draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-15.txt   draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-16.txt 
Network Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. Network Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft P. Lingga Internet-Draft P. Lingga
Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: 19 August 2022 S. Hares Expires: 23 September 2022 S. Hares
L. Xia L. Xia
Huawei Huawei
H. Birkholz H. Birkholz
Fraunhofer SIT Fraunhofer SIT
15 February 2022 22 March 2022
I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model
draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-15 draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-16
Abstract Abstract
This document proposes an information model and the corresponding This document proposes an information model and the corresponding
YANG data model of an interface for monitoring Network Security YANG data model of an interface for monitoring Network Security
Functions (NSFs) in the Interface to Network Security Functions Functions (NSFs) in the Interface to Network Security Functions
(I2NSF) framework. If the monitoring of NSFs is performed with the (I2NSF) framework. If the monitoring of NSFs is performed with the
NSF monitoring interface in a standard way, it is possible to detect NSF monitoring interface in a standard way, it is possible to detect
the indication of malicious activity, anomalous behavior, the the indication of malicious activity, anomalous behavior, the
potential sign of denial-of-service attacks, or system overload in a potential sign of denial-of-service attacks, or system overload in a
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 19 August 2022. This Internet-Draft will expire on 23 September 2022.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License. provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Classification of NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Retention and Emission from NSFs . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Retention and Emission from NSFs . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. Notifications for Events and Records . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Notifications for Events and Records . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.3. Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from 4.3. Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from
NSFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NSFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . 9 5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . 10 6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data . . . . . . . 10
6.1. System Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1. System Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.1. Memory Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1.1. Memory Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.2. CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.1.2. CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.1.3. Disk Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.1.3. Disk (Storage) Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1.4. Hardware Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.1.4. Hardware Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.1.5. Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.1.5. Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2. System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2. System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.1. Access Violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2.1. Access Violation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.2. Configuration Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.2.2. Configuration Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2.3. Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2.3. Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.2.4. Traffic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2.4. Traffic Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3. NSF Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3. NSF Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.3.1. DDoS Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3.1. DDoS Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.3.2. Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.3.2. Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.3.3. Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.3.3. Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.3.4. Web Attack Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3.4. Web Attack Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.3.5. VoIP/VoCN Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.3.5. VoIP/VoCN Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.4. System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.4. System Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.4.1. Access Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.4.1. Access Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.4.3. User Activity Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.4.3. User Activity Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.5. NSF Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.5. NSF Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.6. System Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.6. System Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.6.1. Interface Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.6.1. Interface Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.7. NSF Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.7. NSF Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.7.1. Firewall Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.7.1. Firewall Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . 27 7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . 28
8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . . . 35 8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module . . . . . . . . 34
9. I2NSF Event Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 9. I2NSF Event Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
10.2. I2NSF Interface Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 10.2. I2NSF Interface Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 13. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
14. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 14. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 15. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
15.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 15.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
15.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 15.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Appendix A. Changes from Appendix A. Changes from
draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-14 . . . . . . 97 draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-15 . . . . . . 97
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
According to [RFC8329], the interface provided by a Network Security According to [RFC8329], the interface provided by a Network Security
Function (NSF) (e.g., Firewall, IPS, or Anti-DDoS function) to enable Function (NSF) (e.g., Firewall, IPS, or Anti-DDoS function) to enable
the collection of monitoring information is referred to as an I2NSF the collection of monitoring information is referred to as an I2NSF
Monitoring Interface. This interface enables the sharing of vital Monitoring Interface. This interface enables the sharing of vital
data from the NSFs (e.g., events, records, and counters) to the NSF data from the NSFs (e.g., events, records, and counters) to an NSF
data collector through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., queries and data collector (e.g., Security Controller) through a variety of
notifications). The monitoring of NSF plays an important role in an mechanisms (e.g., queries and notifications). The monitoring of NSF
overall security framework, if it is done in a timely way. The plays an important role in an overall security framework, if it is
monitoring information generated by an NSF can be a good, early done in a timely way. The monitoring information generated by an NSF
indication of anomalous behavior or malicious activity, such as can be a good, early indication of anomalous behavior or malicious
denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. activity, such as denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.
This document defines an information model of an NSF monitoring This document defines an information model of an NSF monitoring
interface that provides visibility into an NSF for the NSF data interface that provides visibility into an NSF for the NSF data
collector. Note that an NSF data collector is defined as an entity collector (note that an NSF data collector is defined as an entity to
to collect NSF monitoring data from an NSF, such as Security collect NSF monitoring data from an NSF, such as Security
Controller. It specifies the information and illustrates the methods Controller). It specifies the information and illustrates the
that enable an NSF to provide the information required in order to be methods that enable an NSF to provide the information required in
monitored in a scalable and efficient way via the NSF Monitoring order to be monitored in a scalable and efficient way via the NSF
Interface. The information model for the NSF monitoring interface Monitoring Interface. The information model for the NSF monitoring
presented in this document is complementary for the security policy interface presented in this document is complementary for the
provisioning functionality of the NSF-Facing Interface specified in security policy provisioning functionality of the NSF-Facing
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. Interface specified in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].
This document also defines a YANG [RFC7950] data model for the NSF This document also defines a YANG [RFC7950] data model for the NSF
monitoring interface, which is derived from the information model for monitoring interface, which is derived from the information model for
the NSF monitoring interface. the NSF monitoring interface.
Note that this document covers a subset of monitoring data for Note that this document covers a subset of monitoring data for
systems and NSFs, which are related to security. systems and NSFs, which are related to security.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
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* Monitoring Information: Relevant data that can be processed to * Monitoring Information: Relevant data that can be processed to
know the status and performance of the network and the NSF. The know the status and performance of the network and the NSF. The
monitoring information in an I2NSF environment consists of I2NSF monitoring information in an I2NSF environment consists of I2NSF
Events, I2NSF Records, and I2NSF Counters (see Section 4.1 for the Events, I2NSF Records, and I2NSF Counters (see Section 4.1 for the
detailed definition). This information is to be delivered to the detailed definition). This information is to be delivered to the
NSF data collector. NSF data collector.
* Notification: Unsolicited transmission of monitoring information. * Notification: Unsolicited transmission of monitoring information.
* NSF Data Collector: An entity that collects NSF monitoring * NSF Data Collector: An entity that collects NSF monitoring
information from NSFs, such as Security Controllers. information from NSFs, such as Security Controller.
* Subscription: An agreement initialized by the NSF data collector * Subscription: An agreement initialized by the NSF data collector
to receive monitoring information from an NSF. The method to to receive monitoring information from an NSF. The method to
subscribe follows the method explained in [RFC5277]. subscribe follows the method by either NETCONF or RESTCONF,
explained in [RFC5277] and [RFC8650], respectively.
This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common
YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management
Datastore Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342]. The meaning of the symbols Datastore Architecture (NMDA) [RFC8342]. The meaning of the symbols
in tree diagrams is defined in [RFC8340]. in tree diagrams is defined in [RFC8340].
3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data 3. Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data
As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a critical role in an overall As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a critical role in an overall
security framework. The monitoring of the NSF provides very valuable security framework. The monitoring of the NSF provides very valuable
information to an NSF data collector (e.g., Security Controller) in information to an NSF data collector (e.g., Security Controller) in
maintaining the provisioned security posture. Besides this, there maintaining the provisioned security posture. Besides this, there
are various other reasons to monitor the NSF as listed below: are various other reasons to monitor the NSF as listed below:
* The I2NSF User that is the security administrator can configure a * The I2NSF User that is the security administrator can configure a
policy that is triggered on a specific event occurring in the NSF policy that is triggered on a specific event occurring in the NSF
or the network [RFC8329] or the network [RFC8329]
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]. If an NSF data [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]. If an NSF data
collector detects the specified event, it configures additional collector (e.g., Security Controller) detects the specified event,
security functions as defined by policies. it can configure additional security functions as defined by
policies.
* The events triggered by an NSF as a result of security policy * The events triggered by an NSF as a result of security policy
violation can be used by Security Information and Event Management violation can be used by Security Information and Event Management
(SIEM) to detect any suspicious activity in a larger correlation (SIEM) to detect any suspicious activity in a larger correlation
context. context.
* The information (i.e., events, records, and counters) from an NSF * The information (i.e., events, records, and counters) from an NSF
can be used to build advanced analytics, such as behavior and can be used to build advanced analytics, such as behavior and
predictive models to improve security posture in large predictive models to improve security posture in large
deployments. deployments.
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Three basic domains of monitoring data originating from a system Three basic domains of monitoring data originating from a system
entity [RFC4949], i.e., an NSF, are discussed in this document. entity [RFC4949], i.e., an NSF, are discussed in this document.
* Retention and Emission from NSFs * Retention and Emission from NSFs
* Notifications for Events and Records * Notifications for Events and Records
* Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from NSFs * Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from NSFs
Every system entity creates information about some context with Every system entity creates information about some context with
defined I2NSF monitoring data, and so every entity can be an I2NSF defined I2NSF monitoring data, and so every system entity that
component. This information is intended to be consumed by other provides such information can be an I2NSF component. This
I2NSF components, which deals with NSF monitoring data in an information is intended to be consumed by other I2NSF components,
automated fashion. which deals with NSF monitoring data in an automated fashion.
4.1. Retention and Emission from NSFs 4.1. Retention and Emission from NSFs
A system entity (e.g., NSF) first retains I2NSF monitoring data A system entity (e.g., NSF) first retains I2NSF monitoring data
inside its own system before emitting the information to another inside its own system before emitting the information to another
I2NSF component (e.g., NSF Data Collector). The I2NSF monitoring I2NSF component (e.g., NSF Data Collector). The I2NSF monitoring
information consist of I2NSF Events, I2NSF Records, and I2NSF information consist of I2NSF Events, I2NSF Records, and I2NSF
Counters as follows: Counters as follows:
I2NSF Event: I2NSF Event is defined as an important occurrence at a I2NSF Event: I2NSF Event is defined as an important occurrence at a
particular time, that is, a change in the system being managed or particular time, that is, a change in the system being managed or
a change in the environment of the system being managed. An I2NSF a change in the environment of the system being managed. An I2NSF
Event requires immediate attention and should be notified as soon Event requires immediate attention and should be notified as soon
as possible. When used in the context of an (imperative) I2NSF as possible. When used in the context of an (imperative) I2NSF
Policy Rule, an I2NSF Event is used to determine whether the Policy Rule, an I2NSF Event is used to determine whether the
Condition clause of that Policy Rule can be evaluated or not. The Condition clause of that Policy Rule can be evaluated or not. The
Alarm Management Framework in [RFC3877] defines an event as Alarm Management Framework in [RFC3877] defines an event as
something that happens which may be of interest. Examples for an something that happens which may be of interest. Examples of an
event are a fault, a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an event are a fault, a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an
external input to the system. In the I2NSF domain, I2NSF events external input to the system. In the I2NSF domain, I2NSF events
are created following the definition of an event in the Alarm are created following the definition of an event in the Alarm
Management Framework. Management Framework.
I2NSF Record: A record is defined as an item of information that is I2NSF Record: A record is defined as an item of information that is
kept to be looked at and used in the future. Typically, records kept to be looked at and used in the future. Typically, records
are information generated by a system entity (e.g., NSF) that is are the information, which is based on operational and
based on operational and informational data (i.e., various changes informational data (i.e., various changes in system
in system characteristics), and are generated at particular characteristics). They are generated by a system entity (e.g.,
instants to be kept without any changes afterward. A set of NSF) at particular instants to be kept without any changes
records has an ordering in time based on when they are generated. afterward. A set of records has an ordering in time based on when
they are generated. Unlike I2NSF Events, records do not require
Unlike I2NSF Events, records do not require immediate attention immediate attention but may be useful for visibility and
but may be useful for visibility and retroactive cyber forensics. retroactive cyber forensics. Records are typically stored in log-
Records are typically stored in log-files or databases on a system files or databases on a system entity or NSF. The examples of
entity or NSF. The examples of records include as user records include user activities, device performance, and network
activities, device performance, and network status. They are status. They are important for debugging, auditing, and security
important for debugging, auditing, and security forensic of a forensic of a system entity or the network having the system
system entity or the network having the system entity. entity.
I2NSF Counter: An I2NSF Counter is defined as a specific I2NSF Counter: An I2NSF Counter is defined as a specific
representation of an information element whose value changes very representation of an information element whose value changes very
frequently. Prominent examples are network interface counters for frequently. Prominent examples are network interface counters for
protocol data unit (PDU) amount, byte amount, drop counters, and protocol data unit (PDU) amount, byte amount, drop counters, and
error counters. Counters are useful in debugging and visibility error counters. Counters are useful in debugging and visibility
into operational behavior of a system entity (e.g., NSF). When an into operational behavior of a system entity (e.g., NSF). When an
NSF data collector asks for the value of a counter, a system NSF data collector asks for the value of a counter, a system
entity MUST update the counter information and emit the latest entity MUST update the counter information and emit the latest
information to the NSF data collector. information to the NSF data collector.
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Emission is defined as the delivery of monitoring data in NSFs to an Emission is defined as the delivery of monitoring data in NSFs to an
NSF data collector. The I2NSF monitoring information retained on a NSF data collector. The I2NSF monitoring information retained on a
system entity (e.g., NSF) may be delivered to a corresponding I2NSF system entity (e.g., NSF) may be delivered to a corresponding I2NSF
User via an NSF data collector. The information consists of the User via an NSF data collector. The information consists of the
aggregated records, typically in the form of log-files or databases. aggregated records, typically in the form of log-files or databases.
For the NSF Monitoring Interface to deliver the information to the For the NSF Monitoring Interface to deliver the information to the
NSF data collector, the NSF needs to accommodate standardized NSF data collector, the NSF needs to accommodate standardized
delivery protocols, such as NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF [RFC8040]. delivery protocols, such as NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF [RFC8040].
The NSF data collector can forward the information to the I2NSF User The NSF data collector can forward the information to the I2NSF User
through standardized delivery protocols (e.g., RESTCONF and NETCONF). through standardized delivery protocols (e.g., RESTCONF and NETCONF).
The interface for this delivery is out of the scope of this document. The interface for the delivery of Monitoring Data from the NSF data
collector to the I2NSF User is out of the scope of this document.
4.2. Notifications for Events and Records 4.2. Notifications for Events and Records
A specific task of an I2NSF User is to process I2NSF Policy Rules. A specific task of an I2NSF User is to provide I2NSF Policy Rules.
The rules of a policy are composed of three clauses: Event, The rules of a policy are composed of three clauses: Event,
Condition, and Action clauses. In consequence, an I2NSF Event is Condition, and Action clauses. In consequence, an I2NSF Event is
specified to trigger the evaluation of the Condition clause of the specified to trigger the evaluation of the Condition clause of the
I2NSF Policy Rule. Such an I2NSF Event is defined as an important I2NSF Policy Rule. Such an I2NSF Event is defined as an important
occurrence at a particular time in the system being managed, and/or occurrence at a particular time in the system being managed, and/or
in the environment of the system being managed whose concept aligns in the environment of the system being managed whose concept aligns
well with the generic definition of Event from [RFC3877]. well with the generic definition of Event from [RFC3877].
Another role of the I2NSF Event is to trigger a notification for Another role of the I2NSF Event is to trigger a notification for
monitoring the status of an NSF. A notification is defined in monitoring the status of an NSF. A notification is defined in
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System alarm (called alarm) is defined as a warning related to System alarm (called alarm) is defined as a warning related to
service degradation in system hardware in Section 6.1. System event service degradation in system hardware in Section 6.1. System event
(called alert) is defined as a warning about any changes of (called alert) is defined as a warning about any changes of
configuration, any access violation, information about sessions and configuration, any access violation, information about sessions and
traffic flows in Section 6.2. Both an alarm and an alert are I2NSF traffic flows in Section 6.2. Both an alarm and an alert are I2NSF
Events that can be delivered as a notification. The model Events that can be delivered as a notification. The model
illustrated in this document introduces a complementary type of illustrated in this document introduces a complementary type of
information that can be a conveyed notification. information that can be a conveyed notification.
In I2NSF monitoring, a notification is used to deliver either an In I2NSF monitoring, a notification is used to deliver either an
event and a record via the I2NSF Monitoring Interface. The event or a record via the I2NSF Monitoring Interface. The difference
difference between the event and record is the timing by which the between the event and record is the timing by which the notifications
notifications are emitted. An event is emitted as soon as it happens are emitted. An event is emitted as soon as it happens in order to
in order to notify an NSF Data Collector of the problem that needs notify an NSF Data Collector of the problem that needs immediate
immediate attention. A record is not emitted immediately to the NSF attention. A record is not emitted immediately to the NSF Data
Data Collector, and it can be emitted periodically to the NSF Data Collector, and it can be emitted periodically to the NSF Data
Collector. Collector.
It is important to note that an NSF Data Collector as a consumer It is important to note that an NSF Data Collector as a consumer
(i.e., observer) of a notification assesses the importance of the (i.e., observer) of a notification assesses the importance of the
notification rather than an NSF as a producer. The producer can notification rather than an NSF as a producer. The producer can
include metadata in a notification that supports the observer in include metadata in a notification that supports the observer in
assessing its importance (e.g., severity). assessing its importance (e.g., severity).
4.3. Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from NSFs 4.3. Push and Pull for the retrieval of monitoring data from NSFs
An important aspect of monitoring information is the freshness of the An important aspect of monitoring information is the freshness of the
information. From the perspective of security, it is important to information. From the perspective of security, it is important to
notice changes in the current status of the network. The I2NSF notice changes in the current status of the network. The I2NSF
Monitoring Interface provides the means of sending monitored Monitoring Interface provides the means of sending monitored
information from the NSFs to an NSF data collector in a timely information from the NSFs to an NSF data collector in a timely
manner. Monitoring information can be acquired by a client (i.e., manner. Monitoring information can be acquired by a client (i.e.,
NSF data collector) from a server (i.e., NSF) using push or pull NSF data collector) from a server (i.e., NSF) using push [RFC5277]
methods. [RFC8641] or pull methods [RFC6241] [RFC8040].
The pull is a query-based method to obtain information from the NSF. The pull is a query-based method to obtain information from the NSF.
In this method, the NSF will remain passive until the information is In this method, the NSF will remain passive until the information is
requested from the NSF data collector. Once a request is accepted requested from the NSF data collector. Once a request is accepted
(with proper authentication), the NSF MUST update the information (with proper authentication), the NSF MUST update the information
before sending it to the NSF data collector. before sending it to the NSF data collector.
The push is a report-based method to obtain information from the NSF. The push is a report-based method to obtain information from the NSF.
The report-based method ensures the information can be delivered The report-based method ensures the information can be delivered
immediately without any requests. This method is used by the NSF to immediately without any requests. This method is used by the NSF to
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I2NSF Event) should be provided with the push method, while I2NSF Event) should be provided with the push method, while
information that has a lower level of urgency (i.e., I2NSF Record and information that has a lower level of urgency (i.e., I2NSF Record and
I2NSF Counter) can be provided with either the pull method or push I2NSF Counter) can be provided with either the pull method or push
method. method.
5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data 5. Basic Information Model for Monitoring Data
As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data
available from NSFs that can be monitored. Firstly, there must be available from NSFs that can be monitored. Firstly, there must be
some general information with each monitoring message sent from an some general information with each monitoring message sent from an
NSF that helps a consumer to identify meta data with that message, NSF that helps a consumer to identify metadata with that message,
which are listed as below: which are listed as below:
* message: The extra detailed description of NSF monitoring data to * message: The extra detailed description of NSF monitoring data to
give an NSF data collector the context information as meta data. give an NSF data collector the context information as metadata.
* vendor-name: The vendor's name of the NSF that generates the * vendor-name: The vendor's name of the NSF that generates the
message. message.
* device-model: The model of the device, can be represented by the * device-model: The model of the device, can be represented by the
device model name or serial number. This field is used to device model name or serial number. This field is used to
identify the model of the device that provides the security identify the model of the device that provides the security
service. service.
* software-version: The version of the software used to provide the * software-version: The version of the software used to provide the
security service. security service.
* nsf-name: The name or IP address of the NSF generating the * nsf-name: The name or IP address of the NSF generating the
message. If the given nsf-name is not an IP address, the name can message. If the given nsf-name is not an IP address, the name can
be an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain be an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain
Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope of management domain Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope of management domain
for a different NSF to identify the NSF that generates the for a different NSF to identify the NSF that generates the
message. message.
* severity: The severity level of the message. There are four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* timestamp: The time when the message was generated. For the * timestamp: The time when the message was generated. For the
notification operations (i.e., System Alarms, System Events, NSF notification operations (i.e., System Alarms, System Events, NSF
Events, System Logs, and NSF Logs), this is represented by the Events, System Logs, and NSF Logs), this is represented by the
eventTime of NETCONF event notification [RFC5277] For other eventTime of NETCONF event notification [RFC5277] For other
operations (i.e., System Counter and NSF Counter), the timestamp operations (i.e., System Counter and NSF Counter), the timestamp
MUST be provided separately. MUST be provided separately. The time format used is following
the rules in Section 5.6 of [RFC3339].
* language: describes the human language intended for the user, so * language: describes the human language intended for the user, so
that it allows a user to differentiate the language that is used that it allows a user to verify the language that is used in the
in the notification. This field is mandatory only when the notification (i.e., '../message', '/i2nsf-log/i2nsf-nsf-system-
implementation provides more than one human language for the access-log/output', and '/i2nsf-log/i2nsf-system-user-activity-
human-readable string fields. log/additional-info/cause'). The attribute is encoded following
the rules in Section 2.1 of [RFC5646]. The default language tag
is "en-US".
6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data 6. Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data
The extended information model is the specific monitoring data that The extended information model is the specific monitoring data that
covers the additional information associated with the detailed covers the additional information associated with the detailed
information of status and performance of the network and the NSF over information of status and performance of the network and the NSF over
the basic information model. The extended information combined with the basic information model. The extended information combined with
the basic information creates the monitoring information (i.e., I2NSF the basic information creates the monitoring information (i.e., I2NSF
Event, Record, and Counter). Event, Record, and Counter).
The extended monitoring information has settable characteristics for The extended monitoring information has settable characteristics for
data collection as follows: data collection as follows:
* Acquisition method: The method to obtain the message. It can be a * Acquisition method: The method to obtain the message. It can be a
"query" or a "subscription". A "query" is a request-based method "query" or a "subscription". A "query" is a request-based method
to acquire the solicited information. A "subscription" is a to acquire the solicited information. A "subscription" is a
report-based method that pushes information to the subscriber. report-based method that pushes information to the subscriber.
* Emission type: The cause type for the message to be emitted. It * Emission type: The cause type for the message to be emitted. This
can be "on-change", "periodic", or "on-request". An "on-change" attribute is used only when the acquisition method is a
message is emitted when an important event happens in the NSF. A "subscription" method. The emission type can be either "on-
"periodic" message is emitted at a certain time interval. An "on- change" or "periodic". An "on-change" message is emitted when an
request" message is emitted when the information is requested. important event happens in the NSF. A "periodic" message is
The time to periodically emit the message is configurable. emitted at a certain time interval. The time to periodically emit
the message is configurable.
* Dampening type: The type of message dampening to stop the rapid * Dampening type: The type of message dampening to stop the rapid
transmission of messages. The dampening types are "on-repetition" transmission of messages. The dampening types are "on-repetition"
and "no-dampening". The "on-repetition" type limits the and "no-dampening". The "on-repetition" type limits the
transmitted "on-change" message to one message at a certain transmitted "on-change" message to one message at a certain
interval (e.g., 1 second). This interval is defined as dampening- interval (e.g., 100 centiseconds). This interval is defined as
period in [RFC8641]. The dampening-period is configurable. The dampening-period in [RFC8641]. The dampening-period is
"no-dampening" type does not limit the transmission for the configurable in the unit of centiseconds. The "no-dampening" type
messages of the same type. In short, "on-repetition" means that does not limit the transmission for the messages of the same type.
the dampening is active and "no-dampening" is inactive. In short, "on-repetition" means that the dampening is active and
Activating the dampening for an "on-change" type of message is "no-dampening" is inactive. Activating the dampening for an "on-
RECOMMENDED to reduce the number of messages generated. change" type of message is RECOMMENDED to reduce the number of
messages generated.
Note that the characteristic information is not mandatory to be
included in a monitoring message. The information is expected to be
stored and may or may not be useful in some ways in the future. In
any case, the inclusion of the characteristic information is up to
the implementation.
6.1. System Alarms 6.1. System Alarms
System alarms have the following characteristics: System alarms have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription
* emission-type: on-change * emission-type: on-change
* dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.1.1. Memory Alarm 6.1.1. Memory Alarm
The memory is the hardware to store information temporarily or for a The memory is the hardware to store information temporarily or for a
short period, i.e., Random Access Memory (RAM). The memory-alarm is short period, i.e., Random Access Memory (RAM). The memory-alarm is
emitted when the RAM usage exceeds the threshold. The following emitted when the memory usage exceeds the threshold. The following
information should be included in a Memory Alarm: information should be included in a Memory Alarm:
* event-name: memory-alarm. * event-name: memory-alarm.
* usage: specifies the amount of memory used. * usage: specifies the amount of memory used in percentage.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm * threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm in percentage.
* severity: The severity level of the message. There are four * severity: The severity level of the message. There are four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information as a human readable text string such * message: Simple information as a human readable text string such
as "The memory usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra as "The memory usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra
information. information.
6.1.2. CPU Alarm 6.1.2. CPU Alarm
CPU is the Central Processing Unit that executes basic operations of CPU is the Central Processing Unit that executes basic operations of
the system. The cpu-alarm is emitted when the CPU usage exceeds the the system. The cpu-alarm is emitted when the CPU usage exceeds the
threshold. The following information should be included in a CPU threshold. The following information should be included in a CPU
Alarm: Alarm:
* event-name: cpu-alarm. * event-name: cpu-alarm.
* usage: Specifies the CPU utilization. * usage: Specifies the CPU utilization in percentage.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold triggering the event in percentage.
* severity: The severity level of the message. There are four * severity: The severity level of the message. There are four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information as a human readable text string such * message: Simple information as a human readable text string such
as "The CPU usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra as "The CPU usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra
information. information.
6.1.3. Disk Alarm 6.1.3. Disk (Storage) Alarm
Disk is the hardware to store information for a long time, i.e., Hard Disk or storage is the hardware to store information for a long time,
Disk or Solid-State Drive. The disk-alarm is emitted when the Disk i.e., Hard Disk or Solid-State Drive. The disk-alarm is emitted when
usage exceeds the threshold. The following information should be the Disk usage exceeds the threshold. The following information
included in a Disk Alarm: should be included in a Disk Alarm:
* event-name: disk-alarm. * event-name: disk-alarm.
* usage: Specifies the size of disk space used. * usage: Specifies the ratio of the used disk space to the whole
disk space in terms of percentage.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold triggering the event in percentage.
* severity: The severity level of the message. There are four * severity: The severity level of the message. There are four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information as a human readable text string such * message: Simple information as a human readable text string such
as "The disk usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra as "The disk usage exceeded the threshold" or with extra
information. information.
6.1.4. Hardware Alarm 6.1.4. Hardware Alarm
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in an Interface Alarm: in an Interface Alarm:
* event-name: interface-alarm. * event-name: interface-alarm.
* interface-name: The name of the interface. * interface-name: The name of the interface.
* interface-state: The status of the interface, i.e., down, up (not * interface-state: The status of the interface, i.e., down, up (not
congested), congested (up but congested), testing, unknown, congested), congested (up but congested), testing, unknown,
dormant, not-present, and lower-layer-down. dormant, not-present, and lower-layer-down.
* severity: The severity level of the message. There are total * severity: The severity level of the message. There are four
levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low. levels, i.e., critical, high, middle, and low.
* message: Simple information as a human readable text string such * message: Simple information as a human readable text string such
as "The interface is 'interface-state'" or with extra information. as "The interface is 'interface-state'" or with extra information.
6.2. System Events 6.2. System Events
System events (as alerts) have the following characteristics: System events (as alerts) have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription * acquisition-method: subscription
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information of the currently active sessions. The following information of the currently active sessions. The following
information should be included in a Session Table Event: information should be included in a Session Table Event:
* event-name: detection-session-table. * event-name: detection-session-table.
* current-session: The number of concurrent sessions. * current-session: The number of concurrent sessions.
* maximum-session: The maximum number of sessions that the session * maximum-session: The maximum number of sessions that the session
table can support. table can support.
* threshold: The threshold triggering the event. * threshold: The threshold (in terms of an allowed number of
sessions) triggering the event.
* message: The message as a human readable text string to give the * message: The message as a human readable text string to give the
context of the event, such as "The number of sessions exceeded the context of the event, such as "The number of sessions exceeded the
table threshold". table threshold".
6.2.4. Traffic Flows 6.2.4. Traffic Flows
Traffic flows need to be monitored because they might be used for Traffic flows need to be monitored because they might be used for
security attacks to the network. The following information should be security attacks to the network. The following information should be
included in this event: included in this event:
* event-name: traffic-flows. * event-name: traffic-flows.
* interface-name: The mnemonic name of the network interface * interface-name: The mnemonic name of the network interface
* interface-type: The type of a network interface such as an ingress * interface-type: The type of a network interface such as an ingress
or egress interface. or egress interface.
* src-mac: The source MAC address of the traffic flow. * src-mac: The source MAC address of the traffic flow. This
information may or may not be included depending on the type of
traffic flow. For example, the information will be useful and
should be included if the traffic flows are traffic flows of Link
Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) [IEEE-802.1AB], Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) for IPv4 [RFC0826], and Neighbor Discovery Protocol
(ND) for IPv6 [RFC4861].
* dst-mac: The destination MAC address of the traffic flow. * dst-mac: The destination MAC address of the traffic flow. This
information may or may not be included depending on the type of
traffic flow. For example, the information will be useful and
should be included if the traffic flows are LLDP, ARP for IPv4, or
ND for IPv6 traffic flows.
* src-ip: The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow. * src-ip: The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow.
* dst-ip: The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow. * dst-ip: The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow.
* src-port: The transport layer source port number of the traffic * src-port: The transport layer source port number of the traffic
flow. flow.
* dst-port: The transport layer destination port number of the * dst-port: The transport layer destination port number of the
traffic flow. traffic flow.
* protocol: The protocol of the traffic flow. * protocol: The protocol of the traffic flow.
* measurement-time: The duration of the measurement in seconds for
the arrival rate and arrival throughput of packets of a traffic
flow. These two metrics (i.e., arrival rate and arrival
throughput) are measured over the past measurement duration before
now.
* arrival-rate: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in * arrival-rate: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
packet per second calculated from the beginning of the flow. packets per second measured over the past "measurement-time".
* arrival-throughput: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in * arrival-throughput: Arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
bytes per second calculated from the beginning of the flow. bytes per second measured over the past "measurement-time".
Note that the NSF Monitoring Interface data model is focused on a Note that the NSF Monitoring Interface data model is focused on a
generic method to collect the monitoring information of systems and generic method to collect the monitoring information of systems and
NSFs including traffic flows related to security attacks and system NSFs including traffic flows related to security attacks and system
resource usages. On the other hand, IPFIX [RFC7011] is a standard resource usages. On the other hand, IPFIX [RFC7011] is a standard
method to collect general information on traffic flows rather than method to collect general information on traffic flows rather than
security. security.
6.3. NSF Events 6.3. NSF Events
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6.3.1. DDoS Detection 6.3.1. DDoS Detection
The following information should be included in a Denial-of-Service The following information should be included in a Denial-of-Service
(DoS) or Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Event: (DoS) or Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Event:
* event-name: detection-ddos. * event-name: detection-ddos.
* attack-type: The type of DoS or DDoS Attack, i.e., SYN flood, ACK * attack-type: The type of DoS or DDoS Attack, i.e., SYN flood, ACK
flood, SYN-ACK flood, FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood, SYN-ACK flood, FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP
flood, ICMP flood, HTTPS flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS flood, ICMP flood, HTTPS flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS
reply flood, SIP flood, SSL flood, and NTP amplification flood. reply flood, SIP flood, TLS flood, and NTP amplification flood.
This can be extended with additional types of DoS or DDoS attack. This can be extended with additional types of DoS or DDoS attack.
* attack-src-ip: The IP address of the source of the DDoS attack. * attack-src-ip: The IP addresses of the source of the DDoS attack.
Note that not all IP addresses should be included but only limited
IP addresses are included to conserve the server resources. The
listed attacking IP addresses can be an arbitrary sampling of the
"top talkers", i.e., the attackers that send the highest amount of
traffic.
* attack-dst-ip: The network prefix with a network mask (for IPv4) * attack-dst-ip: The destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of attack
or prefix length (for IPv6) of a victim under DDoS attack. traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.
* dst-port: The port number that the attack traffic aims at. * attack-src-port: The transport layer source port numbers of the
attack traffic. Note that not all ports will have been seen on
all the corresponding source IP addresses.
* attack-dst-port: The transport layer destination port numbers that
the attack traffic aims at. Note that not all ports will have
been seen on all the corresponding destination IP addresses.
* start-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started. * start-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started.
The time format used is following the rules in Section 5.6 of
[RFC3339].
* end-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If the * end-time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If the
attack is still ongoing when sending out the notification, this attack is still ongoing when sending out the notification, this
field can be empty. field can be empty. The time format used is following the rules
in Section 5.6 of [RFC3339].
* attack-rate: The packets per second of attack traffic. * attack-rate: The packets per second of attack traffic.
* attack-throughput: The bytes per second of attack traffic. * attack-throughput: The bytes per second of attack traffic.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
Note that rule-name is used to match a detected NSF event with a Note that rule-name is used to match a detected NSF event with a
policy rule in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. policy rule in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].
6.3.2. Virus Event 6.3.2. Virus Event
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flow or inside a host. Note that "malware" is a more generic word flow or inside a host. Note that "malware" is a more generic word
for malicious software, including virus and worm. In the document, for malicious software, including virus and worm. In the document,
"virus" is used to represent "malware" such that they are "virus" is used to represent "malware" such that they are
interchangeable. The following information should be included in a interchangeable. The following information should be included in a
Virus Event: Virus Event:
* event-name: detection-virus. * event-name: detection-virus.
* virus-name: Name of the virus. * virus-name: Name of the virus.
* virus-type: Type of the virus. e.g., trojan, worm, macro virus * virus-type: Type of the virus. e.g., trojan, worm, and macro
type. virus.
* The following information is used only when the virus is detected * The following information is used only when the virus is detected
within the traffic flow and not yet attacking the host: within the traffic flow and not yet attacking the host:
- dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow where the virus - dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow where the virus
is found. is found.
- src-ip: The source IP address of the flow where the virus is - src-ip: The source IP address of the flow where the virus is
found. found.
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- host: The name or IP address of the host/device that is - host: The name or IP address of the host/device that is
infected by the virus. If the given name is not an IP address, infected by the virus. If the given name is not an IP address,
the name can be an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully the name can be an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully
Qualified Domain Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope Qualified Domain Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope
of management domain for identifying the device that has been of management domain for identifying the device that has been
infected with a virus. infected with a virus.
- os: The operating system of the host that has the virus. - os: The operating system of the host that has the virus.
- file-type: The type of the file where the virus is hidden. - file-type: The type of file (indicated by the file's suffix,
e.g., .exe) virus code is found in (if applicable).
- file-name: The name of the file where the virus is hidden. - file-name: The name of the file where the virus is hidden.
* rule-name: The name of the rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the rule being triggered.
Note "host" is used only when the virus is detected within a host Note "host" is used only when the virus is detected within a host
itself. Thus, the traffic flow information such as the source and itself. Thus, the traffic flow information such as the source and
destination IP addresses is not important, so the elements of the destination IP addresses is not important, so the elements of the
traffic flow (i.e., dst-ip, src-ip, src-port, and dst-port) are not traffic flow (i.e., dst-ip, src-ip, src-port, and dst-port) are not
specified above. On the other hand, when the virus is detected specified above. On the other hand, when the virus is detected
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The following information should be included in an Intrusion Event: The following information should be included in an Intrusion Event:
* event-name: detection-intrusion. * event-name: detection-intrusion.
* attack-type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force or buffer overflow. * attack-type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force or buffer overflow.
* src-ip: The source IP address of the flow. * src-ip: The source IP address of the flow.
* dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow. * dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow.
* src-port:The source port number of the flow. * src-port: The source port number of the flow.
* dst-port: The destination port number of the flow * dst-port: The destination port number of the flow
* protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g., TCP or UDP. * protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g., TCP or UDP.
Note that QUIC protocol [RFC9000] is excluded in the data model as
it is not considered in the initial I2NSF documents [RFC8329].
The QUIC traffic should not be treated as UDP traffic and will be
considered in the future I2NSF documents.
* app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g., HTTP or FTP. * app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g., HTTP or FTP.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
6.3.4. Web Attack Event 6.3.4. Web Attack Event
The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm: The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm:
* event-name: detection-web-attack. * event-name: detection-web-attack.
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* dst-port: The destination port number of the packet. * dst-port: The destination port number of the packet.
* req-method: The HTTP method of the request. For instance, "PUT" * req-method: The HTTP method of the request. For instance, "PUT"
and "GET" in HTTP. and "GET" in HTTP.
* req-target: The HTTP Request Target. * req-target: The HTTP Request Target.
* response-code: The HTTP Response status code. * response-code: The HTTP Response status code.
* req-user-agent: The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request.
* cookies: The HTTP Cookie header field of the request from the user * cookies: The HTTP Cookie header field of the request from the user
agent. agent. The cookies information needs to be kept confidential and
is not RECOMMENDED to be included in the monitoring data unless
the information is absolutely necessary to help to enhance the
security of the network.
* req-host: The HTTP Host header field of the request. * req-host: The HTTP Host header field of the request.
* filtering-type: URL filtering type. e.g., deny-list, allow-list, * filtering-type: URL filtering type. e.g., deny-list, allow-list,
and unknown. and unknown.
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
6.3.5. VoIP/VoCN Event 6.3.5. VoIP/VoCN Event
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* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered. * rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
6.4. System Logs 6.4. System Logs
System log is a record that is used to monitor the activity of the System log is a record that is used to monitor the activity of the
user on the NSF and the status of the NSF. System logs have the user on the NSF and the status of the NSF. System logs have the
following characteristics: following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: on-change, periodic, or on-request * emission-type: on-change or periodic
* dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.4.1. Access Log 6.4.1. Access Log
Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on a Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on a
device. By analyzing them, security vulnerabilities can be device. By analyzing them, some security vulnerabilities can be
identified. The following information should be included in an identified. The following information should be included in an
operation report: operation report:
* identity: The information to identify the user. The minimum * identity: The information to identify the user. The minimum
information (extensible) that should be included: information (extensible) that should be included:
1. user: The unique username that attempted access violation. 1. user: The unique username that attempted access violation.
2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to 2. group: Group(s) to which a user belongs. A user can belong to
multiple groups. multiple groups.
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* output: The result after executing the input. * output: The result after executing the input.
6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log 6.4.2. Resource Utilization Log
Running reports record the device system's running status, which is Running reports record the device system's running status, which is
useful for device monitoring. The following information should be useful for device monitoring. The following information should be
included in running report: included in running report:
* system-status: The current system's running status. * system-status: The current system's running status.
* cpu-usage: Specifies the aggregated CPU usage. * cpu-usage: Specifies the aggregated CPU usage in percentage.
* memory-usage: Specifies the memory usage. * memory-usage: Specifies the memory usage in percentage.
* disk-id: Specifies the disk ID to identify the storage disk. * disk-id: Specifies the disk ID to identify the storage disk.
* disk-usage: Specifies the disk usage of disk-id. * disk-usage: Specifies the disk usage of disk-id in percentage.
* disk-space-left: Specifies the available disk space left of disk- * disk-space-left: Specifies the available disk space left of disk-
id. id in percentage.
* session-number: Specifies total concurrent sessions. * session-number: Specifies total concurrent sessions.
* process-number: Specifies total number of systems processes. * process-number: Specifies total number of systems processes.
* interface-id: Specifies the interface ID to identify the network * interface-id: Specifies the interface ID to identify the network
interface. interface.
* in-traffic-rate: The total inbound data plane traffic rate in * in-traffic-rate: The total inbound data plane traffic rate in
packets per second. packets per second.
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* in-traffic-throughput: The total inbound data plane traffic * in-traffic-throughput: The total inbound data plane traffic
throughput in bytes per second. throughput in bytes per second.
* out-traffic-throughput: The total outbound data plane traffic * out-traffic-throughput: The total outbound data plane traffic
throughput in bytes per second. throughput in bytes per second.
Note that "traffic" includes only the data plane since the monitoring Note that "traffic" includes only the data plane since the monitoring
interface focuses on the monitoring of traffic flows for interface focuses on the monitoring of traffic flows for
applications, rather than the control plane. In the document, applications, rather than the control plane. In the document,
"packet" includes a layer-2 frame, so "packet" and "frame" are "packet" includes a layer-2 frame, so "packet" and "frame" are
interchangeable. interchangeable. Also, note that system resources (e.g., CPU,
memory, disk, and interface) are monitored for the sake of security
in NSFs even though they are common ones to be monitored by a generic
Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) protocol (or
module).
6.4.3. User Activity Log 6.4.3. User Activity Log
User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records
(such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses) (such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses)
and the actions that users perform. User activity reports are and the actions that users perform. User activity reports are
helpful to identify exceptions during a user's login and network helpful to identify exceptions during a user's login and network
access activities. This information should be included in a user's access activities. This information should be included in a user's
activity report: activity report:
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Failed User Password Change, User Lockout, and User Unlocking. Failed User Password Change, User Lockout, and User Unlocking.
2. cause: Cause of a failed user activity. 2. cause: Cause of a failed user activity.
6.5. NSF Logs 6.5. NSF Logs
NSF logs have the folowing characteristics: NSF logs have the folowing characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: on-change or on-request * emission-type: on-change
* dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening * dampening-type: on-repetition or no-dampening
6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log 6.5.1. Deep Packet Inspection Log
Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Logs provide statistics of transit Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Logs provide statistics of transit
traffic at an NSF such that the traffic includes uploaded and traffic at an NSF such that the traffic includes uploaded and
downloaded files/data, sent/received emails, and blocking/alert downloaded files/data, sent/received emails, and blocking/alert
records on websites. It is helpful to learn risky user behaviors and records on websites. It is helpful to learn risky user behaviors and
why access to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an alert record. why access to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an alert record.
* attack-type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data * attack-type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data
Filtering, and Application Behavior Control. Filtering, and Application Behavior Control.
* src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy. * src-ip: The source IP address of the flow.
* policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches. * dst-ip: The destination IP address of the flow.
* src-port: The source port number of the flow.
* dst-port: The destination port number of the flow
* rule-name: The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered.
* action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering * action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering
rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches. rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches.
6.6. System Counter 6.6. System Counter
System counter has the following characteristics: System counter has the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: periodic or on-request * emission-type: periodic
* dampening-type: no-dampening * dampening-type: no-dampening
6.6.1. Interface Counter 6.6.1. Interface Counter
Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of an Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of an
NSF, and bandwidth usage. The statistics of the interface counters NSF, and bandwidth usage.
should be computed from the start of the service up to the last
measure time instant. When the service is reset, the computation of
statistics per counter should use the reset time instant as the start
of the service for measurement.
* interface-name: Network interface name configured in NSF. * interface-name: Network interface name configured in NSF.
* protocol: The type of network protocol (e.g., IPv4, IPv6, TCP, and * protocol: The type of network protocol (e.g., IPv4, IPv6, TCP, and
UDP). If this field is empty, then the counter is used for all UDP). If this field is empty, then the counter is used for all
protocols. protocols.
* measurement-time: The duration of the measurement in seconds for
the calculation of statistics such as traffic rate and throughput.
The statistic attributes are measured over the past measurement
duration before now.
* in-total-traffic-pkts: Total inbound packets. * in-total-traffic-pkts: Total inbound packets.
* out-total-traffic-pkts: Total outbound packets. * out-total-traffic-pkts: Total outbound packets.
* in-total-traffic-bytes: Total inbound bytes. * in-total-traffic-bytes: Total inbound bytes.
* out-total-traffic-bytes: Total outbound bytes. * out-total-traffic-bytes: Total outbound bytes.
* in-drop-traffic-pkts: Total inbound drop packets caused by a * in-drop-traffic-pkts: Total inbound drop packets caused by a
policy or hardware/resource error. policy or hardware/resource error.
* out-drop-traffic-pkts: Total outbound drop packets caused by a * out-drop-traffic-pkts: Total outbound drop packets caused by a
policy or hardware/resource error. policy or hardware/resource error.
* in-drop-traffic-bytes: Total inbound drop bytes caused by a policy * in-drop-traffic-bytes: Total inbound drop bytes caused by a policy
or hardware/resource error. or hardware/resource error.
* out-drop-traffic-bytes: Total outbound drop bytes caused by a * out-drop-traffic-bytes: Total outbound drop bytes caused by a
policy or hardware/resource error. policy or hardware/resource error.
* total-traffic: The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in
the NSF.
* in-traffic-average-rate: Inbound traffic average rate in packets * in-traffic-average-rate: Inbound traffic average rate in packets
per second. per second.
* in-traffic-peak-rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per * in-traffic-peak-rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per
second. second.
* in-traffic-average-throughput: Inbound traffic average throughput * in-traffic-average-throughput: Inbound traffic average throughput
in bytes per second. in bytes per second.
* in-traffic-peak-throughput: Inbound traffic peak throughput in * in-traffic-peak-throughput: Inbound traffic peak throughput in
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throughput in bytes per second. throughput in bytes per second.
* out-traffic-peak-throughput: Outbound traffic peak throughput in * out-traffic-peak-throughput: Outbound traffic peak throughput in
bytes per second. bytes per second.
* discontinuity-time: The time of the most recent occasion at which * discontinuity-time: The time of the most recent occasion at which
any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
such discontinuities have occurred since the last re- such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
contains the time the local management subsystem was re- contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
initialized. initialized. The time format used is following the rules in
Section 5.6 of [RFC3339].
6.7. NSF Counters 6.7. NSF Counters
NSF counters have the following characteristics: NSF counters have the following characteristics:
* acquisition-method: subscription or query * acquisition-method: subscription or query
* emission-type: periodic or on-request * emission-type: periodic
* dampening-type: no-dampening * dampening-type: no-dampening
6.7.1. Firewall Counter 6.7.1. Firewall Counter
Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures, Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures and
bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth bandwidth usage that correspond to the policy that is configured in a
policies have been applied. firewall.
* src-ip: Source IP address of traffic.
* src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.
* dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic.
* src-port: Source port of traffic.
* dst-port: Destination port of traffic.
* protocol: Protocol type of traffic.
* app: Application type of traffic.
* policy-id: Security policy id that traffic matches.
* policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches. * policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches.
* measurement-time: The duration of the measurement in seconds for
the calculation of statistics such as traffic rate and throughput.
The statistic attributes are measured over the past measurement
duration before now.
* in-interface: Inbound interface of traffic. * in-interface: Inbound interface of traffic.
* out-interface: Outbound interface of traffic. * out-interface: Outbound interface of traffic.
* total-traffic: Total traffic volume. * total-traffic: The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in
the firewall.
* in-traffic-average-rate: Inbound traffic average rate in packets * in-traffic-average-rate: Inbound traffic average rate in packets
per second. per second.
* in-traffic-peak-rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per * in-traffic-peak-rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per
second. second.
* in-traffic-average-throughput: Inbound traffic average throughput * in-traffic-average-throughput: Inbound traffic average throughput
in bytes per second. in bytes per second.
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throughput in bytes per second. throughput in bytes per second.
* out-traffic-peak-throughput: Outbound traffic peak throughput in * out-traffic-peak-throughput: Outbound traffic peak throughput in
bytes per second. bytes per second.
* discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which * discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which
any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
such discontinuities have occurred since the last re- such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
contains the time the local management subsystem was re- contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
initialized. initialized. The time format used is following the rules in
Section 5.6 of [RFC3339].
6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter 6.7.2. Policy Hit Counter
Policy hit counters record the security policy that traffic matches Policy hit counters record the security policy that traffic matches
and its hit count. That is, when a packet actually matches a policy, and its hit count. That is, when a packet actually matches a policy,
it should be added to the statistics of a "policy hit counter" of the it should be added to the statistics of a "policy hit counter" of the
policy. The "policy hit counter" provides the "policy-name" that policy. The "policy hit counter" provides the "policy-name" that
matches the policy's name in the NSF-Facing Interface YANG data model matches the policy's name in the NSF-Facing Interface YANG data model
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. It can check if policy [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]. It can check if policy
configurations are correct or not. configurations are correct or not.
* src-ip: Source IP address of traffic.
* src-user: The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.
* dst-ip: Destination IP address of traffic.
* src-port: Source port of traffic.
* dst-port: Destination port of traffic.
* protocol: Protocol type of traffic.
* app: Application type of traffic.
* policy-id: Security policy id that traffic matches.
* policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches. * policy-name: Security policy name that traffic matches.
* hit-times: The number of times that the security policy matches * hit-times: The number of times that the security policy matches
the specified traffic. the specified traffic.
* discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which * discontinuity-time: The time on the most recent occasion at which
any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no any one or more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no
such discontinuities have occurred since the last re- such discontinuities have occurred since the last re-
initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node initialization of the local management subsystem, then this node
contains the time the local management subsystem was re- contains the time the local management subsystem was re-
initialized. initialized. The time format used is following the rules in
Section 5.6 of [RFC3339].
7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module 7. YANG Tree Structure of NSF Monitoring YANG Module
The tree structure of the NSF monitoring YANG module is provided The tree structure of the NSF monitoring YANG module is provided
below: below:
module: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring module: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring
+--ro i2nsf-counters +--ro i2nsf-counters
| +--ro language? string | +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro device-model? string
| +--ro software-version? string
| +--ro nsf-name union
| +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro system-interface* [interface-name] | +--ro system-interface* [interface-name]
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro interface-name if:interface-ref | | +--ro interface-name if:interface-ref
| | +--ro protocol? identityref | | +--ro protocol? identityref
| | +--ro in-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64 | | +--ro in-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro out-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64 | | +--ro out-total-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-total-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro in-total-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro out-total-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro out-total-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro in-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64 | | +--ro in-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro out-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64 | | +--ro out-drop-traffic-pkts? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro in-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro out-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64 | | +--ro out-drop-traffic-bytes? uint64
| | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| | +--ro measurement-time? uint32
| | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64 | | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro nsf-firewall* [policy-name] | +--ro nsf-firewall* [policy-name]
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro in-interface? if:interface-ref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro out-interface? if:interface-ref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name | | +--ro policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| | +--ro src-user? string
| | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| | +--ro measurement-time? uint32
| | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64 | | +--ro total-traffic? yang:counter64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-rate? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-rate? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-average-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-average-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro in-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-rate? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-rate? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-average-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-average-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro out-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-peak-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro nsf-policy-hits* [policy-name] | +--ro nsf-policy-hits* [policy-name]
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name | +--ro policy-name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| +--ro src-user? string
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
| +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time | +--ro discontinuity-time yang:date-and-time
| +--ro hit-times? yang:counter64 | +--ro hit-times? yang:counter64
| +--ro timestamp? yang:date-and-time
+--rw i2nsf-monitoring-configuration +--rw i2nsf-monitoring-configuration
+--rw i2nsf-system-detection-alarm +--rw i2nsf-system-detection-alarm
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw system-alarm* [alarm-type] | +--rw system-alarm* [alarm-type]
| +--rw alarm-type enumeration | +--rw alarm-type enumeration
| +--rw threshold? uint8 | +--rw threshold? uint8
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-system-detection-event +--rw i2nsf-system-detection-event
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-traffic-flows +--rw i2nsf-traffic-flows
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}? +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack +--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log +--rw i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-system-res-util-log +--rw i2nsf-system-res-util-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-system-user-activity-log +--rw i2nsf-system-user-activity-log
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}? +--rw i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}?
| +--rw enabled? boolean | +--rw enabled? boolean
| +--rw dampening-period? uint32 | +--rw dampening-period? centiseconds
+--rw i2nsf-counter +--rw i2nsf-counter
+--rw period? uint16 +--rw period? uint16
notifications: notifications:
+---n i2nsf-event +---n i2nsf-event
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro device-model? string
| +--ro software-version? string
| +--ro nsf-name union
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro language? string | +--ro language? string
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro (sub-event-type)? | +--ro (sub-event-type)?
| +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-alarm) | +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-alarm)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-alarm | | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-alarm
| | +--ro alarm-category? identityref | | +--ro alarm-category? identityref
| | +--ro component-name? string | | +--ro component-name? string
| | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref | | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref
| | +--ro interface-state? enumeration | | +--ro interface-state? enumeration
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro usage? uint8
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro threshold? uint8
| | +--ro usage? uint8
| | +--ro threshold? uint8
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-event) | +--:(i2nsf-system-detection-event)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-event | | +--ro i2nsf-system-detection-event
| | +--ro event-category? identityref | | +--ro event-category? identityref
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro user string
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro user string | | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro group* string | | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro changes* [policy-name] | | +--ro changes* [policy-name]
| | +--ro policy-name | | +--ro policy-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name
| +--:(i2nsf-traffic-flows) | +--:(i2nsf-traffic-flows)
| | +--ro i2nsf-traffic-flows | | +--ro i2nsf-traffic-flows
| | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref | | +--ro interface-name? if:interface-ref
| | +--ro interface-type? enumeration | | +--ro interface-type? enumeration
| | +--ro src-mac? yang:mac-address | | +--ro src-mac? yang:mac-address
| | +--ro dst-mac? yang:mac-address | | +--ro dst-mac? yang:mac-address
| | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro protocol? identityref | | +--ro protocol? identityref
| | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| | +--ro arrival-rate? uint32 | | +--ro measurement-time? uint32
| | +--ro arrival-throughput? uint32 | | +--ro arrival-rate? uint64
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro arrival-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table) | +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table)
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table
| +--ro current-session? uint32 | +--ro current-session? uint32
| +--ro maximum-session? uint32 | +--ro maximum-session? uint32
| +--ro threshold? uint32 | +--ro threshold? uint32
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+---n i2nsf-log +---n i2nsf-log
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro device-model? string
| +--ro software-version? string
| +--ro nsf-name union
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro language? string | +--ro language? string
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro (sub-logs-type)? | +--ro (sub-logs-type)?
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log) | +--:(i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log)
| | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log | | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log
| | +--ro user string | | +--ro user string
| | +--ro group* string | | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number | | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro authentication? identityref | | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro operation-type? operation-type | | +--ro operation-type? operation-type
| | +--ro input? string | | +--ro input? string
| | +--ro output? string | | +--ro output? string
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-system-res-util-log) | +--:(i2nsf-system-res-util-log)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-res-util-log | | +--ro i2nsf-system-res-util-log
| | +--ro system-status? enumeration | | +--ro system-status? enumeration
| | +--ro cpu-usage? uint8 | | +--ro cpu-usage? uint8
| | +--ro memory-usage? uint8 | | +--ro memory-usage? uint8
| | +--ro disk* [disk-id] | | +--ro disks* [disk-id]
| | | +--ro disk-id string | | | +--ro disk-id string
| | | +--ro disk-usage? uint8 | | | +--ro disk-usage? uint8
| | | +--ro disk-space-left? uint8 | | | +--ro disk-space-left? uint8
| | +--ro session-num? uint32 | | +--ro session-num? uint32
| | +--ro process-num? uint32 | | +--ro process-num? uint32
| | +--ro interface* [interface-id] | | +--ro interface* [interface-id]
| | | +--ro interface-id string | | +--ro interface-id string
| | | +--ro in-traffic-rate? uint32 | | +--ro in-traffic-rate? uint64
| | | +--ro out-traffic-rate? uint32 | | +--ro out-traffic-rate? uint64
| | | +--ro in-traffic-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro in-traffic-throughput? uint64
| | | +--ro out-traffic-throughput? uint64 | | +--ro out-traffic-throughput? uint64
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| | +--ro message? string
| | +--ro vendor-name? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| +--:(i2nsf-system-user-activity-log) | +--:(i2nsf-system-user-activity-log)
| | +--ro i2nsf-system-user-activity-log | | +--ro i2nsf-system-user-activity-log
| | +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | | +--ro user string
| | +--ro emission-type? identityref | | +--ro group* string
| | +--ro dampening-type? identityref | | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone
| | +--ro user string | | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number
| | +--ro group* string | | +--ro authentication? identityref
| | +--ro ip-address inet:ip-address-no-zone | | +--ro online-duration? uint32
| | +--ro l4-port-number inet:port-number | | +--ro logout-duration? uint32
| | +--ro authentication? identityref | | +--ro additional-info
| | +--ro message? string | | +--ro type? enumeration
| | +--ro vendor-name? string | | +--ro cause? string
| | +--ro nsf-name? union
| | +--ro severity? severity
| | +--ro online-duration? uint32
| | +--ro logout-duration? uint32
| | +--ro additional-info? enumeration
| +--:(i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi) {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}? | +--:(i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi) {i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi
| +--ro attack-type? dpi-type | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro emission-type? identityref | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref | +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro policy-name | +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/name | +--ro rule-name
| +--ro src-user? string -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro message? string | +--ro action* identityref
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+---n i2nsf-nsf-event +---n i2nsf-nsf-event
+--ro vendor-name? string
+--ro device-model? string
+--ro software-version? string
+--ro nsf-name union
+--ro message? string
+--ro language? string +--ro language? string
+--ro acquisition-method? identityref
+--ro emission-type? identityref
+--ro dampening-type? identityref
+--ro (sub-event-type)? +--ro (sub-event-type)?
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos) {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}? +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos) {i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos
| +--ro attack-type? identityref | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro start-time yang:date-and-time | +--ro start-time yang:date-and-time
| +--ro end-time? yang:date-and-time | +--ro end-time? yang:date-and-time
| +--ro attack-src-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro attack-src-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro attack-dst-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro attack-dst-ip* inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro attack-src-port* inet:port-number | +--ro attack-src-port* inet:port-number
| +--ro attack-dst-port* inet:port-number | +--ro attack-dst-port* inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro attack-rate? uint32 | +--ro attack-rate? uint64
| +--ro attack-throughput? uint64 | +--ro attack-throughput? uint64
| +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro virus-name? string
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro virus-type? identityref
| +--ro virus-name? string | +--ro host? union
| +--ro virus-type? identityref | +--ro file-type? string
| +--ro host? union | +--ro file-name? string
| +--ro file-type? string | +--ro os? string
| +--ro file-name? string
| +--ro os? string
| +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro protocol? identityref
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro app? identityref
| +--ro protocol? identityref | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro app? identityref
| +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro attack-rate? uint32
| +--ro attack-throughput? uint64
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack}?
| +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack | +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number | +--ro src-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
| +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
| +--ro rule-name | +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
| +--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone | +--ro attack-type? identityref
| +--ro src-port? inet:port-number | +--ro req-method? identityref
| +--ro attack-type? identityref | +--ro req-target? string
| +--ro req-method? identityref | +--ro filtering-type* identityref
| +--ro req-target? string | +--ro cookies? string
| +--ro filtering-type* identityref | +--ro req-host? string
| +--ro req-user-agent? string | +--ro response-code? string
| +--ro cookie? string
| +--ro req-host? string
| +--ro response-code? string
| +--ro acquisition-method? identityref
| +--ro emission-type? identityref
| +--ro dampening-type? identityref
| +--ro action* log-action
| +--ro message? string
| +--ro vendor-name? string
| +--ro nsf-name? union
| +--ro severity? severity
+--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn) +--:(i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn)
{i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn}? {i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn}?
+--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn +--ro i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn
+--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
+--ro src-port? inet:port-number
+--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone +--ro dst-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
+--ro dst-port? inet:port-number +--ro dst-port? inet:port-number
+--ro rule-name +--ro rule-name
-> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name -> /nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy/rules/name
+--ro src-ip? inet:ip-address-no-zone
+--ro src-port? inet:port-number
+--ro source-voice-id* string +--ro source-voice-id* string
+--ro destination-voice-id* string +--ro destination-voice-id* string
+--ro user-agent* string +--ro user-agent* string
+--ro message? string
+--ro vendor-name? string
+--ro nsf-name? union
+--ro severity? severity
Figure 1: NSF Monitoring YANG Module Tree Figure 1: NSF Monitoring YANG Module Tree
8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module 8. YANG Data Model of NSF Monitoring YANG Module
This section describes a YANG module of I2NSF NSF Monitoring. The This section describes a YANG module of I2NSF NSF Monitoring. The
data model provided in this document uses identities to be used to data model provided in this document uses identities to be used to
get information of the monitored of an NSF's monitoring data. Every get information of the monitored of an NSF's monitoring data. Every
identity used in the document gives information or status about the identity used in the document gives information or status about the
current situation of an NSF. This YANG module imports from current situation of an NSF. This YANG module imports from
[RFC6991], [RFC8343], and [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm], [RFC6991], [RFC8343], and [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm],
and makes references to [RFC0768] [RFC0791] [RFC0792] [RFC0793] and makes references to [RFC0768] [RFC0791] [RFC0792] [RFC0826]
[RFC0854] [RFC1939] [RFC0959] [RFC2595] [RFC4340] [RFC4443] [RFC5321] [RFC0854] [RFC1939] [RFC0959] [RFC2595] [RFC4340] [RFC4443] [RFC4861]
[RFC5646] [RFC6242] [RFC6265] [RFC8200] [RFC8641] [RFC9051] [RFC5321] [RFC5646] [RFC6242] [RFC6265] [RFC8200] [RFC8641] [RFC9051]
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-http2bis] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-messaging] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-http2bis] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-messaging]
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-semantics] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-semantics] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis]
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis] [IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis] [IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [IEEE-802.1AB]
[IANA-Media-Types].
<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring@2022-02-15.yang" <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring@2022-03-22.yang"
module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring { module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring {
yang-version 1.1; yang-version 1.1;
namespace namespace
"urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"; "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring";
prefix prefix
nsfmi; nsfmi;
import ietf-inet-types{ import ietf-inet-types {
prefix inet; prefix inet;
reference reference
"Section 4 of RFC 6991"; "Section 4 of RFC 6991";
} }
import ietf-yang-types { import ietf-yang-types {
prefix yang; prefix yang;
reference reference
"Section 3 of RFC 6991"; "Section 3 of RFC 6991";
} }
import ietf-i2nsf-policy-rule-for-nsf { import ietf-i2nsf-policy-rule-for-nsf {
skipping to change at page 36, line 39 skipping to change at page 35, line 45
without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX
(https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself
for full legal notices."; for full legal notices.";
revision "2022-02-15" { revision "2022-03-22" {
description "Latest revision"; description "Latest revision";
reference reference
"RFC XXXX: I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model"; "RFC XXXX: I2NSF NSF Monitoring Interface YANG Data Model";
// RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove
// this note. // this note.
} }
/* /*
* Typedefs * Typedefs
*/ */
typedef severity { typedef severity {
type enumeration { type enumeration {
enum critical { enum critical {
description description
skipping to change at page 37, line 44 skipping to change at page 37, line 4
of a potential fault before any effect is observed. of a potential fault before any effect is observed.
The 'low' severity is reported when an action should The 'low' severity is reported when an action should
be done before a fault happen."; be done before a fault happen.";
} }
} }
description description
"An indicator representing severity levels. The severity "An indicator representing severity levels. The severity
levels starting from the highest are critical, high, middle, levels starting from the highest are critical, high, middle,
and low."; and low.";
} }
typedef operation-type {
typedef log-action {
type enumeration {
enum allow {
description
"If action is allow";
}
enum alert {
description
"If action is alert";
}
enum block {
description
"If action is block";
}
enum discard {
description
"If action is discard";
}
enum declare {
description
"If action is declare";
}
enum block-ip {
description
"If action is block-ip";
}
enum block-service{
description
"If action is block-service";
}
}
description
"The type representing action for
logging.";
}
typedef dpi-type{
type enumeration {
enum file-blocking{
description
"DPI for preventing the specified file types from flowing
in the network.";
}
enum data-filtering{
description
"DPI for preventing sensitive information (e.g., Credit
Card Number or Social Security Numbers) leaving a
protected network.";
}
enum application-behavior-control{
description
"DPI for filtering packet based on the application or
network behavior analysis to identify malicious or
unusual activity.";
}
}
description
"The type of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI).
The defined types are file-blocking, data-filtering, and
application-behavior-control.";
}
typedef operation-type{
type enumeration { type enumeration {
enum login { enum login {
description description
"The operation type is Login."; "The operation type is Login.";
} }
enum logout { enum logout {
description description
"The operation type is Logout."; "The operation type is Logout.";
} }
enum configuration { enum configuration {
skipping to change at page 40, line 14 skipping to change at page 38, line 7
enum guest { enum guest {
description description
"Guest login role. Restricted role, only few read data are "Guest login role. Restricted role, only few read data are
available and write configurations are restricted."; available and write configurations are restricted.";
} }
} }
description description
"The privilege level of the user account."; "The privilege level of the user account.";
} }
typedef centiseconds {
type uint32;
description
"A period of time, measured in units of 0.01 seconds.";
}
/* /*
* Identity * Identity
*/ */
identity characteristics { identity characteristics {
description description
"Base identity for monitoring information "Base identity for monitoring information
characteristics"; characteristics";
} }
identity acquisition-method { identity acquisition-method {
skipping to change at page 41, line 5 skipping to change at page 39, line 4
} }
identity periodic { identity periodic {
base emission-type; base emission-type;
description description
"The emission-type type is periodic."; "The emission-type type is periodic.";
} }
identity on-change { identity on-change {
base emission-type; base emission-type;
description description
"The emission-type type is on-change."; "The emission-type type is on-change.";
}
identity on-request {
base emission-type;
description
"The emission-type type is on-request.";
} }
identity dampening-type { identity dampening-type {
base characteristics; base characteristics;
description description
"The type of message dampening to stop the rapid transmission "The type of message dampening to stop the rapid transmission
of messages. The dampening types are on-repetition and of messages, such as on-repetition and no-dampening.";
no-dampening";
} }
identity no-dampening { identity no-dampening {
base dampening-type; base dampening-type;
description description
"The dampening-type is no-dampening. No-dampening type does "The dampening-type is no-dampening. No-dampening type does
not limit the transmission for the messages of the same not limit the transmission for the messages of the same
type."; type.";
} }
identity on-repetition { identity on-repetition {
base dampening-type; base dampening-type;
skipping to change at page 42, line 23 skipping to change at page 40, line 16
identity system-alarm { identity system-alarm {
base event; base event;
description description
"Base identity for detectable system alarm types"; "Base identity for detectable system alarm types";
} }
identity memory-alarm { identity memory-alarm {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
description description
"A memory alarm is alerted."; "Memory is the hardware to store information temporarily or for
a short period, i.e., Random Access Memory (RAM). A
memory-alarm is emitted when the memory usage is exceeding
the threshold.";
} }
identity cpu-alarm { identity cpu-alarm {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
description description
"A CPU alarm is alerted."; "CPU is the Central Processing Unit that executes basic
operations of the system. A cpu-alarm is emitted when the CPU
usage is exceeding a threshold.";
} }
identity disk-alarm { identity disk-alarm {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
description description
"A disk alarm is alerted."; "Disk or storage is the hardware to store information for a
long period, i.e., Hard Disk and Solid-State Drive. A
disk-alarm is emitted when the disk usage is exceeding a
threshold.";
} }
identity hardware-alarm { identity hardware-alarm {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
description description
"A hardware alarm (i.e., hardware failure) is alerted."; "A hardware alarm is emitted when a hardware failure (e.g.,
CPU, memory, disk, or interface) is detected. A hardware
failure is a malfunction within the electronic circuits or
electromechanical components of the hardware that makes it
unusable.";
} }
identity interface-alarm { identity interface-alarm {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
description description
"An interface alarm is alerted."; "Interface is the network interface for connecting a device
with the network. The interface-alarm is emitted when the
state of the interface is changed.";
} }
identity access-violation { identity access-violation {
base system-event; base system-event;
description description
"The access-violation system event is an event when a user "Access-violation system event is an event when a user tries
tries to access (read, write, create, or delete) any to access (read, write, create, or delete) any information or
information or execute commands above their privilege."; execute commands above their privilege (i.e., not-conformant
with the access profile).";
} }
identity configuration-change { identity configuration-change {
base system-event; base system-event;
description description
"The configuration-change system event is an event when a user "The configuration-change system event is an event when a user
adds a new configuration or modify an existing configuration adds a new configuration or modify an existing configuration
(write configuration)."; (write configuration).";
} }
identity attack-type { identity attack-type {
skipping to change at page 49, line 21 skipping to change at page 47, line 28
description description
"The applied filter type is a deny list. This filter opens all "The applied filter type is a deny list. This filter opens all
connection except the specified list."; connection except the specified list.";
} }
identity unknown-filter { identity unknown-filter {
base filter-type; base filter-type;
description description
"The applied filter is unknown."; "The applied filter is unknown.";
} }
identity dpi-type {
description
"Base identity for the type of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI).";
}
identity file-blocking {
base dpi-type;
description
"DPI for preventing the specified file types from flowing
in the network.";
}
identity data-filtering {
base dpi-type;
description
"DPI for preventing sensitive information (e.g., Credit
Card Number or Social Security Numbers) leaving a
protected network.";
}
identity application-behavior-control {
base dpi-type;
description
"DPI for filtering packet based on the application or
network behavior analysis to identify malicious or
unusual activity.";
}
identity protocol { identity protocol {
description description
"An identity used to enable type choices in leaves "An identity used to enable type choices in leaves
and leaflists with respect to protocol metadata. This is used and leaf-lists with respect to protocol metadata. This is used
to identify the type of protocol that goes through the NSF."; to identify the type of protocol that goes through the NSF.";
} }
identity ip { identity ip {
base protocol; base protocol;
description description
"General IP protocol type."; "General IP protocol type.";
reference reference
"RFC 791: Internet Protocol "RFC 791: Internet Protocol
RFC 8200: Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)"; RFC 8200: Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6)";
} }
skipping to change at page 50, line 40 skipping to change at page 49, line 23
base protocol; base protocol;
description description
"Base identity for Layer 4 protocol condition capabilities, "Base identity for Layer 4 protocol condition capabilities,
e.g., TCP, UDP, SCTP, DCCP, and ICMP"; e.g., TCP, UDP, SCTP, DCCP, and ICMP";
} }
identity tcp { identity tcp {
base transport-protocol; base transport-protocol;
description description
"TCP protocol type."; "TCP protocol type.";
reference reference
"RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol "draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-25: Transmission Control Protocol
draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-25: Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) Specification"; (TCP) Specification";
} }
identity udp { identity udp {
base transport-protocol; base transport-protocol;
description description
"UDP protocol type."; "UDP protocol type.";
reference reference
"RFC 768: User Datagram Protocol"; "RFC 768: User Datagram Protocol";
} }
identity sctp { identity sctp {
skipping to change at page 51, line 21 skipping to change at page 49, line 51
identity dccp { identity dccp {
base transport-protocol; base transport-protocol;
description description
"Identity for DCCP condition capabilities"; "Identity for DCCP condition capabilities";
reference reference
"RFC 4340: Datagram Congestion Control Protocol"; "RFC 4340: Datagram Congestion Control Protocol";
} }
identity application-protocol { identity application-protocol {
base protocol; base protocol;
description description
"Base identity for Application protocol. Note that popular "Base identity for Application protocol. Note that a subset of
application protocols (e.g., HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, POP3, and application protocols (e.g., HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, POP3, and
IMAP) are handled in this YANG module, rather than all IMAP) are handled in this YANG module, rather than all
the existing application protocols."; the existing application protocols.";
} }
identity http { identity http {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 1.X "The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 1.1
(HTTP/1.X)."; (HTTP/1.1).";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics "draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics
draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1"; draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1";
} }
identity https { identity https {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 1.X "The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 1.1
(HTTP/1.X) over TLS."; (HTTP/1.1) over TLS.";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics "draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics
draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1"; draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1";
} }
identity http2 { identity http2 {
base application-protocol; base application-protocol;
description description
"The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 2 "The identity for Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 2
(HTTP/2)."; (HTTP/2).";
reference reference
skipping to change at page 53, line 40 skipping to change at page 52, line 22
grouping timestamp { grouping timestamp {
description description
"Grouping for identifying the time of the message."; "Grouping for identifying the time of the message.";
leaf timestamp { leaf timestamp {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
description description
"Specify the time of a message being delivered."; "Specify the time of a message being delivered.";
} }
} }
grouping common-monitoring-data { grouping message {
description description
"A set of common monitoring data that is needed "A set of common monitoring data that is needed
as the basic information."; as the basic information.";
leaf message { leaf message {
type string; type string;
description description
"This is a freetext annotation for "This is a freetext annotation for
monitoring a notification's content."; monitoring a notification's content.";
} }
leaf language {
type string {
pattern '(([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3})'
+ '{,2})?|[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8})(-[A-Za-z]{4})?'
+ '(-([A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3}))?(-([A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}'
+ '|([0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})))*(-[0-9A-WY-Za-wy-z]'
+ '(-([A-Za-z0-9]{2,8}))+)*(-[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]'
+ '{1,8}))+)?|[Xx](-([A-Za-z0-9]{1,8}))+|'
+ '(([Ee][Nn]-[Gg][Bb]-[Oo][Ee][Dd]|[Ii]-'
+ '[Aa][Mm][Ii]|[Ii]-[Bb][Nn][Nn]|[Ii]-'
+ '[Dd][Ee][Ff][Aa][Uu][Ll][Tt]|[Ii]-'
+ '[Ee][Nn][Oo][Cc][Hh][Ii][Aa][Nn]'
+ '|[Ii]-[Hh][Aa][Kk]|'
+ '[Ii]-[Kk][Ll][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo][Nn]|'
+ '[Ii]-[Ll][Uu][Xx]|[Ii]-[Mm][Ii][Nn][Gg][Oo]|'
+ '[Ii]-[Nn][Aa][Vv][Aa][Jj][Oo]|[Ii]-[Pp][Ww][Nn]|'
+ '[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Oo]|[Ii]-[Tt][Aa][Yy]|'
+ '[Ii]-[Tt][Ss][Uu]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Ff][Rr]|'
+ '[Ss][Gg][Nn]-[Bb][Ee]-[Nn][Ll]|[Ss][Gg][Nn]-'
+ '[Cc][Hh]-[Dd][Ee])|([Aa][Rr][Tt]-'
+ '[Ll][Oo][Jj][Bb][Aa][Nn]|[Cc][Ee][Ll]-'
+ '[Gg][Aa][Uu][Ll][Ii][Ss][Hh]|'
+ '[Nn][Oo]-[Bb][Oo][Kk]|[Nn][Oo]-'
+ '[Nn][Yy][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Gg][Uu][Oo][Yy][Uu]|'
+ '[Zz][Hh]-[Hh][Aa][Kk][Kk][Aa]|[Zz][Hh]-'
+ '[Mm][Ii][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Mm][Ii][Nn]-'
+ '[Nn][Aa][Nn]|[Zz][Hh]-[Xx][Ii][Aa][Nn][Gg])))';
}
default "en-US";
description
"The value in this field indicates the language tag
used for the human readable fields (i.e., '../message',
'/i2nsf-log/i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log/output', and
'/i2nsf-log/i2nsf-system-user-activity-log/additional-info
/cause').
The attribute is encoded following the rules in Section 2.1
in RFC 5646. The default language tag is 'en-US'";
reference
"RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages";
}
}
grouping common-monitoring-data {
description
"A set of common monitoring data that is needed
as the basic information.";
leaf vendor-name { leaf vendor-name {
type string; type string;
description description
"The name of the NSF vendor. The string is unrestricted to "The name of the NSF vendor. The string is unrestricted to
identify the provider or vendor of the NSF."; identify the provider or vendor of the NSF.";
} }
leaf device-model {
type string;
description
"The model of the device, can be represented by the
device model name or serial number. This field is used to
identify the model of the device that provides the security
service.";
}
leaf software-version {
type string;
description
"The version of the software used to provide the security
service";
}
leaf nsf-name { leaf nsf-name {
type union { type union {
type string; type string;
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
} }
mandatory true;
description description
"The name or IP address of the NSF generating the message. "The name or IP address of the NSF generating the message.
If the given nsf-name is not an IP address, the name can be If the given nsf-name is not an IP address, the name can be
an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain an arbitrary string including a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain
Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope of management Name). The name MUST be unique in the scope of management
domain for a different NSF to identify the NSF that domain for a different NSF to identify the NSF that
generates the message."; generates the message.";
} }
leaf severity {
type severity;
description
"The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
middle, and low.";
}
} }
grouping characteristics { grouping characteristics {
description description
"A set of characteristics of a notification."; "A set of characteristics of a monitoring information.";
leaf acquisition-method { leaf acquisition-method {
type identityref { type identityref {
base acquisition-method; base acquisition-method;
} }
description description
"The acquisition-method for characteristics"; "The acquisition-method for characteristics";
} }
leaf emission-type { leaf emission-type {
when "derived-from-or-self(../acquisition-method, "
+ "'nsfmi:subscription')";
type identityref { type identityref {
base emission-type; base emission-type;
} }
description description
"The emission-type for characteristics"; "The emission-type for characteristics. This attribute is
used only when the acquisition-method is a 'subscription'";
} }
}
grouping characteristics-extended {
description
"An extended characteristics for the monitoring information.";
uses characteristics;
leaf dampening-type { leaf dampening-type {
type identityref { type identityref {
base dampening-type; base dampening-type;
} }
description description
"The dampening-type for characteristics"; "The dampening-type for characteristics";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content { grouping i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content {
description description
"A set of contents for alarm type notification."; "A set of contents for alarm type notification.";
leaf usage { leaf usage {
type uint8 { type uint8 {
range "0..100"; range "0..100";
} }
units "percent"; units "percent";
description description
skipping to change at page 55, line 48 skipping to change at page 55, line 45
leaf-list group { leaf-list group {
type string; type string;
min-elements 1; min-elements 1;
description description
"The group(s) to which a user belongs."; "The group(s) to which a user belongs.";
} }
leaf ip-address { leaf ip-address {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The IPv4 (or IPv6) address of a user that trigger the "The IPv4 or IPv6 address of a user that trigger the
event."; event.";
} }
leaf l4-port-number { leaf l4-port-number {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The transport layer port number used by the user."; "The transport layer port number used by the user.";
} }
leaf authentication { leaf authentication {
type identityref { type identityref {
base authentication-mode; base authentication-mode;
} }
description description
"The authentication-mode of a user."; "The authentication-mode of a user.";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content { grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content {
description description
"A set of common IPv4 (or IPv6)-related NSF event "A set of common IPv4 or IPv6-related NSF event
content elements"; content elements";
leaf dst-ip { leaf dst-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The destination IPv4 (IPv6) address of the packet"; "The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the packet";
} }
leaf dst-port { leaf dst-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The destination port of the packet"; "The destination port of the packet";
} }
leaf rule-name { leaf rule-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name"; +"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered"; "The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend { grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend {
description description
"A set of extended common IPv4 (or IPv6)-related NSF "A set of extended common IPv4 or IPv6 related NSF
event content elements"; event content elements";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content;
leaf src-ip { leaf src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The source IPv4 (or IPv6) address of the packet or flow"; "The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the packet or flow";
} }
leaf src-port { leaf src-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The source port of the packet or flow"; "The source port of the packet or flow";
} }
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content;
} }
grouping log-action { grouping action {
description description
"A grouping for logging action."; "A grouping for action.";
leaf-list action { leaf-list action {
type log-action; type identityref {
base nsfintf:ingress-action;
}
description description
"Action type: allow, alert, block, discard, declare, "Action type: pass, drop, reject, mirror, or rate limit";
block-ip, block-service";
} }
} }
grouping attack-rates { grouping attack-rates {
description description
"A set of traffic rates for monitoring attack traffic "A set of traffic rates for monitoring attack traffic
data"; data";
leaf attack-rate { leaf attack-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The average packets per second (pps) rate of attack "The average packets per second (pps) rate of attack
traffic"; traffic";
} }
leaf attack-throughput { leaf attack-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The average bytes per second (Bps) throughput of attack "The average bytes per second (Bps) throughput of attack
skipping to change at page 58, line 4 skipping to change at page 57, line 52
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or "The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or
more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. more of the counters suffered a discontinuity.
If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last If no such discontinuities have occurred since the last
re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then
this node contains the time the local management subsystem this node contains the time the local management subsystem
was re-initialized."; was re-initialized.";
} }
leaf measurement-time {
type uint32;
units "seconds";
description
"The time of the measurement in seconds for the
calculation of statistics such as traffic rate and
throughput. The statistic attributes are measured over
the past measurement duration before now.";
}
leaf total-traffic { leaf total-traffic {
type yang:counter64; type yang:counter64;
units "packets"; units "packets";
description description
"The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in the "The total number of traffic packets (in and out) in the
NSF."; NSF.";
} }
leaf in-traffic-average-rate { leaf in-traffic-average-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"Inbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps). "Inbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps).
The average is calculated from the start of the NSF service The average is calculated from the start of the NSF service
until the generation of this record."; until the generation of this record.";
} }
leaf in-traffic-peak-rate { leaf in-traffic-peak-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per second (pps)."; "Inbound traffic peak rate in packets per second (pps).";
} }
leaf in-traffic-average-throughput { leaf in-traffic-average-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"Inbound traffic average throughput in bytes per second "Inbound traffic average throughput in bytes per second
(Bps). The average is calculated from the start of the NSF (Bps). The average is calculated from the start of the NSF
service until the generation of this record."; service until the generation of this record.";
} }
leaf in-traffic-peak-throughput { leaf in-traffic-peak-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"Inbound traffic peak throughput in bytes per second (Bps)."; "Inbound traffic peak throughput in bytes per second (Bps).";
} }
leaf out-traffic-average-rate { leaf out-traffic-average-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"Outbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps). "Outbound traffic average rate in packets per second (pps).
The average is calculated from the start of the NSF service The average is calculated from the start of the NSF service
until the generation of this record."; until the generation of this record.";
} }
leaf out-traffic-peak-rate { leaf out-traffic-peak-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per second (pps)."; "Outbound traffic peak rate in packets per second (pps).";
} }
leaf out-traffic-average-throughput { leaf out-traffic-average-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"Outbound traffic average throughput in bytes per second "Outbound traffic average throughput in bytes per second
(Bps). The average is calculated from the start of the NSF (Bps). The average is calculated from the start of the NSF
service until the generation of this record."; service until the generation of this record.";
} }
leaf out-traffic-peak-throughput { leaf out-traffic-peak-throughput {
skipping to change at page 59, line 22 skipping to change at page 59, line 30
service until the generation of this record."; service until the generation of this record.";
} }
leaf out-traffic-peak-throughput { leaf out-traffic-peak-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"Outbound traffic peak throughput in bytes per second "Outbound traffic peak throughput in bytes per second
(Bps)."; (Bps).";
} }
} }
grouping i2nsf-system-counter-type-content{ grouping i2nsf-system-counter-type-content {
description description
"A set of counters for an interface traffic data."; "A set of counters for an interface traffic data.";
leaf interface-name { leaf interface-name {
type if:interface-ref; type if:interface-ref;
description description
"Network interface name configured in an NSF"; "Network interface name configured in an NSF";
reference reference
"RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management"; "RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management";
} }
leaf protocol { leaf protocol {
skipping to change at page 60, line 39 skipping to change at page 60, line 48
} }
leaf out-drop-traffic-bytes { leaf out-drop-traffic-bytes {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "bytes"; units "bytes";
description description
"Total outbound drop bytes"; "Total outbound drop bytes";
} }
uses traffic-rates; uses traffic-rates;
} }
grouping i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content{ grouping i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content {
description description
"A set of contents of a policy in an NSF."; "A set of contents of a policy in an NSF.";
leaf policy-name { leaf policy-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:name"; +"/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the policy being triggered"; "The name of the policy being triggered";
} }
leaf src-user{
type string;
description
"The I2NSF User's name who generates the policy.";
}
} }
grouping enable-notification { grouping enable-notification {
description description
"A grouping for enabling or disabling notification"; "A grouping for enabling or disabling notification";
leaf enabled { leaf enabled {
type boolean; type boolean;
default "true"; default "true";
description description
"Enables or Disables the notification. "Enables or Disables the notification.
If 'true', then the notification is enabled. If 'true', then the notification is enabled.
If 'false, then the notification is disabled."; If 'false, then the notification is disabled.";
} }
} }
grouping dampening { grouping dampening {
description description
"A grouping for dampening period of notification."; "A grouping for dampening period of notification.";
leaf dampening-period { leaf dampening-period {
type uint32; type centiseconds;
units "centiseconds";
default "0"; default "0";
description description
"Specifies the minimum interval between the assembly of "Specifies the minimum interval between the assembly of
successive update records for a single receiver of a successive update records for a single receiver of a
subscription. Whenever subscribed objects change and subscription. Whenever subscribed objects change and
a dampening-period interval (which may be zero) has a dampening-period interval (which may be zero) has
elapsed since the previous update record creation for elapsed since the previous update record creation for
a receiver, any subscribed objects and properties a receiver, any subscribed objects and properties
that have changed since the previous update record that have changed since the previous update record
will have their current values marshalled and placed will have their current values marshalled and placed
skipping to change at page 62, line 4 skipping to change at page 62, line 6
record without sending the notification until the dampening- record without sending the notification until the dampening-
period is finished. If multiple changes happen during the period is finished. If multiple changes happen during the
active dampening-period, it should update the record with active dampening-period, it should update the record with
the latest data. And at the end of the dampening-period, it the latest data. And at the end of the dampening-period, it
should send the record as a notification with the latest should send the record as a notification with the latest
updated record and restart the countdown."; updated record and restart the countdown.";
reference reference
"RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for "RFC 8641: Subscription to YANG Notifications for
Datastore Updates - Section 5."; Datastore Updates - Section 5.";
} }
}
grouping language {
description
"A grouping for language tag";
leaf language {
type string {
pattern
"^((en-GB-oed|i-ami|i-bnn|i-default|"
+ "i-enochian|i-hak|i-klingon|i-lux|i-mingo|i-navajo|i-pwn|"
+ "i-tao|i-tay|i-tsu|sgn-BE-FR|sgn-BE-NL|sgn-CH-DE)|"
+ "(art-lojban|cel-gaulish|no-bok|no-nyn|zh-guoyu|zh-hakka|"
+ "zh-min|zh-min-nan|zh-xiang)|"
+ "(([A-Za-z]{2,3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}(-[A-Za-z]{3}){0,2})?)|"
+ "[A-Za-z]{4}|[A-Za-z]{5,8}"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{4})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z]{2}|[0-9]{3})?"
+ "(-[A-Za-z0-9]{5,8}|[0-9][A-Za-z0-9]{3})*"
+ "(-[0-9A-WY-Za-wy-z](-[A-Za-z0-9]{2,8})+)*"
+ "(-x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)?)|"
+ "x(-[A-Za-z0-9]{1,8})+)$";
}
description
"The value in this field describes the human language
intended for the user, so that it allows a user to
differentiate the language that is used in the
notification. This field is mandatory only
when the implementation provides more than one human
language for the human-readable string fields.
This field uses the language-tag production in Section 2.1
in RFC 5646. See the document for more details.";
reference
"RFC 5646: Tags for Identifying Languages";
}
} }
/* /*
* Feature Nodes * Feature Nodes
*/ */
feature i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos { feature i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {
description description
"This feature means it supports I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos "This feature means it supports I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos
notification"; notification";
skipping to change at page 63, line 34 skipping to change at page 62, line 49
"This feature means it supports I2NSF nsf-log-dpi "This feature means it supports I2NSF nsf-log-dpi
notification"; notification";
} }
/* /*
* Notification nodes * Notification nodes
*/ */
notification i2nsf-event { notification i2nsf-event {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF Event."; "Notification for I2NSF Event. This notification provides
general information that can be supported by most types of
NSFs.";
uses language; uses common-monitoring-data;
uses message;
uses characteristics-extended;
choice sub-event-type { choice sub-event-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each
i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one
container with all the sub-event fields."; container with all the sub-event fields.";
case i2nsf-system-detection-alarm { case i2nsf-system-detection-alarm {
container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm{ container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a system alarm "This notification is sent, when a system alarm
is detected."; is detected.";
leaf alarm-category { leaf alarm-category {
type identityref { type identityref {
base system-alarm; base system-alarm;
} }
description description
"The alarm category for "The alarm category for
system-detection-alarm notification"; system-detection-alarm notification";
} }
leaf component-name { leaf component-name {
type string; type string;
description description
"The hardware component responsible for generating "The hardware component responsible for generating
the message. Applicable for Hardware Failure the message. Applicable for Hardware Failure
skipping to change at page 64, line 18 skipping to change at page 63, line 36
system-detection-alarm notification"; system-detection-alarm notification";
} }
leaf component-name { leaf component-name {
type string; type string;
description description
"The hardware component responsible for generating "The hardware component responsible for generating
the message. Applicable for Hardware Failure the message. Applicable for Hardware Failure
Alarm."; Alarm.";
} }
leaf interface-name { leaf interface-name {
when "derived-from-or-self(../alarm-category, "
+ "'nsfmi:interface-alarm')";
type if:interface-ref; type if:interface-ref;
description description
"The interface name responsible for generating "The interface name responsible for generating
the message. Applicable for Network Interface the message. Applicable for Network Interface
Failure Alarm."; Failure Alarm.";
reference reference
"RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management"; "RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management";
} }
leaf interface-state { leaf interface-state {
when "derived-from-or-self(../alarm-category, "
+ "'nsfmi:interface-alarm')";
type enumeration { type enumeration {
enum up { enum up {
value 1; value 1;
description description
"The interface state is up and not congested. "The interface state is up and not congested.
The interface is ready to pass packets."; The interface is ready to pass packets.";
} }
enum down { enum down {
value 2; value 2;
description description
skipping to change at page 65, line 30 skipping to change at page 65, line 4
"Down due to state of lower-layer interface(s)."; "Down due to state of lower-layer interface(s).";
} }
} }
description description
"The state of the interface. Applicable for Network "The state of the interface. Applicable for Network
Interface Failure Alarm."; Interface Failure Alarm.";
reference reference
"RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management - "RFC 8343: A YANG Data Model for Interface Management -
Operational States"; Operational States";
} }
uses characteristics; leaf severity {
type severity;
description
"The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
middle, and low.";
}
uses i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-system-detection-event { case i2nsf-system-detection-event {
container i2nsf-system-detection-event { container i2nsf-system-detection-event {
description description
"This notification is sent when a security-sensitive "This notification is sent when an event in the system is
authentication action fails."; detected, such as access violation and configuration
change";
leaf event-category { leaf event-category {
type identityref { type identityref {
base system-event; base system-event;
} }
description description
"The event category for system-detection-event"; "The event category for system-detection-event";
} }
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
list changes { list changes {
when "derived-from-or-self(../event-category, "
+ "'nsfmi:configuration-change')";
key policy-name; key policy-name;
description description
"Describes the modification that was made to the "Describes the modification that was made to the
configuration. The minimum information that must be configuration. This list is only applicable when the
provided is the name of the policy that has been event is 'configuration-change'.
altered (added, modified, or removed). The minimum information that must be provided is the
name of the policy that has been altered (added,
modified, or removed).
This list can be extended with the detailed This list can be extended with the detailed
information about the specific changes made to the information about the specific changes made to the
configuration based on the implementation."; configuration based on the implementation.";
leaf policy-name { leaf policy-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:name"; +"/nsfintf:name";
} }
description description
skipping to change at page 67, line 9 skipping to change at page 66, line 39
egress interface."; egress interface.";
} }
} }
description description
"The type of a network interface such as an ingress or "The type of a network interface such as an ingress or
egress interface."; egress interface.";
} }
leaf src-mac { leaf src-mac {
type yang:mac-address; type yang:mac-address;
description description
"The source MAC address of the traffic flow."; "The source MAC address of the traffic flow. This
information may or may not be included depending on
the type of traffic flow. For example, the information
will be useful and should be included if the traffic
flows are traffic flows of Link Layer Discovery
Protocol (LLDP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for
IPv4, and Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND) for IPv6.";
reference
"IEEE-802.1AB: IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan
area networks - Station and Media Access Control
Connectivity Discovery - Link Layer Discovery Protocol
(LLDP)
RFC 826: An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol -
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
RFC 4861: Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6) -
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND)";
} }
leaf dst-mac { leaf dst-mac {
type yang:mac-address; type yang:mac-address;
description description
"The destination MAC address of the traffic flow."; "The destination MAC address of the traffic flow. This
information may or may not be included depending on
the type of traffic flow. For example, the information
will be useful and should be included if the traffic
flows are traffic flows of Link Layer Discovery
Protocol (LLDP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for
IPv4, and Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND) for IPv6.";
reference
"IEEE-802.1AB: IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan
area networks - Station and Media Access Control
Connectivity Discovery - Link Layer Discovery Protocol
(LLDP)
RFC 826: An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol -
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
RFC 4861: Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6) -
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND)";
} }
leaf src-ip { leaf src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The source IPv4 (or IPv6) address of the flow"; "The source IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic flow";
} }
leaf dst-ip { leaf dst-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The destination IPv4 (or IPv6) address of the flow"; "The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address of the traffic
flow";
} }
leaf protocol { leaf protocol {
type identityref { type identityref {
base protocol; base protocol;
} }
description description
"The protocol type for nsf-detection-intrusion "The protocol type of a traffic flow";
notification";
} }
leaf src-port { leaf src-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The transport layer source port number of the flow"; "The transport layer source port number of the flow";
} }
leaf dst-port { leaf dst-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The transport layer destination port number of the "The transport layer destination port number of the
flow"; flow";
} }
leaf arrival-rate { leaf measurement-time {
type uint32; type uint32;
units "seconds";
description
"The duration of the measurement in seconds for the
arrival rate and arrival throughput of packets of a
traffic flow. These two metrics (i.e., arrival rate
and arrival throughput) are measured over the past
measurement duration before now.";
}
leaf arrival-rate {
type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The average arrival rate of the flow in packets per "The arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
second. The average is calculated from the start of packets per second measured over the past
the NSF service until the generation of this 'measurement-time'.";
record.";
} }
leaf arrival-throughput { leaf arrival-throughput {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The average arrival rate of the flow in bytes per "The arrival rate of packets of the traffic flow in
second. The average is calculated from the start of bytes per second measured over the past
the NSF service until the generation of this 'measurement-time'.";
record.";
} }
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a session table "This notification is sent, when a session table
event is detected."; event is detected.";
leaf current-session { leaf current-session {
type uint32; type uint32;
skipping to change at page 68, line 35 skipping to change at page 69, line 4
leaf current-session { leaf current-session {
type uint32; type uint32;
description description
"The number of concurrent sessions"; "The number of concurrent sessions";
} }
leaf maximum-session { leaf maximum-session {
type uint32; type uint32;
description description
"The maximum number of sessions that the session "The maximum number of sessions that the session
table can support"; table can support";
} }
leaf threshold { leaf threshold {
type uint32; type uint32;
description description
"The threshold triggering the event"; "The threshold triggering the event";
} }
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
} }
} }
notification i2nsf-log { notification i2nsf-log {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF log. The notification is generated "Notification for I2NSF log. The notification is generated
from the logs of the NSF."; from the logs of the NSF.";
uses language; uses common-monitoring-data;
uses message;
uses characteristics-extended;
choice sub-logs-type { choice sub-logs-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
sub-logs. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each sub-logs. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each
i2nsf-logs message. Each case is expected to define one i2nsf-logs message. Each case is expected to define one
container with all the sub-logs fields."; container with all the sub-logs fields.";
case i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log { case i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log {
container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log { container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log {
description description
skipping to change at page 69, line 35 skipping to change at page 70, line 4
type string; type string;
description description
"The operation performed by a user after login. The "The operation performed by a user after login. The
operation is a command given by a user."; operation is a command given by a user.";
} }
leaf output { leaf output {
type string; type string;
description description
"The result in text format after executing the "The result in text format after executing the
input."; input.";
} }
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-system-res-util-log { case i2nsf-system-res-util-log {
container i2nsf-system-res-util-log { container i2nsf-system-res-util-log {
description description
"This notification is sent, if there is a new log "This notification is sent, if there is a new log
entry representing resource utilization updates."; entry representing resource utilization updates.";
leaf system-status { leaf system-status {
type enumeration { type enumeration {
skipping to change at page 70, line 31 skipping to change at page 70, line 48
description description
"Specifies the relative percentage of CPU utilization "Specifies the relative percentage of CPU utilization
with respect to platform resources"; with respect to platform resources";
} }
leaf memory-usage { leaf memory-usage {
type uint8; type uint8;
units "percent"; units "percent";
description description
"Specifies the percentage of memory usage."; "Specifies the percentage of memory usage.";
} }
list disk { list disks {
key disk-id; key disk-id;
description description
"Disk is the hardware to store information for a "Disk is the hardware to store information for a
long period, i.e., Hard Disk or Solid-State Drive."; long period, i.e., Hard Disk or Solid-State Drive.";
leaf disk-id { leaf disk-id {
type string; type string;
description description
"The ID of the storage disk. It is a free form "The ID of the storage disk. It is a free form
identifier to identify the storage disk."; identifier to identify the storage disk.";
} }
leaf disk-usage { leaf disk-usage {
type uint8; type uint8;
units "percent"; units "percent";
description description
skipping to change at page 71, line 29 skipping to change at page 71, line 46
description description
"The network interface for connecting a device "The network interface for connecting a device
with the network."; with the network.";
leaf interface-id { leaf interface-id {
type string; type string;
description description
"The ID of the network interface. It is a free form "The ID of the network interface. It is a free form
identifier to identify the network interface."; identifier to identify the network interface.";
} }
leaf in-traffic-rate { leaf in-traffic-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The total inbound traffic rate in packets per "The total inbound traffic rate in packets per
second"; second";
} }
leaf out-traffic-rate { leaf out-traffic-rate {
type uint32; type uint64;
units "pps"; units "pps";
description description
"The total outbound traffic rate in packets per "The total outbound traffic rate in packets per
second"; second";
} }
leaf in-traffic-throughput { leaf in-traffic-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The total inbound traffic throughput in bytes per "The total inbound traffic throughput in bytes per
second"; second";
} }
leaf out-traffic-throughput { leaf out-traffic-throughput {
type uint64; type uint64;
units "Bps"; units "Bps";
description description
"The total outbound traffic throughput in bytes per "The total outbound traffic throughput in bytes per
second"; second";
} }
} }
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-system-user-activity-log { case i2nsf-system-user-activity-log {
container i2nsf-system-user-activity-log { container i2nsf-system-user-activity-log {
description description
"This notification is sent, if there is a new user "This notification is sent, if there is a new user
activity log entry."; activity log entry.";
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
leaf online-duration { leaf online-duration {
type uint32; type uint32;
units "seconds"; units "seconds";
description description
"The duration of a user's activeness (stays in login) "The duration of a user's activeness (stays in login)
during a session."; during a session.";
} }
leaf logout-duration { leaf logout-duration {
type uint32; type uint32;
units "seconds"; units "seconds";
description description
"The duration of a user's inactiveness (not in login) "The duration of a user's inactiveness (not in login)
from the last session."; from the last session.";
} }
leaf additional-info { container additional-info {
type enumeration { leaf type {
enum successful-login { type enumeration {
description enum successful-login {
"The user has succeeded in login."; description
} "The user has succeeded in login.";
enum failed-login { }
description enum failed-login {
"The user has failed in login (e.g., wrong description
password)"; "The user has failed in login (e.g., wrong
} password)";
enum logout { }
description enum logout {
"The user has succeeded in logout"; description
} "The user has succeeded in logout";
enum successful-password-changed { }
description enum successful-password-changed {
"The password has been changed successfully"; description
} "The password has been changed successfully";
enum failed-password-changed{ }
description enum failed-password-changed {
"The attempt to change password has failed"; description
} "The attempt to change password has failed";
enum lock { }
description enum lock {
"The user has been locked. A locked user cannot description
login."; "The user has been locked. A locked user cannot
} login.";
enum unlock { }
description enum unlock {
"The user has been unlocked."; description
"The user has been unlocked.";
}
} }
description
"User activities, e.g., Successful User Login,
Failed Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User
Password Change, Failed User Password Change, User
Lockout, User Unlocking, and Unknown.";
}
leaf cause {
type string;
description
"The cause of a failed user activity related to the
type of user activity. For example, when the 'type'
is failed-login, the value of this attribute can be
'Failed login attempt due to wrong password
entry'.";
} }
description description
"User activities, e.g., Successful User Login, "The additional information about user activity.";
Failed Login attempts, User Logout, Successful User
Password Change, Failed User Password Change, User
Lockout, User Unlocking, and Unknown.";
} }
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi { case i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi";
container i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi { container i2nsf-nsf-log-dpi {
description description
"This notification is sent, if there is a new DPI "This notification is sent, if there is a new DPI
event in the NSF log."; event in the NSF log.";
leaf attack-type { leaf attack-type {
type dpi-type; type identityref {
base dpi-type;
}
description description
"The type of the DPI"; "The type of the DPI";
} }
uses characteristics; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content; uses action;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
} }
} }
notification i2nsf-nsf-event { notification i2nsf-nsf-event {
description description
"Notification for I2NSF NSF Event. This notification is "Notification for I2NSF NSF Event. This notification provides
used for a specific NSF that supported such feature."; specific information that can only be provided by an NSF
that supports additional features (e.g., DDoS attack
detection).";
uses language; uses common-monitoring-data;
uses message;
uses characteristics-extended;
choice sub-event-type { choice sub-event-type {
description description
"This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed "This choice must be augmented with cases for each allowed
sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each sub-event. Only 1 sub-event will be instantiated in each
i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one i2nsf-event message. Each case is expected to define one
container with all the sub-event fields."; container with all the sub-event fields.";
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {
skipping to change at page 74, line 42 skipping to change at page 75, line 24
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time stamp indicating when the attack started"; "The time stamp indicating when the attack started";
} }
leaf end-time { leaf end-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
description description
"The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If "The time stamp indicating when the attack ended. If
the attack is still undergoing when sending out the the attack is still undergoing when sending out the
notification, this field can be empty."; notification, this field can be omitted.";
} }
leaf-list attack-src-ip { leaf-list attack-src-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The source IPv4 (or IPv6) addresses of attack "The source IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of attack
traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 (or IPv6) traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 or IPv6
addresses."; addresses. Note that all IP addresses should not be
included, but only limited IP addresses are included
to conserve the server resources. The listed attacking
IP addresses can be an arbitrary sampling of the
'top talkers', i.e., the attackers that send the
highest amount of traffic.";
} }
leaf-list attack-dst-ip { leaf-list attack-dst-ip {
type inet:ip-address-no-zone; type inet:ip-address-no-zone;
description description
"The destination IPv4 (or IPv6) addresses of attack "The destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of attack
traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 (or IPv6) traffic. It can hold multiple IPv4 or IPv6
addresses."; addresses.";
} }
leaf-list attack-src-port { leaf-list attack-src-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The transport layer source ports of the DDoS attack"; "The transport-layer source ports of the DDoS attack.
Note that not all ports will have been seen on all the
corresponding source IP addresses.";
} }
leaf-list attack-dst-port { leaf-list attack-dst-port {
type inet:port-number; type inet:port-number;
description description
"The transport layer destination ports of the DDoS "The transport-layer destination ports of the DDoS
attack"; attack. Note that not all ports will have been seen
on all the corresponding destination IP addresses.";
} }
leaf rule-name { leaf rule-name {
type leafref { type leafref {
path path
"/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy" "/nsfintf:i2nsf-security-policy"
+"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name"; +"/nsfintf:rules/nsfintf:name";
} }
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered"; "The name of the I2NSF Policy Rule being triggered";
} }
uses attack-rates; uses attack-rates;
uses log-action;
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a virus is detected."; "This notification is sent, when a virus is detected.";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
leaf virus-name { leaf virus-name {
type string; type string;
skipping to change at page 76, line 26 skipping to change at page 77, line 11
used to identify the host/device that is infected by used to identify the host/device that is infected by
the virus. If the given name is not an IP address, the the virus. If the given name is not an IP address, the
name can be an arbitrary string including a FQDN name can be an arbitrary string including a FQDN
(Fully Qualified Domain Name). The name MUST be unique (Fully Qualified Domain Name). The name MUST be unique
in the scope of management domain for identifying the in the scope of management domain for identifying the
device that has been infected with a virus."; device that has been infected with a virus.";
} }
leaf file-type { leaf file-type {
type string; type string;
description description
"The type of file virus code is found in (if "The type of a file (indicated by the file's suffix,
e.g., .exe) where virus code is found (if
applicable)."; applicable).";
reference
"IANA Website: Media Types";
} }
leaf file-name { leaf file-name {
type string; type string;
description description
"The name of file virus code is found in (if "The name of file virus code is found in (if
applicable)."; applicable).";
} }
leaf os { leaf os {
type string; type string;
description description
"The operating system of the device."; "The operating system of the device.";
} }
uses log-action;
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion {
description description
"This notification is sent, when an intrusion event "This notification is sent, when an intrusion event
is detected."; is detected.";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
leaf protocol { leaf protocol {
type identityref { type identityref {
base transport-protocol; base transport-protocol;
} }
description description
"The transport protocol type for "The transport protocol type for
nsf-detection-intrusion notification"; nsf-detection-intrusion notification";
} }
leaf app { leaf app {
skipping to change at page 77, line 28 skipping to change at page 78, line 9
description description
"The employed application layer protocol"; "The employed application layer protocol";
} }
leaf attack-type { leaf attack-type {
type identityref { type identityref {
base intrusion-attack-type; base intrusion-attack-type;
} }
description description
"The sub attack type for intrusion attack"; "The sub attack type for intrusion attack";
} }
uses log-action;
uses attack-rates;
uses characteristics;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack {
description description
"This notification is sent, when an attack event is "This notification is sent, when an attack event is
detected."; detected.";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
leaf attack-type { leaf attack-type {
skipping to change at page 78, line 7 skipping to change at page 78, line 33
"Concrete web attack type, e.g., SQL injection, "Concrete web attack type, e.g., SQL injection,
command injection, XSS, and CSRF."; command injection, XSS, and CSRF.";
} }
leaf req-method { leaf req-method {
type identityref { type identityref {
base req-method; base req-method;
} }
description description
"The HTTP method of the request, e.g., PUT or GET."; "The HTTP method of the request, e.g., PUT or GET.";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics - Request "draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics -
Methods"; Request Methods";
} }
leaf req-target { leaf req-target {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Request Target. This field can be filled in "The HTTP Request Target. This field can be filled in
the format of origin-form, absolute-form, the format of origin-form, absolute-form,
authority-form, or asterisk-form"; authority-form, or asterisk-form";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1 - Request "draft-ietf-httpbis-messaging-19: HTTP/1.1 - Request
Target"; Target";
} }
leaf-list filtering-type { leaf-list filtering-type {
type identityref { type identityref {
base filter-type; base filter-type;
} }
description description
"URL filtering type, e.g., deny-list, allow-list, "URL filtering type, e.g., deny-list, allow-list,
and Unknown"; and Unknown";
} }
leaf req-user-agent { leaf cookies {
type string;
description
"The HTTP User-Agent header field of the request";
reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics - User
Agent";
}
leaf cookie {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Cookie header field of the request from "The HTTP Cookies header field of the request from
the user agent."; the user agent. The cookie information needs to be
kept confidential and is not RECOMMENDED to be
included in the monitoring data unless the information
is absolutely necessary to help to enhance the
security of the network.";
reference reference
"RFC 6265: HTTP State Management Mechanism - Cookie"; "RFC 6265: HTTP State Management Mechanism - Cookie";
} }
leaf req-host { leaf req-host {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Host header field of the request"; "The HTTP Host header field of the request";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics - Host"; "draft-ietf-httpbis-semantics-19: HTTP Semantics - Host";
} }
leaf response-code { leaf response-code {
type string; type string;
description description
"The HTTP Response status code"; "The HTTP Response status code";
reference reference
"IANA Website: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) "IANA Website: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Status Code Registry"; Status Code Registry";
} }
uses characteristics;
uses log-action;
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
case i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn { case i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn";
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn {
description description
"This notification is sent, when a VoIP/VoCN violation "This notification is sent, when a VoIP/VoCN violation
is detected."; is detected.";
uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend; uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
leaf-list source-voice-id { leaf-list source-voice-id {
skipping to change at page 79, line 41 skipping to change at page 80, line 12
description description
"The detected destination voice ID for VoIP and VoCN "The detected destination voice ID for VoIP and VoCN
that violates the security policy."; that violates the security policy.";
} }
leaf-list user-agent { leaf-list user-agent {
type string; type string;
description description
"The detected user-agent for VoIP and VoCN that "The detected user-agent for VoIP and VoCN that
violates the security policy."; violates the security policy.";
} }
uses common-monitoring-data;
} }
} }
} }
} }
/* /*
* Data nodes * Data nodes
*/ */
container i2nsf-counters { container i2nsf-counters {
config false; config false;
description description
"The state data representing continuous value changes of "The state data representing continuous value changes of
information elements that occur very frequently. The value information elements that occur very frequently. The value
should be calculated from the start of the service of the should be calculated from the start of the service of the
NSF."; NSF.";
uses language; uses common-monitoring-data;
uses timestamp;
uses characteristics;
list system-interface { list system-interface {
key interface-name; key interface-name;
description description
"Interface counters provide the visibility of traffic into "Interface counters provide the visibility of traffic into
and out of an NSF, and bandwidth usage."; and out of an NSF, and bandwidth usage.";
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-system-counter-type-content; uses i2nsf-system-counter-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
uses timestamp;
} }
list nsf-firewall { list nsf-firewall {
key policy-name; key policy-name;
description description
"Firewall counters provide the visibility of traffic "Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures
signatures, bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth usage that correspond to the policy that is
and bandwidth policies have been applied."; configured in a firewall.";
uses characteristics; leaf in-interface {
type if:interface-ref;
description
"Inbound interface of the traffic";
}
leaf out-interface {
type if:interface-ref;
description
"Outbound interface of the traffic";
}
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content; uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses traffic-rates; uses traffic-rates;
uses common-monitoring-data;
uses timestamp;
} }
list nsf-policy-hits { list nsf-policy-hits {
key policy-name; key policy-name;
description description
"Policy hit counters record the number of hits that traffic "Policy hit counters record the number of hits that traffic
packets match a security policy. It can check if policy packets match a security policy. It can check if policy
configurations are correct or not."; configurations are correct or not.";
uses characteristics;
uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content; uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
uses common-monitoring-data;
leaf discontinuity-time { leaf discontinuity-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or "The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or
more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no such more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no such
discontinuities have occurred since the last discontinuities have occurred since the last
re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then
this node contains the time the local management subsystem this node contains the time the local management subsystem
was re-initialized."; was re-initialized.";
skipping to change at page 81, line 4 skipping to change at page 81, line 26
leaf discontinuity-time { leaf discontinuity-time {
type yang:date-and-time; type yang:date-and-time;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or "The time on the most recent occasion at which any one or
more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no such more of the counters suffered a discontinuity. If no such
discontinuities have occurred since the last discontinuities have occurred since the last
re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then re-initialization of the local management subsystem, then
this node contains the time the local management subsystem this node contains the time the local management subsystem
was re-initialized."; was re-initialized.";
} }
leaf hit-times { leaf hit-times {
type yang:counter64; type yang:counter64;
description description
"The number of times that the security policy matches the "The number of times that the security policy matches the
specified traffic."; specified traffic.";
} }
uses timestamp;
} }
} }
container i2nsf-monitoring-configuration { container i2nsf-monitoring-configuration {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF monitoring."; "The container for configuring I2NSF monitoring.";
container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm { container i2nsf-system-detection-alarm {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF system-detection-alarm "The container for configuring I2NSF system-detection-alarm
notification"; notification";
skipping to change at page 82, line 44 skipping to change at page 83, line 17
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-ddos";
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-ddos
notification"; notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-virus";
description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-virus
notification";
uses enable-notification;
uses dampening;
}
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-session-table {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-session- "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-session-
table notification"; table notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-intrusion";
description description
skipping to change at page 83, line 19 skipping to change at page 83, line 48
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack { container i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack"; if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-web-attack";
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-web-attack "The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-web-attack
notification"; notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn {
if-feature "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn";
description
"The container for configuring I2NSF nsf-detection-voip-vocn
notification";
uses enable-notification;
uses dampening;
}
container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log { container i2nsf-nsf-system-access-log {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF system-access-log "The container for configuring I2NSF system-access-log
notification"; notification";
uses enable-notification; uses enable-notification;
uses dampening; uses dampening;
} }
container i2nsf-system-res-util-log { container i2nsf-system-res-util-log {
description description
"The container for configuring I2NSF system-res-util-log "The container for configuring I2NSF system-res-util-log
skipping to change at page 85, line 28 skipping to change at page 86, line 4
<description>I2NSF Monitoring Event Stream</description> <description>I2NSF Monitoring Event Stream</description>
<replaySupport>true</replaySupport> <replaySupport>true</replaySupport>
<replayLogCreationTime> <replayLogCreationTime>
2021-04-29T09:37:39+00:00 2021-04-29T09:37:39+00:00
</replayLogCreationTime> </replayLogCreationTime>
</stream> </stream>
</streams> </streams>
</netconf> </netconf>
</data> </data>
</rpc-reply> </rpc-reply>
Figure 3: Example of NETCONF Server supporting I2NSF-Monitoring Figure 3: Example of NETCONF Server supporting I2NSF-Monitoring
Event Stream Event Stream
10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring 10. XML Examples for I2NSF NSF Monitoring
This section shows XML examples of I2NSF NSF Monitoring data This section shows XML examples of I2NSF NSF Monitoring data
delivered via Monitoring Interface from an NSF. In order for the XML delivered via Monitoring Interface from an NSF. The XML examples are
data to be used correctly, the prefix (i.e., the characters before following the guidelines from [RFC6241] [RFC7950].
the colon or 'nsfmi' in the example) in the content of the element
that uses the "identityref" type (e.g., /i2nsf-event/i2nsf-system-
detection-alarm/alarm-category/) in the YANG module described in this
document MUST be the same as the namespace prefix (i.e., 'nsfmi' in
the example) for urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
monitoring. Therefore, XML software MUST be chosen that makes the
namespace prefix information available.
10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm 10.1. I2NSF System Detection Alarm
The following example shows an alarm triggered by Memory Usage on the The following example shows an alarm triggered by Memory Usage on the
server; this example XML file is delivered by an NSF to an NSF data server; this example XML file is delivered by an NSF to an NSF data
collector: collector:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<notification <notification
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0">
<eventTime>2021-04-29T07:43:52.181088+00:00</eventTime> <eventTime>2021-04-29T07:43:52.181088+00:00</eventTime>
<i2nsf-event <i2nsf-event
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
<acquisition-method>subscription</acquisition-method>
<emission-type>on-change</emission-type>
<dampening-type>on-repetition</dampening-type>
<language>en-US</language>
<i2nsf-system-detection-alarm> <i2nsf-system-detection-alarm>
<alarm-category <alarm-category>memory-alarm</alarm-category>
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:memory-alarm
</alarm-category>
<acquisition-method
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:subscription
</acquisition-method>
<emission-type
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:on-change
</emission-type>
<dampening-type
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:on-repetition
</dampening-type>
<usage>91</usage> <usage>91</usage>
<threshold>90</threshold> <threshold>90</threshold>
<message>Memory Usage Exceeded the Threshold</message> <message>Memory Usage Exceeded the Threshold</message>
<nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name> <nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name>
<severity>high</severity> <severity>high</severity>
</i2nsf-system-detection-alarm> </i2nsf-system-detection-alarm>
</i2nsf-event> </i2nsf-event>
</notification> </notification>
Figure 4: Example of I2NSF System Detection Alarm triggered by Figure 4: Example of I2NSF System Detection Alarm triggered by
skipping to change at page 88, line 11 skipping to change at page 88, line 11
The following XML file shows the reply from the NETCONF Server (e.g., The following XML file shows the reply from the NETCONF Server (e.g.,
NSF): NSF):
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<rpc-reply message-id="1" <rpc-reply message-id="1"
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0">
<data> <data>
<i2nsf-counters <i2nsf-counters
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
<acquisition-method>query</acquisition-method>
<system-interface> <system-interface>
<discontinuity-time> <discontinuity-time>
2021-04-29T08:43:52.181088+00:00 2021-04-29T08:43:52.181088+00:00
</discontinuity-time> </discontinuity-time>
<interface-name>ens3</interface-name> <interface-name>ens3</interface-name>
<acquisition-method
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:query
</acquisition-method>
<in-total-traffic-bytes>549050</in-total-traffic-bytes> <in-total-traffic-bytes>549050</in-total-traffic-bytes>
<out-total-traffic-bytes>814956</out-total-traffic-bytes> <out-total-traffic-bytes>814956</out-total-traffic-bytes>
<in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes> <in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes>
<out-drop-traffic-bytes>5078</out-drop-traffic-bytes> <out-drop-traffic-bytes>5078</out-drop-traffic-bytes>
<nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name> <nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name>
</system-interface> </system-interface>
<system-interface> <system-interface>
<discontinuity-time> <discontinuity-time>
2021-04-29T08:43:52.181088+00:00 2021-04-29T08:43:52.181088+00:00
</discontinuity-time> </discontinuity-time>
<interface-name>lo</interface-name> <interface-name>lo</interface-name>
<acquisition-method
xmlns:nsfmi="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:\
ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring">
nsfmi:query
</acquisition-method>
<in-total-traffic-bytes>48487</in-total-traffic-bytes> <in-total-traffic-bytes>48487</in-total-traffic-bytes>
<out-total-traffic-bytes>48487</out-total-traffic-bytes> <out-total-traffic-bytes>48487</out-total-traffic-bytes>
<in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes> <in-drop-traffic-bytes>0</in-drop-traffic-bytes>
<out-drop-traffic-bytes>0</out-drop-traffic-bytes> <out-drop-traffic-bytes>0</out-drop-traffic-bytes>
<nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name> <nsf-name>time_based_firewall</nsf-name>
</system-interface> </system-interface>
</i2nsf-counters> </i2nsf-counters>
</data> </data>
</rpc-reply> </rpc-reply>
skipping to change at page 91, line 10 skipping to change at page 90, line 38
security controls and their relative efficacy in detecting or security controls and their relative efficacy in detecting or
mitigating an attack. To an attacker, this information could inform mitigating an attack. To an attacker, this information could inform
how to (further) compromise the network, evade detection, or confirm how to (further) compromise the network, evade detection, or confirm
whether they have been observed by the network operator. whether they have been observed by the network operator.
Additionally, many of the data nodes in this YANG module such as Additionally, many of the data nodes in this YANG module such as
containers "i2nsf-system-user-activity-log", "i2nsf-system-detection- containers "i2nsf-system-user-activity-log", "i2nsf-system-detection-
event", and "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn" are privacy sensitive. event", and "i2nsf-nsf-detection-voip-vocn" are privacy sensitive.
They may describe specific or aggregate user activity including They may describe specific or aggregate user activity including
associating user names with specific IP addresses; or users with associating user names with specific IP addresses; or users with
specific network usage. specific network usage. They may also describe the specific commands
that were run by users and the resulting output. Any sensitive
information in that command input or output will be visible to the
NSF data collector and potentially other entities, and care must be
taken to protect the confidentiality of such data from unauthorized
parties.
13. Acknowledgments 13. Acknowledgments
This document is a product by the I2NSF Working Group (WG) including This document is a product by the I2NSF Working Group (WG) including
WG Chairs (i.e., Linda Dunbar and Yoav Nir) and Diego Lopez. This WG Chairs (i.e., Linda Dunbar and Yoav Nir) and Diego Lopez. This
document took advantage of the review and comments from the following document took advantage of the review and comments from the following
people: Roman Danyliw, Tim Bray (IANA), Kyle Rose (TSV-ART), Dale R. people: Roman Danyliw, Tim Bray (IANA), Kyle Rose (TSV-ART), Dale R.
Worley (Gen-ART), Melinda Shore (SecDir), Valery Smyslov (ART-ART), Worley (Gen-ART), Melinda Shore (SecDir), Valery Smyslov (ART-ART),
and Tom Petch. The authors sincerely appreciate their sincere and Tom Petch. The authors sincerely appreciate their sincere
efforts and kind help. efforts and kind help.
skipping to change at page 92, line 25 skipping to change at page 92, line 18
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
[RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, [RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981, DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>.
[RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5, [RFC0792] Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981, RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc792>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc792>.
[RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.
[RFC0854] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Protocol [RFC0854] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Protocol
Specification", STD 8, RFC 854, DOI 10.17487/RFC0854, May Specification", STD 8, RFC 854, DOI 10.17487/RFC0854, May
1983, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc854>. 1983, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc854>.
[RFC0959] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol", [RFC0959] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
STD 9, RFC 959, DOI 10.17487/RFC0959, October 1985, STD 9, RFC 959, DOI 10.17487/RFC0959, October 1985,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc959>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc959>.
[RFC1939] Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3", [RFC1939] Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3",
STD 53, RFC 1939, DOI 10.17487/RFC1939, May 1996, STD 53, RFC 1939, DOI 10.17487/RFC1939, May 1996,
skipping to change at page 93, line 5 skipping to change at page 92, line 39
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2595] Newman, C., "Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP", [RFC2595] Newman, C., "Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP",
RFC 2595, DOI 10.17487/RFC2595, June 1999, RFC 2595, DOI 10.17487/RFC2595, June 1999,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2595>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2595>.
[RFC3339] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>.
[RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688, [RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.
[RFC3877] Chisholm, S. and D. Romascanu, "Alarm Management [RFC3877] Chisholm, S. and D. Romascanu, "Alarm Management
Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3877, DOI 10.17487/RFC3877, Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3877, DOI 10.17487/RFC3877,
September 2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3877>. September 2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3877>.
[RFC4340] Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram [RFC4340] Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram
Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340, Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340,
skipping to change at page 95, line 28 skipping to change at page 95, line 19
[RFC8639] Voit, E., Clemm, A., Gonzalez Prieto, A., Nilsen-Nygaard, [RFC8639] Voit, E., Clemm, A., Gonzalez Prieto, A., Nilsen-Nygaard,
E., and A. Tripathy, "Subscription to YANG Notifications", E., and A. Tripathy, "Subscription to YANG Notifications",
RFC 8639, DOI 10.17487/RFC8639, September 2019, RFC 8639, DOI 10.17487/RFC8639, September 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8639>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8639>.
[RFC8641] Clemm, A. and E. Voit, "Subscription to YANG Notifications [RFC8641] Clemm, A. and E. Voit, "Subscription to YANG Notifications
for Datastore Updates", RFC 8641, DOI 10.17487/RFC8641, for Datastore Updates", RFC 8641, DOI 10.17487/RFC8641,
September 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8641>. September 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8641>.
[RFC8650] Voit, E., Rahman, R., Nilsen-Nygaard, E., Clemm, A., and
A. Bierman, "Dynamic Subscription to YANG Events and
Datastores over RESTCONF", RFC 8650, DOI 10.17487/RFC8650,
November 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8650>.
[RFC9000] Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based
Multiplexed and Secure Transport", RFC 9000,
DOI 10.17487/RFC9000, May 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9000>.
[RFC9051] Melnikov, A., Ed. and B. Leiba, Ed., "Internet Message [RFC9051] Melnikov, A., Ed. and B. Leiba, Ed., "Internet Message
Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version 4rev2", RFC 9051, Access Protocol (IMAP) - Version 4rev2", RFC 9051,
DOI 10.17487/RFC9051, August 2021, DOI 10.17487/RFC9051, August 2021,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9051>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9051>.
[I-D.ietf-httpbis-http2bis] [I-D.ietf-httpbis-http2bis]
Thomson, M. and C. Benfield, "HTTP/2", Work in Progress, Thomson, M. and C. Benfield, "HTTP/2", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-httpbis-http2bis-07, 24 January Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-httpbis-http2bis-07, 24 January
2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-httpbis- 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-httpbis-
http2bis-07.txt>. http2bis-07.txt>.
skipping to change at page 96, line 16 skipping to change at page 96, line 16
Hares, S., Jeong, J. (., Kim, J. (., Moskowitz, R., and Q. Hares, S., Jeong, J. (., Kim, J. (., Moskowitz, R., and Q.
Lin, "I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model", Work in Progress, Lin, "I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-26, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-26,
10 February 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft- 10 February 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-
ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-26.txt>. ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-26.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]
Kim, J. (., Jeong, J. (., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin, Kim, J. (., Jeong, J. (., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin,
"I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG "I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG
Data Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf- Data Model", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-20, 31 January 2022, i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-22, 21 March 2022,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-
facing-interface-dm-20.txt>. facing-interface-dm-22.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis] [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis]
Eddy, W. M., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Eddy, W. M., "Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Specification", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft- Specification", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-26, 8 February 2022, ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis-28, 7 March 2022,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-tcpm- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-tcpm-
rfc793bis-26.txt>. rfc793bis-28.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis] [I-D.ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis]
Stewart, R. R., Tüxen, M., and K. E. E. Nielsen, "Stream Stewart, R. R., Tüxen, M., and K. E. E. Nielsen, "Stream
Control Transmission Protocol", Work in Progress, Control Transmission Protocol", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis-18, 16 Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis-19, 5
January 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf- February 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-
tsvwg-rfc4960-bis-18.txt>. ietf-tsvwg-rfc4960-bis-19.txt>.
15.2. Informative References 15.2. Informative References
[RFC0826] Plummer, D., "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: Or
Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet
Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware", STD 37,
RFC 826, DOI 10.17487/RFC0826, November 1982,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc826>.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", [RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007, FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4949>.
[RFC8792] Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu, [RFC8792] Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
"Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020, RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8792>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8792>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]
skipping to change at page 97, line 11 skipping to change at page 97, line 24
facing-interface-dm-16, 28 January 2022, facing-interface-dm-16, 28 January 2022,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf- <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-i2nsf-
consumer-facing-interface-dm-16.txt>. consumer-facing-interface-dm-16.txt>.
[IANA-HTTP-Status-Code] [IANA-HTTP-Status-Code]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Hypertext Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry", September Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Status Code Registry", September
2018, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/ 2018, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes/
http-status-codes.xhtml>. http-status-codes.xhtml>.
[IANA-Media-Types] [IEEE-802.1AB]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "Media Types", Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
August 2021, <https://www.iana.org/assignments/media- Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks -
types/media-types.xhtml>. Station and Media Access Control Connectivity Discovery",
March 2016,
<https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7433915>.
Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-14 Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-15
The following changes are made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring- The following changes are made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-
data-model-14: data-model-15:
* This version is added to update the references. * This version is added following Benjamin Kaduk, Francesca
Palombini, and Robert Wilton's comments
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor) Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor)
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon Suwon
Gyeonggi-Do Gyeonggi-Do
16419 16419
 End of changes. 287 change blocks. 
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