4. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.5. DNS Naming Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.6. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.6. Service Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.7. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2. General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2.2. Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.2. Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.3. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Problem Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Problem Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.1. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.1. Link Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.2. MAC Address Pseudonym . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.1.4. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.2.4. Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.3. Mobility Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.3. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.4. Vehicle Identity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.5. Multihop V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.6. Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix A. Relevant Work Items to IPWAVE . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.7. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery . . . . . . . . 17 A.1. Vehicle Identity Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.8. IPv6 over Cellular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 A.2. Multihop V2X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.8.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.3. Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.8.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery . . . . . . . . 26
5.9. Security and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE . . . . . . . . . . 26
7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
Appendix B. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 networking-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular- Appendix C. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
networking-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Appendix D. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Vehicular networks have been focused on the driving safety, driving Vehicular networks have been focused on the driving safety, driving
efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal efficiency, and entertainment in road networks. The Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels Communications Commission (FCC) in the US allocated wireless channels
for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in for Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) [DSRC], service in
the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Radio Service in the
5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless 5.850 - 5.925 GHz band (5.9 GHz band). DSRC-based wireless
communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to- communications can support vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-
infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking. infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networking.
Also, the European Union (EU) made a law for radio spectrum for
safety-related applications of ITS with the frequency band of 5.875 -
5.905 GHz, which is called Commission Decision 2008/671/EC
[EU-2008-671-EC].
For driving safety services based on the DSRC, IEEE has standardized For driving safety services based on the DSRC, IEEE has standardized
Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards, such as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards, such as
IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], IEEE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2], IEEE 1609.3 IEEE 802.11p [IEEE-802.11p], IEEE 1609.2 [WAVE-1609.2], IEEE 1609.3
[WAVE-1609.3], and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4]. Note that IEEE 802.11p [WAVE-1609.3], and IEEE 1609.4 [WAVE-1609.4]. Note that IEEE 802.11p
has been published as IEEE 802.11 Outside the Context of a Basic has been published as IEEE 802.11 Outside the Context of a Basic
Service Set (OCB) [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012. Along with these WAVE Service Set (OCB) [IEEE-802.11-OCB] in 2012. Along with these WAVE
standards, IPv6 and Mobile IP protocols (e.g., MIPv4 and MIPv6) can standards, IPv6 and Mobile IP protocols (e.g., MIPv4 and MIPv6) can
be extended to vehicular networks [RFC2460][RFC5944][RFC6275]. Also, be extended to vehicular networks [RFC8200][RFC5944][RFC6275]. Also,
ETSI has standardized a GeoNetworking (GN) protocol ETSI has standardized a GeoNetworking (GN) protocol
[ETSI-GeoNetworking] and a protocol adaptation sub-layer from [ETSI-GeoNetworking] and a protocol adaptation sub-layer from
GeoNetworking to IPv6 [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. In addition, ISO has GeoNetworking to IPv6 [ETSI-GeoNetwork-IP]. In addition, ISO has
standardized a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and standardized a standard specifying the IPv6 network protocols and
services for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM) services for Communications Access for Land Mobiles (CALM)
[ISO-ITS-IPv6]. [ISO-ITS-IPv6].
This document discusses problem statements and use cases related to This document discusses problem statements and use cases related to
IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems IP-based vehicular networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems
(ITS). This document first surveys the use cases for using V2V and (ITS), which is IP Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments
V2I networking in the ITS. Second, for problem statement, this (IPWAVE). First, it surveys the use cases for using V2V, V2I, and
document deals with critical aspects in vehicular networking, such as V2X networking in the ITS. Second, for literature review, it
IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB, IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, Mobility analyzes proposed protocols for IP-based vehicular networking and
Management, Vehicle Identities Management, Multihop V2X highlights the limitations and difficulties found on those protocols.
Communications, Multicast, DNS Naming Services, Service Discovery, Third, for problem statement, it presents a problem exploration with
IPv6 over Cellular Networks, Security and Privacy. For each key key aspects in IPWAVE, such as IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, Mobility
aspect, this document discusses problem statement to analyze the gap Management, and Security & Privacy. For each key aspect, it
between the state-of-the-art techniques and requirements in IP-based discusses a problem statement to analyze the gap between the state-
vehicular networking. Finally, with the problem statement, this of-the-art techniques and requirements in IP-based vehicular
document suggests demanding key standardization items for the networking. Also, it also discusses relevant work items to IPWAVE,
deployment of IPWAVE in road environments. As a consequence, this such as Vehicle Identities Management, Multihop V2X Communications,
will make it possible to design a network architecture and protocols Multicast, DNS Naming Services, Service Discovery, and IPv6 over
for vehicular networking. Cellular Networks. Therefore, with the problem statement, this
document will open a door to develop key protocols for IPWAVE that
will be essential to IP-based vehicular networks.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document uses the following definitions: This document uses the following definitions:
o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments" o WAVE: Acronym for "Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments"
[WAVE-1609.0]. [WAVE-1609.0].
o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management" o DMM: Acronym for "Distributed Mobility Management"
[RFC7333][RFC7429]. [RFC7333][RFC7429].
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Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g., Platooning [Truck-Platooning] allows a series of vehicles (e.g.,
trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks trucks) to move together with a very short inter-distance. Trucks
can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to can use V2V communication in addition to forward sensors in order to
maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very maintain constant clearance between two consecutive vehicles at very
short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can short gaps (from 3 meters to 10 meters). This platooning can
maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce maximize the throughput of vehicular traffic in a highway and reduce
the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the the gas consumption because the leading vehicle can help the
following vehicles to experience less air resistance. following vehicles to experience less air resistance.
Cooperative-environment-sensing use cases suggest that vehicles can Cooperative-environment-sensing use cases suggest that vehicles can
share environment information from various sensors, such as radars, share environmental information from various sensors, such as radars,
LiDARs and cameras, mounted on them with other vehicles and LiDARs and cameras, mounted on them with other vehicles and
pedestrians. [Automotive-Sensing] introduces a millimeter-wave pedestrians. [Automotive-Sensing] introduces a millimeter-wave
vehicular communication for massive automotive sensing. Data vehicular communication for massive automotive sensing. Data
generated by those sensors can be substantially large, and these data generated by those sensors can be substantially large, and these data
shall be routed to different destinations. In addition, from the shall be routed to different destinations. In addition, from the
perspective of driverless vehicles, it is expected that driverless perspective of driverless vehicles, it is expected that driverless
vehicles can be mixed with driver vehicles. Through cooperative vehicles can be mixed with driver vehicles. Through cooperative
enivronment sensing, driver vehicles can use enivronment information environment sensing, driver vehicles can use environmental
sensed by driverless vehicles for better interaction with information sensed by driverless vehicles for better interaction with
environments. the context.
3.2. V2I 3.2. V2I
The use cases of V2I networking discussed in this section include The use cases of V2I networking discussed in this section include
o Navigation service; o Navigation service;
o Energy-efficient speed recommendation service; o Energy-efficient speed recommendation service;
o Accident notification service. o Accident notification service.
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A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive A navigation service, such as the Self-Adaptive Interactive
Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking Navigation Tool (called SAINT) [SAINT], using V2I networking
interacts with TCC for the global road traffic optimization and can interacts with TCC for the global road traffic optimization and can
guide individual vehicles for appropriate navigation paths in real guide individual vehicles for appropriate navigation paths in real
time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+) [SAINTplus] can give the time. The enhanced SAINT (called SAINT+) [SAINTplus] can give the
fast moving paths for emergency vehicles (e.g., ambulance and fire fast moving paths for emergency vehicles (e.g., ambulance and fire
engine) toward accident spots while providing other vehicles with engine) toward accident spots while providing other vehicles with
efficient detour paths. efficient detour paths.
A TCC can recommend an energy-efficient speed to a vehicle driving in A TCC can recommend an energy-efficient speed to a vehicle driving in
different traffic environments. [Fuel-Efficient] studys fuel- different traffic environments. [Fuel-Efficient] studies fuel-
efficient route and speed plans for platooned trucks. efficient route and speed plans for platooned trucks.
The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency The emergency communication between accident vehicles (or emergency
vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks. vehicles) and TCC can be performed via either RSU or 4G-LTE networks.
The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) [FirstNet] is
provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an provided by the US government to establish, operate, and maintain an
interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security interoperable public safety broadband network for safety and security
network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the network services, such as emergency calls. The construction of the
nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a nationwide FirstNet network requires each state in the US to have a
Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network Radio Access Network (RAN) that will connect to FirstNet's network
core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the core. The current RAN is mainly constructed by 4G-LTE for the
communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e., communication between a vehicle and an infrastructure node (i.e.,
V2I) [FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017], but DSRC-based vehicular networks V2I) [FirstNet-Report], but DSRC-based vehicular networks can be used
can be used for V2I in near future [DSRC]. for V2I in near future [DSRC].
3.3. V2X 3.3. V2X
The use case of V2X networking discussed in this section is The use case of V2X networking discussed in this section is
pedestrian protection service. pedestrian protection service.
A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation A pedestrian protection service, such as Safety-Aware Navigation
Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I2P networking can reduce Application (called SANA) [SANA], using V2I2P networking can reduce
the collision of a pedestrian and a vehicle, which have a smartphone, the collision of a pedestrian and a vehicle, which have a smartphone,
in a road network. Vehicles and pedestrians can communicate with in a road network. Vehicles and pedestrians can communicate with
each other via an RSU that delivers scheduling information for each other via an RSU that delivers scheduling information for
wireless communication to save the smartphones' battery. wireless communication to save the smartphones' battery.
4. Analysis for Current Protocols 4. Analysis for Current Protocols
4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking 4.1. Current Protocols for Vehicular Networking
We analyze the current protocols from the follow aspects: We analyze the current protocols from the following aspects:
o IPv6 over 802.11-OCB;
o IP address autoconfiguration; o IP address autoconfiguration;
o Routing; o Routing;
o Mobility management; o Mobility management;
o DNS naming service; o DNS naming service;
o Service discovery; o Service discovery;
o Security and privacy. o Security and privacy.
4.1.1. IP Address Autoconfiguration 4.1.1. IPv6 over 802.11-OCB
For IPv6 packets transporting over IEEE 802.11-OCB,
[IPv6-over-802.11-OCB] specifies several details, such as Maximum
Transmission Unit (MTU), frame format, link-local address, address
mapping for unicast and multicast, stateless autoconfiguration, and
subnet structure. Especially, an Ethernet Adaptation (EA) layer is
in charge of transforming some parameters between IEEE 802.11 MAC
layer and IPv6 network layer, which is located between IEEE
802.11-OCB's logical link control layer and IPv6 network layer.
4.1.2. IP Address Autoconfiguration
For IP address autoconfiguration, Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular For IP address autoconfiguration, Fazio et al. proposed a vehicular
address configuration (VAC) scheme using DHCP where elected leader- address configuration (VAC) scheme using DHCP where elected leader-
vehicles provide unique identifiers for IP address configurations vehicles provide unique identifiers for IP address configurations
[Address-Autoconf]. Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address assignment [Address-Autoconf]. Kato et al. proposed an IPv6 address assignment
scheme using lane and position information [Address-Assignment]. scheme using lane and position information [Address-Assignment].
Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable address autoconfiguration Baldessari et al. proposed an IPv6 scalable address autoconfiguration
scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks [GeoSAC]. Wetterwald et scheme called GeoSAC for vehicular networks [GeoSAC]. Wetterwald et
al. conducted a comprehensive study of the cross-layer identities al. conducted a comprehensive study of the cross-layer identities
management in vehicular networks using multiple access network management in vehicular networks using multiple access network
technologies, which constitutes a fundamental element of the ITS technologies, which constitutes a fundamental element of the ITS
architecture [Identity-Management]. architecture [Identity-Management].
4.1.2. Routing 4.1.3. Routing
For routing, Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining For routing, Tsukada et al. presented a work that aims at combining
IPv6 networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called IPv6 networking and a Car-to-Car Network routing protocol (called
C2CNet) proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC), C2CNet) proposed by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC),
which is an architecture using a geographic routing protocol which is an architecture using a geographic routing protocol
[VANET-Geo-Routing]. Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery [VANET-Geo-Routing]. Abrougui et al. presented a gateway discovery
scheme for VANET, called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and scheme for VANET, called Location-Aided Gateway Advertisement and
Discovery (LAGAD) mechanism [LAGAD]. Discovery (LAGAD) mechanism [LAGAD].
4.1.3. Mobility Management 4.1.4. Mobility Management
For mobility management, Chen et al. tackled the issue of network For mobility management, Chen et al. tackled the issue of network
fragmentation in VANET environments [IP-Passing-Protocol] by fragmentation in VANET environments [IP-Passing-Protocol] by
proposing a protocol that can postpone the time to release IP proposing a protocol that can postpone the time to release IP
addresses to the DHCP server and select a faster way to get the addresses to the DHCP server and select a faster way to get the
vehicle's new IP address, when the vehicle density is low or the vehicle's new IP address, when the vehicle density is low or the
speeds of vehicles are varied. Nguyen et al. proposed a hybrid speeds of vehicles are varied. Nguyen et al. proposed a hybrid
centralized-distributed mobility management called H-DMM to support centralized-distributed mobility management called H-DMM to support
highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM]. [NEMO-LMS] proposed an architecture highly mobile vehicles [H-DMM]. [NEMO-LMS] proposed an architecture
to enable IP mobility for moving networks using a network-based to enable IP mobility for moving networks using a network-based
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connectivity to moving vehicles in a highway [NEMO-VANET]. Lee et connectivity to moving vehicles in a highway [NEMO-VANET]. Lee et
al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility management al. proposed P-NEMO, which is a PMIPv6-based IP mobility management
scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the vehicle as a scheme to maintain the Internet connectivity at the vehicle as a
mobile network, and provides a make-before-break mechanism when mobile network, and provides a make-before-break mechanism when
vehicles switch to a new access network [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Peng vehicles switch to a new access network [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]. Peng
et al. proposed a novel mobility management scheme for integration of et al. proposed a novel mobility management scheme for integration of
VANET and fixed IP networks [VNET-MM]. Nguyen et al. extended their VANET and fixed IP networks [VNET-MM]. Nguyen et al. extended their
previous works on a vehicular adapted DMM considering a Software- previous works on a vehicular adapted DMM considering a Software-
Defined Networking (SDN) architecture [SDN-DMM]. Defined Networking (SDN) architecture [SDN-DMM].
4.1.4. DNS Naming Service 4.1.5. DNS Naming Service
For DNS naming service, Multicast DNS (mDNS) [RFC6762] allows devices For DNS naming service, Multicast DNS (mDNS) [RFC6762] allows devices
in one-hop communication range to resolve each other's DNS name into in one-hop communication range to resolve each other's DNS name into
the corresponding IP address in multicast. DNS Name the corresponding IP address in multicast. DNS Name
Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming service Autoconfiguration (DNSNA) [ID-DNSNA] proposes a DNS naming service
for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale network. for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices in a large-scale network.
4.1.5. Service Discovery 4.1.6. Service Discovery
For service discovery, as a popular existing service discovery For service discovery, as a popular existing service discovery
protocol, DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with mDNS protocol, DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763] with mDNS
[RFC6762] provides service discovery. Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND] [RFC6762] provides service discovery. Vehicular ND [ID-Vehicular-ND]
proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for the prefix and service proposes an extension of IPv6 ND for the prefix and service
discovery. discovery.
4.1.6. Security and Privacy 4.1.7. Security and Privacy
For security and privacy, Fernandez et al. proposed a secure For security and privacy, Fernandez et al. proposed a secure
vehicular IPv6 communication scheme using Internet Key Exchange vehicular IPv6 communication scheme using Internet Key Exchange
version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) version 2 (IKEv2) and Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
[Securing-VCOMM]. Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme [Securing-VCOMM]. Moustafa et al. proposed a security scheme
providing authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) providing authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA)
services in vehicular networks [VNET-AAA]. services in vehicular networks [VNET-AAA].
4.2. General Problems 4.2. General Problems
This section describes a vehicular network architecture for V2V and This section describes a vehicular network architecture for V2V, V2I,
V2I communications. Then it analyzes the limitations of the current and V2X communications. Then it analyzes the limitations of the
protocols for vehicular networking. current protocols for vehicular networking.
4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture 4.2.1. Vehicular Network Architecture
Figure 1 shows an architecture for V2I and V2V networking in a road Figure 1 shows an architecture for V2I and V2V networking in a road
network. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road network. The two RSUs (RSU1 and RSU2) are deployed in the road
network and are connected to a Vehicular Cloud through the Internet. network and are connected to a Vehicular Cloud through the Internet.
TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two vehicles TCC is connected to the Vehicular Cloud and the two vehicles
(Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1, and the (Vehicle1 and Vehicle2) are wirelessly connected to RSU1, and the
last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2. Vehicle1 last vehicle (Vehicle3) is wirelessly connected to RSU2. Vehicle1
can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication, and Vehicle2 can can communicate with Vehicle2 via V2V communication, and Vehicle2 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication. Vehicle1 can communicate with Vehicle3 via V2V communication. Vehicle1 can
communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 via V2I communication. communicate with Vehicle3 via RSU1 and RSU2 via V2I communication.
In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be
considered for wireless communications. Also, in the vehicular
networks, control plane must be separated from data plane for
efficient mobility management and data forwarding. ID/Pseudonym
change for privacy requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling over the
wireless link should be avoided for performance efficiency. The
mobility information of a mobile device (e.g., vehicle), such as
trajectory, position, speed, and direction, can be used by the mobile
device and infrastructure nodes (e.g., TCC and RSU) for the
accommodation of proactive protocols because it is usually equipped
with a GPS receiver. Vehicles can use the TCC as its Home Network,
so the TCC maintains the mobility information of vehicles for
location management.
*-------------* *-------------*
* * .-------. * * .-------.
* Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC | * Vehicular Cloud *<------>| TCC |
* * ._______. * * ._______.
*-------------* *-------------*
^ ^ ^ ^
| | | |
| | | |
v v v v
.--------. .--------. .--------. .--------.
skipping to change at page 10, line 30 skipping to change at page 10, line 38
v v v v v v
.--------. .--------. .--------. .--------. .--------. .--------.
|Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=> |Vehicle1|=> |Vehicle2|=> |Vehicle3|=>
| |<....>| |<....>| | | |<....>| |<....>| |
.________. .________. .________. .________. .________. .________.
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link => Moving Direction
Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking Figure 1: A Vehicular Network Architecture for V2I and V2V Networking
In vehicular networks, unidirectional links exist and must be
considered for wireless communications. Also, in the vehicular
networks, control plane must be separated from data plane for
efficient mobility management and data forwarding. ID/Pseudonym
change for privacy requires a lightweight DAD. IP tunneling should
be avoided for performance efficiency. The mobility information of a
mobile device (e.g., vehicle), such as trajectory, position, speed,
and direction, can be used by the mobile device and infrastructure
nodes (e.g., TCC and RSU) for the accommodation of proactive
protocols because it is usually equipped with a GPS receiver.
Vehicles can use the TCC as its Home Network, so the TCC maintains
the mobility information of vehicles for location management.
Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for Cespedes et al. proposed a vehicular IP in WAVE called VIP-WAVE for
I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. The standard WAVE does not I2V and V2I networking [VIP-WAVE]. The standard WAVE does not
support both seamless communications for Internet services and multi- support both seamless communications for Internet services and multi-
hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node hop communications between a vehicle and an infrastructure node
(e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard (e.g., RSU), either. To overcome these limitations of the standard
WAVE, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by the following three WAVE, VIP-WAVE enhances the standard WAVE by the following three
schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6 address assignment schemes: (i) an efficient mechanism for the IPv6 address assignment
and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on Proxy Mobile IPv6 and DAD, (ii) on-demand IP mobility based on Proxy Mobile IPv6
(PMIPv6), and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications for I2V and (PMIPv6), and (iii) one-hop and two-hop communications for I2V and
V2I networking. V2I networking.
skipping to change at page 11, line 27 skipping to change at page 11, line 22
as a radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would as a radio link topology, in the sense that an IP subnet would
correspond to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. This correspond to the range of 1-hop vehicular communication. This
architecture defines three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle, Range architecture defines three types of vehicles: Leaf Vehicle, Range
Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle. Extending Vehicle, and Internet Vehicle.
4.2.1.1. V2I-based Internetworking 4.2.1.1. V2I-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's moving This section discusses the internetworking between a vehicle's moving
network and an RSU's fixed network. network and an RSU's fixed network.
As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's
fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and
having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or
RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the
vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope
for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via
either V2I or V2V communication requires an exchange of network
prefix and other parameters.
The network parameter discovery collects networking information for
an IP communication between a vehicle and an RSU or between two
neighboring vehicles, such as link layer, MAC layer, and IP layer
information. The link layer information includes wireless link layer
parameters, such as wireless media (e.g., IEEE 802.11 OCB, LTE D2D,
Bluetooth, and LiFi) and a transmission power level. The MAC layer
information includes the MAC address of an external network interface
for the internetworking with another vehicle or RSU. The IP layer
information includes the IP address and prefix of an external network
interface for the internetworking with another vehicle or RSU.
(*)<..........>(*) (*)<..........>(*)
| | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 | | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64
.------------------------------. .---------------------------------. .------------------------------. .---------------------------------.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. |
| | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | | | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | |
| ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| v v v | | v v v | | v v v | | v v v |
skipping to change at page 12, line 34 skipping to change at page 12, line 5
| v v | | v v v | | v v | | v v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:20:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:20:2::/64 |
.______________________________. ._________________________________. .______________________________. ._________________________________.
Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) RSU1 (Fixed Network1) Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) RSU1 (Fixed Network1)
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna
Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network Figure 2: Internetworking between Vehicle Network and RSU Network
As shown in Figure 2, the vehicle's moving network and the RSU's
fixed network are self-contained networks having multiple subnets and
having an edge router for the communication with another vehicle or
RSU. The method of prefix assignment for each subnet inside the
vehicle's mobile network and the RSU's fixed network is out of scope
for this document. Internetworking between two internal networks via
either V2I or V2V communication requires an exchange of network
prefix and other parameters.
The network parameter discovery collects networking information for
an IP communication between a vehicle and an RSU or between two
neighboring vehicles, such as link layer, MAC layer, and IP layer
information. The link layer information includes wireless link layer
parameters, such as wireless media (e.g., IEEE 802.11-OCB, LTE D2D
(Device to Device), Bluetooth, and LiFi (Light Fidelity)) and a
transmission power level. Note that LiFi is a technology for light-
based wireless communication between devices in order to transmit
both data and position. The MAC layer information includes the MAC
address of an external network interface for the internetworking with
another vehicle or RSU. The IP layer information includes the IP
address and prefix of an external network interface for the
internetworking with another vehicle or RSU.
Once the network parameter discovery and prefix exchange operations Once the network parameter discovery and prefix exchange operations
have been performed, packets can be transmitted between the vehicle's have been performed, packets can be transmitted between the vehicle's
moving network and the RSU's fixed network. DNS should be supported moving network and the RSU's fixed network. DNS services should be
to enable name resolution for hosts or servers residing either in the supported to enable name resolution for hosts or servers residing
vehicle's moving network or the RSU's fixed network. either in the vehicle's moving network or the RSU's fixed network.
For these DNS services, a recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within each
internal network of a vehicle or RSU can be used for the hosts or
servers.
Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's moving network Figure 2 shows internetworking between the vehicle's moving network
and the RSU's fixed network. There exists an internal network and the RSU's fixed network. There exists an internal network
(Moving Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (Moving Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server
(RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (RDNSS1), the two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers
(Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed (Router1 and Router2). There exists another internal network (Fixed
Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host Network1) inside RSU1. RSU1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), one host
(Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of (Host3), the two routers (Router3 and Router4), and the collection of
servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road servers (Server1 to ServerN) for various services in the road
networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation. networks, such as the emergency notification and navigation.
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and RSU1's Router3 (called
fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC) fixed router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link (e.g., DSRC)
for I2V networking. for I2V networking.
4.2.1.2. V2V-based Internetworking 4.2.1.2. V2V-based Internetworking
This section discusses the internetworking between the moving This section discusses the internetworking between the moving
networks of two neighboring vehicles in Figure 3. networks of two neighboring vehicles.
Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two
neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving
Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the
two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and
Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2)
inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts
(Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4).
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3
(called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link
(e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking.
(*)<..........>(*) (*)<..........>(*)
| | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 | | 2001:DB8:1:1::/64
.------------------------------. .---------------------------------. .------------------------------. .---------------------------------.
| | | | | | | | | | | |
| .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. | | .-------. .------. .-------. |
| | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | | | | Host1 | |RDNSS1| |Router1| | | |Router3| |RDNSS2| | Host3 | |
| ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. | | ._______. .______. ._______. |
| ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ | | ^ ^ ^ |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
skipping to change at page 13, line 39 skipping to change at page 13, line 50
| v v | | v v | | v v | | v v |
| ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- | | ---------------------------- | | ------------------------------- |
| 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:10:2::/64 | | 2001:DB8:30:2::/64 |
.______________________________. ._________________________________. .______________________________. ._________________________________.
Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2) Vehicle1 (Moving Network1) Vehicle2 (Moving Network2)
<----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna <----> Wired Link <....> Wireless Link (*) Antenna
Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks Figure 3: Internetworking between Two Vehicle Networks
In Figure 3, the prefix assignment for each subnet inside each
vehicle's mobile network is done through a prefix delegation
protocol.
Figure 3 shows internetworking between the moving networks of two
neighboring vehicles. There exists an internal network (Moving
Network1) inside Vehicle1. Vehicle1 has the DNS Server (RDNSS1), the
two hosts (Host1 and Host2), and the two routers (Router1 and
Router2). There exists another internal network (Moving Network2)
inside Vehicle2. Vehicle2 has the DNS Server (RDNSS2), the two hosts
(Host3 and Host4), and the two routers (Router3 and Router4).
Vehicle1's Router1 (called mobile router) and Vehicle2's Router3
(called mobile router) use 2001:DB8:1:1::/64 for an external link
(e.g., DSRC) for V2V networking.
The differences between IPWAVE (including Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks The differences between IPWAVE (including Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
(VANET)) and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) are as follows: (VANET)) and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) are as follows:
o IPWAVE is not power-constrained operation; o IPWAVE is not power-constrained operation;
o Traffic can be sourced or sinked outside of IPWAVE; o Traffic can be sourced or sinked outside of IPWAVE;
o IPWAVE shall support both distributed and centralized operations; o IPWAVE shall support both distributed and centralized operations;
o No "sleep" period operation is required for energy saving. o No "sleep" period operation is required for energy saving.
skipping to change at page 15, line 4 skipping to change at page 14, line 45
4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling 4.2.4. Pseudonym Handling
For the protection of privacy, pseudonym for a vehicle's network For the protection of privacy, pseudonym for a vehicle's network
interface is used, which the interface's identifier is changed interface is used, which the interface's identifier is changed
periodically. Such a pseudonym affects an IPv6 address based on the periodically. Such a pseudonym affects an IPv6 address based on the
network interface's identifier, and a transport-layer session with an network interface's identifier, and a transport-layer session with an
IPv6 address pair. The pseudonym handling is not implemented and IPv6 address pair. The pseudonym handling is not implemented and
test yet for applications on IP-based vehicular networking. test yet for applications on IP-based vehicular networking.
5. Problem Exploration 5. Problem Exploration
5.1. IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB
IPv6 over IEEE 802.11-OCB generally follows the standard IPv6 This section discusses key work items for IPWAVE, such as neighbor
procedure. [IPv6-over-80211-OCB] specifies several details for IPv6 discovery, mobility management, and security & privacy.
packets transporting over IEEE 802.11-OCB. Especially, an Ethernet
Adaptation (EA) layer is suggested to be inserted between Logical
Link Control layer and Network layer. The EA layer is mainly in
charge of transforming some parameters between 802.11 MAC layer and
IPv6 layer.
5.2. Neighbor Discovery 5.1. Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] is a core part of the IPv6 protocol
suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with suite. This section discusses the need for modifying ND for use with
vehicular networking (e.g., V2V and V2I). The vehicles are moving vehicular networking (e.g., V2V, V2I, and V2X). The vehicles are
fast within the communication coverage of a vehicular node (e.g., moving fast within the communication coverage of a vehicular node
vehicle and RSU). The external link between two vehicular nodes can (e.g., vehicle and RSU). The external link between two vehicular
be used for vehicular networking, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. nodes can be used for vehicular networking, as shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3.
ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor ND time-related parameters such as router lifetime and Neighbor
Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed Advertisement (NA) interval should be adjusted for high-speed
vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA vehicles and vehicle density. As vehicles move faster, the NA
interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring interval should decrease for the NA messages to reach the neighboring
vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA vehicles promptly. Also, as vehicle density is higher, the NA
interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA interval should increase for the NA messages to collide with other NA
messages with lower collision probability. messages with lower collision probability.
5.2.1. Link Model 5.1.1. Link Model
IPv6 protocols work under certain assumptions for the link model that IPv6 protocols work under certain assumptions for the link model that
do not necessarily hold in WAVE [IPv6-WAVE]. For instance, some IPv6 do not necessarily hold in WAVE [IPv6-WAVE]. For instance, some IPv6
protocols assume symmetry in the connectivity among neighboring protocols assume symmetry in the connectivity among neighboring
interfaces. However, interference and different levels of interfaces. However, interference and different levels of
transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a WAVE transmission power may cause unidirectional links to appear in a WAVE
link model. link model.
Also, in an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all interfaces which are Also, in an IPv6 link, it is assumed that all interfaces which are
configured with the same subnet prefix are on the same IP link. configured with the same subnet prefix are on the same IP link.
Hence, there is a relationship between link and prefix, besides the Hence, there is a relationship between link and prefix, besides the
different scopes that are expected from the link-local and global different scopes that are expected from the link-local and global
types of IPv6 addresses. Such a relationship does not hold in a WAVE types of IPv6 addresses. Such a relationship does not hold in a WAVE
link model due to node mobility and highly dynamic topology. link model due to node mobility and highly dynamic topology.
Thus, IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of a link for Thus, IPv6 ND should be extended to support the concept of a link for
an IPv6 prefix in terms of multicast in VANET. an IPv6 prefix in terms of multicast in VANET.
5.2.2. MAC Address Pseudonym 5.1.2. MAC Address Pseudonym
As the ETSI GeoNetworking, for the sake of security and privacy, an As the ETSI GeoNetworking, for the sake of security and privacy, an
ITS station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network ITS station (e.g., vehicle) can use pseudonyms for its network
interface identities (e.g., MAC address) and the corresponding IPv6 interface identities (e.g., MAC address) and the corresponding IPv6
addresses [Identity-Management]. Whenever the network interface addresses [Identity-Management]. Whenever the network interface
identifier changes, the IPv6 address based on the network interface identifier changes, the IPv6 address based on the network interface
identifier should be updated. For the continuity of an end-to-end identifier should be updated. For the continuity of an end-to-end
transport-layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, and SCTP) session, the IP addresses transport-layer (e.g., TCP, UDP, and SCTP) session, the IP addresses
of the transport-layer session should be notified to both the end of the transport-layer session should be notified to both the end
points and the packets of the session should be forwarded to their points and the packets of the session should be forwarded to their
destinations with the changed network interface identifier and IPv6 destinations with the changed network interface identifier and IPv6
address. address.
5.2.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange 5.1.3. Prefix Dissemination/Exchange
A vehicle and an RSU can have their internal network, as shown in A vehicle and an RSU can have their internal network, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3. In this case, nodes in within the internal Figure 2 and Figure 3. In this case, nodes in within the internal
networks of two vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) want to networks of two vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) want to
communicate with each other. For this communication, the network communicate with each other. For this communication, the network
prefix dissemination or exchange is required. It is assumed that a prefix dissemination or exchange is required. It is assumed that a
vehicular node has an external network interface and its internal vehicular node has an external network interface and its internal
network. The standard IPv6 ND needs to be extended for the network. The standard IPv6 ND needs to be extended for the
communication between the internal-network vehicular nodes by letting communication between the internal-network vehicular nodes by letting
each of them know the other side's prefix with a new ND option each of them know the other side's prefix with a new ND option
[ID-Vehicular-ND]. [ID-Vehicular-ND].
5.2.4. Routing 5.1.4. Routing
For Neighbor Discovery in vehicular networks (called vehicular ND), For Neighbor Discovery in vehicular networks (called vehicular ND),
Ad Hoc routing is required for either unicast or multicast in the Ad Hoc routing is required for either unicast or multicast in the
links in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC]. Also, links in a connected VANET with the same IPv6 prefix [GeoSAC]. Also,
a rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6 address a rapid DAD should be supported to prevent or reduce IPv6 address
conflicts in such links. conflicts in such links.
5.3. Mobility Management 5.2. Mobility Management
The seamless connectivity and timely data exchange between two end The seamless connectivity and timely data exchange between two end
points requires an efficient mobility management including location points requires an efficient mobility management including location
management and handover. Most of vehicles are equipped with a GPS management and handover. Most of vehicles are equipped with a GPS
navigator as a dedicated navigation system or a smartphone App. With navigator as a dedicated navigation system or a smartphone App. With
this GPS navigator, vehicles can share their current position and this GPS navigator, an efficient mobility management is possible by
trajectory (i.e., navigation path) with TCC. TCC can predict the vehicles periodically reporting their current position and trajectory
future positions of the vehicles with their mobility information (i.e., navigation path) to TCC. TCC can predict the future positions
(i.e., the current position, speed, direction, and trajectory). With of the vehicles with their mobility information (i.e., the current
the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC supports RSUs to perform position, speed, direction, and trajectory) for location management.
DAD, data packet routing, and handover in a proactive manner.
5.4. Vehicle Identity Management
A vehicle can have multiple network interfaces using different access
network technologies [Identity-Management]. These multiple network
interfaces mean multiple identities. To identify a vehicle with
multiple indenties, a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be used
as a globally unique vehicle identifier.
To support the seamless connectivity over the multiple identities, a
cross-layer network architecture is required with vertical handover
functionality [Identity-Management].
5.5. Multihop V2X
Multihop packet forwarding among vehicles in 802.11-OCB mode shows an
unfavorable performance due to the common known broadcast-storm
problem [Broadcast-Storm]. This broadcast-storm problem can be
mitigated by the coordination (or scheduling) of a cluster head in a
connected VANET or an RSU in an intersection area, which is a
coordinator for the access to wireless channels.
5.6. Multicast
IP multicast in vehicular network environments is especially useful
for various services. For instance, an automobile manufacturer can
multicast a particular group/class/type of vehicles for service
notification. As another example, a vehicle or an RSU can
disseminate alert messages in a particular area [Multicast-Alert].
In general IEEE 802 wireless media, some performance issues about
multicast are found in [Multicast-Considerations-802]. Since
serveral procedures and functions based on IPv6 use multicast for
control-plane messages, such as Neighbor Discovery (called ND) and
Service Discovery, [Multicast-Considerations-802] describes that the
ND process may fail due to unreliable wireless link, causing failure
of the DAD process. Also, the Router Advertisement messages can be
lost in multicasting.
5.7. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery
When two vehicular nodes communicate with each other with the DNS
name of the partner node, DNS naming service (i.e., DNS name
resolution) is required. As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, a
recursive DNS server (RDNSS) within an internal network can perform
such DNS name resolution for the sake of other vehicular nodes.
A service discovery service is required for an application in a
vehicular node to search for another application or server in another
vehicular node, which resides in either the same internal network or
the other internal network. In V2I or V2V networking, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3, such a service discovery service can be
provided by either DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763]
with mDNS [RFC6762] or the vehicular ND with a new option for service
discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND].
5.8. IPv6 over Cellular Networks
IP has been supported in celluar networks since the time of General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) in the 2nd generation cellular networks
of Global System for Mobile communications (2G-GSM) developed and
maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The 2G
and 3G-based radio accesses separate end-user data traffic (User
Plane) from network transport traffic among network elements
(Transport Plane). The two planes run independently in terms of
addressing and the IP version. The Transport Plane forms tunnels to
transport user data traffic [IPv6-3GPP-Survey].
The 4G-Long-Term-Evolution (4G-LTE) radio access simplifies the
complex architecture of GPRS core network by introduing the Evolved
Packet Core (EPC). Both 2G/3G and 4G-LTE system use Access Point
Name (APN) to bridge user data and outside network. User traffic is
transported via Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Contexts in GPRS, and
Packet Data Network (PDN) Connections in EPC. Different traffics at
a user equipment (UE) side need to connect to different APNs through
multiple PDP Contexts or PDN Connections. Each of the context or the
connection needs to have its own IP address.
IPv6 is partially supported in 2G/3G and 4G-LTE. In 2G/3G, a UE can
be allocated an IPv6 address via two different ways, IPv6 and IPv4v6
PDP Contexts. By IPv4v6 PDP Context, both an IPv4 address and an /64
IPv6 prefix are allocated. In 4G-LTE, the IPv6 address allocation
has a different process compared with that in 2G/3G networks. The
major difference is that 4G-LTE builds the IP connectivity at the
beginning of a UE attachment, whereas the IP connectivity of 2G/3G
networks is created on demand. All 3GPP networks (i.e., 2G/3G and
4G-LTE) only support SLAAC address allocation, and do not suggest
performing DAD. In addition, 3GPP networks remove link-layer address
resolution, e.g., ND Protocol for IPv6, due to the assumption that
the GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) in 2G/3G networks or the P-GW
(Packet Data Network Gateway) in 4G-LTE network is always the first-
hop router for a UE.
Recently, 3GPP has announced a new technical specification, Release
14 (3GPP-R14), which proposes an architecture enhancements for
vehicle-to-everything (V2X) services using the modified sidelink
interface that originally is designed for the LTE Device-to-Device
(LTE-D2D) communications. 3GPP-R14 regulates that the V2X services
only support IPv6 implementation. 3GPP is also investigating and
discussing the evolved V2X services in the next generation cellular
networks, i.e., 5G new radio (5G-NR), for advanced V2X communications
and automated vehicles' applications.
5.8.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE
Before 3GPP-R14, some researchers have studied the potential usage of
C-V2X communications. For example, [VMaSC-LTE] explores a multihop
cluster-based hybrid architecture using both DSRC and LTE for safety
message dissemination. Most of the research consider a short message
service for safety instead of IP datagram forwarding. In other C-V2X
research, the standard IPv6 is assumed.
The 3GPP technical specification [TS-23285-3GPP] states that both IP
based and non-IP based V2X messages are supported, and only IPv6 is
supported for IP based messages. Moreover, [TS-23285-3GPP]
instructes that a UE autoconfigures a link- local IPv6 address by
following [RFC4862], but without sending Neighbor Solicitation and
Neighbor Advertisement messages for DAD.
5.8.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G
The emerging services, functions and applications in automotive With the prediction of the vehicle mobility, TCC can support RSUs to
industry spurs ehhanced V2X (eV2X)-based services in the future 5G perform DAD, data packet routing, and horizontal/vertical handover in
era. The 3GPP Technical Report [TS-22886-3GPP] is studying new use a proactive manner. When it is assigned a new IPv6 address belonging
cases for V2X using 5G in the future. to a different subnet,a vehicle can skip the DAD operation, reducing
IPv6 control traffic overhead. RSUs can efficiently forward data
packets from the wired network to a moving destination vehicle along
its trajectory. RSUs can smoothly perform handover for the sake of a
moving vehicle along its trajectory.
5.9. Security and Privacy 5.3. Security and Privacy
Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I and V2V networking in Security and privacy are paramount in the V2I, V2V, and V2X
vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be allowed to networking in vehicular networks. Only authorized vehicles should be
use the V2I and V2V networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and mobile allowed to use vehicular networking. Also, in-vehicle devices and
devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle mobile devices in a vehicle need to communicate with other in-vehicle
devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in devices and mobile devices in another vehicle, and other servers in
an RSU in a secure way. an RSU in a secure way.
A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and a user certificate along
with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to with in-vehicle device's identifier generation can be used to
authenticate a vehicle and the user through a road infrastructure efficiently authenticate a vehicle or a user through a road
node, such as an RSU connected to an authentication server in TCC. infrastructure node (e.g., RSU) connected to an authentication server
Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificates can also be used for in TCC. Also, Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificates can be
secure vehicle communications. used for secure end-to-end vehicle communications.
For secure V2I communication, the secure channel between a mobile For secure V2I communication, a secure channel between a mobile
router in a vehicle and a fixed router in an RSU should be router in a vehicle and a fixed router in an RSU should be
established, as shown in Figure 2. Also, for secure V2V established, as shown in Figure 2. Also, for secure V2V
communication, the secure channel between a mobile router in a communication, a secure channel between a mobile router in a vehicle
vehicle and a mobile router in another vehicle should be established, and a mobile router in another vehicle should be established, as
as shown in Figure 3. shown in Figure 3.
The security for vehicular networks should provide vehicles with AAA
services in an efficient way. It should consider not only horizontal
handover, but also vertical handover since vehicles have multiple
wireless interfaces.
To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle by with its MAC To prevent an adversary from tracking a vehicle with its MAC address
address or IPv6 address, each vehicle should periodically update its or IPv6 address, MAC address pseudonym should be provided to the
MAC address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in vehicle; that is, each vehicle should periodically update its MAC
address and the corresponding IPv6 address as suggested in
[RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses [RFC4086][RFC4941]. Such an update of the MAC and IPv6 addresses
should not interrupt the communications between two vehicular nodes should not interrupt the end-to-end communications between two
(e.g., vehicle and RSU). vehicular nodes (e.g., vehicle and RSU) in terms of transport layer.
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This document discussed security and privacy for IP-based vehicular This document discussed security and privacy for IP-based vehicular
networking. networking.
The security and privacy for key components in vehicular networking, The security and privacy for key components in IP-based vehicular
such as IP address autoconfiguration, routing, mobility management, networking, such as neighor discovery and mobility management, needs
DNS naming service, and service discovery, needs to be analyzed in to be analyzed in depth.
depth.
7. Informative References 7. Informative References
[Address-Assignment] [Address-Assignment]
Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing Kato, T., Kadowaki, K., Koita, T., and K. Sato, "Routing
and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in and Address Assignment using Lane/Position Information in
a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services a Vehicular Ad-hoc Network", IEEE Asia-Pacific Services
Computing Conference, December 2008. Computing Conference, December 2008.
[Address-Autoconf] [Address-Autoconf]
skipping to change at page 21, line 47 skipping to change at page 19, line 13
2013. 2013.
[ETSI-GeoNetworking] [ETSI-GeoNetworking]
ETSI Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems, ETSI Technical Committee Intelligent Transport Systems,
"Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular "Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular
Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical
addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to- addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-
multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent
Functionality", ETSI EN 302 636-4-1, May 2014. Functionality", ETSI EN 302 636-4-1, May 2014.
[EU-2008-671-EC]
European Union, "Commission Decision of 5 August 2008 on
the Harmonised Use of Radio Spectrum in the 5875 - 5905
MHz Frequency Band for Safety-related Applications of
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)", EU 2008/671/EC,
August 2008.
[FirstNet] [FirstNet]
U.S. National Telecommunications and Information U.S. National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA), "First Responder Network Authority Administration (NTIA), "First Responder Network Authority
(FirstNet)", [Online] (FirstNet)", [Online]
Available: https://www.firstnet.gov/, 2012. Available: https://www.firstnet.gov/, 2012.
[FirstNet-Annual-Report-2017] [FirstNet-Report]
First Responder Network Authority, "FY 2017: ANNUAL REPORT First Responder Network Authority, "FY 2017: ANNUAL REPORT
TO CONGRESS, Advancing Public Safety Broadband TO CONGRESS, Advancing Public Safety Broadband
Communications", FirstNet FY 2017, December 2017. Communications", FirstNet FY 2017, December 2017.
[Fuel-Efficient] [Fuel-Efficient]
van de Hoef, S., H. Johansson, K., and D. V. Dimarogonas, van de Hoef, S., H. Johansson, K., and D. V. Dimarogonas,
"Fuel-Efficient En Route Formation of Truck Platoons", "Fuel-Efficient En Route Formation of Truck Platoons",
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,
January 2018. January 2018.
skipping to change at page 23, line 17 skipping to change at page 20, line 34
Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Specifications - Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010. Environments", IEEE Std 802.11p-2010, June 2010.
[IP-Passing-Protocol] [IP-Passing-Protocol]
Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and W. Yi, "An IP Passing Protocol for
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation", Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks with Network Fragmentation",
Elsevier Computers & Mathematics with Applications, Elsevier Computers & Mathematics with Applications,
January 2012. January 2012.
[IPv6-3GPP-Survey] [IPv6-over-802.11-OCB]
Soininen, J. and J. Korhonen, "Survey of IPv6 Support in
3GPP Specifications and Implementations",
IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, January 2015.
[IPv6-over-80211-OCB]
Petrescu, A., Benamar, N., Haerri, J., Lee, J., and T. Petrescu, A., Benamar, N., Haerri, J., Lee, J., and T.
Ernst, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11 Ernst, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.11
Networks operating in mode Outside the Context of a Basic Networks operating in mode Outside the Context of a Basic
Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB)", draft-ietf-ipwave- Service Set (IPv6-over-80211-OCB)", draft-ietf-ipwave-
ipv6-over-80211ocb-25 (work in progress), June 2018. ipv6-over-80211ocb-25 (work in progress), June 2018.
[IPv6-WAVE] [IPv6-WAVE]
Baccelli, E., Clausen, T., and R. Wakikawa, "IPv6 Baccelli, E., Clausen, T., and R. Wakikawa, "IPv6
Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular Operation for WAVE - Wireless Access in Vehicular
Environments", IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, Environments", IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference,
skipping to change at page 24, line 5 skipping to change at page 21, line 16
Petrescu, A., Boc, M., and C. Ibars, "Joint IP Networking Petrescu, A., Boc, M., and C. Ibars, "Joint IP Networking
and Radio Architecture for Vehicular Networks", and Radio Architecture for Vehicular Networks",
11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications, 11th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications,
August 2011. August 2011.
[LAGAD] Abrougui, K., Boukerche, A., and R. Pazzi, "Location-Aided [LAGAD] Abrougui, K., Boukerche, A., and R. Pazzi, "Location-Aided
Gateway Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for VANets", Gateway Advertisement and Discovery Protocol for VANets",
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 8, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 8,
October 2010. October 2010.
[Multicast-802]
Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and JC. Zuniga,
"Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media",
draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03 (work in
progress), July 2017.
[Multicast-Alert] [Multicast-Alert]
Camara, D., Bonnet, C., Nikaein, N., and M. Wetterwald, Camara, D., Bonnet, C., Nikaein, N., and M. Wetterwald,
"Multicast and Virtual Road Side Units for Multi "Multicast and Virtual Road Side Units for Multi
Technology Alert Messages Dissemination", IEEE 8th Technology Alert Messages Dissemination", IEEE 8th
International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor International Conference on Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor
Systems, October 2011. Systems, October 2011.
[Multicast-Considerations-802]
Perkins, C., Stanley, D., Kumari, W., and JC. Zuniga,
"Multicast Considerations over IEEE 802 Wireless Media",
draft-perkins-intarea-multicast-ieee802-03 (work in
progress), July 2017.
[NEMO-LMS] [NEMO-LMS]
Soto, I., Bernardos, C., Calderon, M., Banchs, A., and A. Soto, I., Bernardos, C., Calderon, M., Banchs, A., and A.
Azcorra, "NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support for Azcorra, "NEMO-Enabled Localized Mobility Support for
Internet Access in Automotive Scenarios", Internet Access in Automotive Scenarios",
IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2009. IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2009.
[NEMO-VANET] [NEMO-VANET]
Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and C. Cheng, "Network Mobility Chen, Y., Hsu, C., and C. Cheng, "Network Mobility
Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks", Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks",
Wiley International Journal of Communication Systems, Wiley International Journal of Communication Systems,
November 2014. November 2014.
[PMIP-NEMO-Analysis] [PMIP-NEMO-Analysis]
Lee, J., Ernst, T., and N. Chilamkurti, "Performance Lee, J., Ernst, T., and N. Chilamkurti, "Performance
Analysis of PMIPv6-Based Network Mobility for Intelligent Analysis of PMIPv6-Based Network Mobility for Intelligent
Transportation Systems", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Transportation Systems", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular
Technology, January 2012. Technology, January 2012.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.
[RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, [RFC4086] Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
"Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC 4086, June "Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC 4086, June
2005. 2005.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
September 2007. September 2007.
[RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless [RFC4862] Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007. Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.
skipping to change at page 25, line 28 skipping to change at page 22, line 39
Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013. Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013.
[RFC7333] Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen, [RFC7333] Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen,
"Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management", "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management",
RFC 7333, August 2014. RFC 7333, August 2014.
[RFC7429] Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ. [RFC7429] Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ.
Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015. Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 8200, July 2017.
[SAINT] Jeong, J., Jeong, H., Lee, E., Oh, T., and D. Du, "SAINT: [SAINT] Jeong, J., Jeong, H., Lee, E., Oh, T., and D. Du, "SAINT:
Self-Adaptive Interactive Navigation Tool for Cloud-Based Self-Adaptive Interactive Navigation Tool for Cloud-Based
Vehicular Traffic Optimization", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Traffic Optimization", IEEE Transactions on
Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, No. 6, June 2016. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 65, No. 6, June 2016.
[SAINTplus] [SAINTplus]
Shen, Y., Lee, J., Jeong, H., Jeong, J., Lee, E., and D. Shen, Y., Lee, J., Jeong, H., Jeong, J., Lee, E., and D.
Du, "SAINT+: Self-Adaptive Interactive Navigation Tool+ Du, "SAINT+: Self-Adaptive Interactive Navigation Tool+
for Emergency Service Delivery Optimization", for Emergency Service Delivery Optimization",
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,
skipping to change at page 26, line 11 skipping to change at page 23, line 21
Distributed Mobility Management for 5G Networks", Distributed Mobility Management for 5G Networks",
IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference,
April 2016. April 2016.
[Securing-VCOMM] [Securing-VCOMM]
Fernandez, P., Santa, J., Bernal, F., and A. Skarmeta, Fernandez, P., Santa, J., Bernal, F., and A. Skarmeta,
"Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications", "Securing Vehicular IPv6 Communications",
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing,
January 2016. January 2016.
[TR-22.886-3GPP]
3GPP, "Study on Enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X
Services", 3GPP TS 22.886, June 2018.
[Truck-Platooning] [Truck-Platooning]
California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology California Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology
(PATH), "Automated Truck Platooning", [Online] Available: (PATH), "Automated Truck Platooning", [Online] Available:
http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and- http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and-
connected-vehicles/truck-platooning, 2017. connected-vehicles/truck-platooning, 2017.
[TS-22886-3GPP] [TS-23.285-3GPP]
3GPP, "Study on Enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X
Services", 3GPP TS 22.886, June 2018.
[TS-23285-3GPP]
3GPP, "Architecture Enhancements for V2X Services", 3GPP 3GPP, "Architecture Enhancements for V2X Services", 3GPP
TS 23.285, June 2018. TS 23.285, June 2018.
[VANET-Geo-Routing] [VANET-Geo-Routing]
Tsukada, M., Jemaa, I., Menouar, H., Zhang, W., Goleva, Tsukada, M., Jemaa, I., Menouar, H., Zhang, W., Goleva,
M., and T. Ernst, "Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over M., and T. Ernst, "Experimental Evaluation for IPv6 over
VANET Geographic Routing", IEEE International Wireless VANET Geographic Routing", IEEE International Wireless
Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, June 2010. Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, June 2010.
[VIP-WAVE] [VIP-WAVE]
skipping to change at page 28, line 5 skipping to change at page 25, line 5
[WAVE-1609.3] [WAVE-1609.3]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Networking
Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016. Services", IEEE Std 1609.3-2016, April 2016.
[WAVE-1609.4] [WAVE-1609.4]
IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless IEEE 1609 Working Group, "IEEE Standard for Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) - Multi-Channel
Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016. Operation", IEEE Std 1609.4-2016, March 2016.
Appendix A. Acknowledgments Appendix A. Relevant Work Items to IPWAVE
This section discusses relevant work items to IPWAVE: (i) vehicle
identity management; (ii) multihop V2X; (iii) multicast; (iv) DNS
naming services and service discovery; (v) IPv6 over cellular
networks.
A.1. Vehicle Identity Management
A vehicle can have multiple network interfaces using different access
network technologies [Identity-Management]. These multiple network
interfaces mean multiple identities. To identify a vehicle with
multiple indenties, a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) can be used
as a globally unique vehicle identifier.
To support the seamless connectivity over the multiple identities, a
cross-layer network architecture is required with vertical handover
functionality [Identity-Management]. Also, an AAA service for
multiple identities should be provided to vehicles in an efficient
way to allow horizontal handover as well as vertical handover; note
that AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting.
A.2. Multihop V2X
Multihop packet forwarding among vehicles in 802.11-OCB mode shows an
unfavorable performance due to the common known broadcast-storm
problem [Broadcast-Storm]. This broadcast-storm problem can be
mitigated by the coordination (or scheduling) of a cluster head in a
connected VANET or an RSU in an intersection area, which is a
coordinator for the access to wireless channels.
A.3. Multicast
IP multicast in vehicular network environments is especially useful
for various services. For instance, an automobile manufacturer can
multicast a particular group/class/type of vehicles for service
notification. As another example, a vehicle or an RSU can
disseminate alert messages in a particular area [Multicast-Alert].
In general IEEE 802 wireless media, some performance issues about
multicast are found in [Multicast-802]. Since serveral procedures
and functions based on IPv6 use multicast for control-plane messages,
such as Neighbor Discovery (called ND) and Service Discovery,
[Multicast-802] describes that the ND process may fail due to
unreliable wireless link, causing failure of the DAD process. Also,
the Router Advertisement messages can be lost in multicasting.
A.4. DNS Naming Services and Service Discovery
When two vehicular nodes communicate with each other with the DNS
name of the partner node, DNS naming service (i.e., DNS name
resolution) is required. As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, a
recursive DNS server (called RDNSS) within an internal network can
perform such DNS name resolution for the sake of other vehicular
nodes.
A service discovery service is required for an application in a
vehicular node to search for another application or server in another
vehicular node, which resides in either the same internal network or
the other internal network. In V2I or V2V networking, as shown in
Figure 2 and Figure 3, such a service discovery service can be
provided by either DNS-based Service Discovery (DNS-SD) [RFC6763]
with mDNS [RFC6762] or the vehicular ND with a new option for service
discovery [ID-Vehicular-ND].
A.5. IPv6 over Cellular Networks
Recently, 3GPP has announced a new technical specification, Release
14 (3GPP-R14), which proposes an architecture enhancements for V2X
services using the modified sidelink interface that originally is
designed for the LTE-D2D communications. 3GPP-R14 regulates that the
V2X services only support IPv6 implementation. 3GPP is also
investigating and discussing the evolved V2X services in the next
generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G new radio (5G-NR), for
advanced V2X communications and automated vehicles' applications.
A.5.1. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 4G-LTE
Before 3GPP-R14, some researchers have studied the potential usage of
C-V2X communications. For example, [VMaSC-LTE] explores a multihop
cluster-based hybrid architecture using both DSRC and LTE for safety
message dissemination. Most of the research consider a short message
service for safety instead of IP datagram forwarding. In other C-V2X
research, the standard IPv6 is assumed.
The 3GPP technical specification [TS-23.285-3GPP] states that both IP
based and non-IP based V2X messages are supported, and only IPv6 is
supported for IP based messages. Moreover, [TS-23.285-3GPP]
instructs that a UE autoconfigures a link- local IPv6 address by
following [RFC4862], but without sending Neighbor Solicitation and
Neighbor Advertisement messages for DAD.
A.5.2. Cellular V2X (C-V2X) Using 5G
The emerging services, functions and applications in automotive
industry spurs ehhanced V2X (eV2X)-based services in the future 5G
era. The 3GPP Technical Report [TR-22.886-3GPP] is studying new use
cases for V2X using 5G in the future.
Appendix B. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-03
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-03:
o EU wireless channel allocation (frequency band 5.875 - 5.905 GHz)
for vehicular networking was specified in Section 1.
o Relevant work items to IPWAVE is discussed in Appendix A as
follows: (i) vehicle identity management; (ii) multihop V2X; (iii)
multicast; (iv) DNS naming services and service discovery; (v)
IPv6 over cellular networks.
Appendix C. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the
National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of
Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885). Education (2017R1D1A1B03035885).
This work was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program This work was supported in part by Global Research Laboratory Program
through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) through the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT)
(NRF-2013K1A1A2A02078326) and by the DGIST R&D Program of the MSIT (NRF-2013K1A1A2A02078326) and by the DGIST R&D Program of the MSIT
(18-EE-01). (18-EE-01).
This work was supported in part by the French research project This work was supported in part by the French research project
DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the HIGHTS project funded DataTweet (ANR-13-INFR-0008) and in part by the HIGHTS project funded
by the European Commission I (636537-H2020). by the European Commission I (636537-H2020).
Appendix B. Contributors Appendix D. Contributors
This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly This document is a group work of IPWAVE working group, greatly
benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval benefiting from inputs and texts by Rex Buddenberg (Naval
Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest Postgraduate School), Thierry Ernst (YoGoKo), Bokor Laszlo (Budapest
University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi University of Technology and Economics), Jose Santa Lozanoi
(Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), and Francois Simon (Universidad of Murcia), Richard Roy (MIT), Francois Simon (Pilot),
(Pilot). The authors sincerely appreciate their contributions. and Sri Gundavelli (Cisco). The authors sincerely appreciate their
contributions.
The following are co-authors of this document: The following are co-authors of this document:
Nabil Benamar Nabil Benamar
Department of Computer Sciences Department of Computer Sciences
High School of Technology of Meknes High School of Technology of Meknes
Moulay Ismail University Moulay Ismail University
Morocco Morocco
Phone: +212 6 70 83 22 36 Phone: +212 6 70 83 22 36
skipping to change at page 30, line 24 skipping to change at page 30, line 5
URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-chris-shen.php URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-chris-shen.php
Michelle Wetterwald Michelle Wetterwald
FBConsulting FBConsulting
21, Route de Luxembourg 21, Route de Luxembourg
Wasserbillig, Luxembourg L-6633 Wasserbillig, Luxembourg L-6633
Luxembourg Luxembourg
EMail: Michelle.Wetterwald@gmail.com EMail: Michelle.Wetterwald@gmail.com
Appendix C. Changes from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-networking-02
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-ipwave-vehicular-
networking-02:
o The overall structure of the document is reorganized for the
problem statement for IPWAVE.
Author's Address Author's Address
Jaehoon Paul Jeong (editor) Jaehoon Paul Jeong (editor)
Department of Software Department of Software
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419 Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Phone: +82 31 299 4957 Phone: +82 31 299 4957
 End of changes. 61 change blocks. 
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