draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-13.txt   draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-14.txt 
I2NSF Working Group J. Jeong, Ed. I2NSF Working Group J. Jeong, Ed.
Internet-Draft C. Chung Internet-Draft C. Chung
Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University Intended status: Standards Track Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: September 9, 2021 T. Ahn Expires: 22 February 2022 T. Ahn
Korea Telecom Korea Telecom
R. Kumar R. Kumar
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
S. Hares S. Hares
Huawei Huawei
March 8, 2021 21 August 2021
I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model
draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-13 draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-14
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an information model and a YANG data model This document describes an information model and a YANG data model
for the Consumer-Facing Interface between an Interface to Network for the Consumer-Facing Interface between an Interface to Network
Security Functions (I2NSF) User and Security Controller in an I2NSF Security Functions (I2NSF) User and Security Controller in an I2NSF
system in a Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environment. The system in a Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environment. The
information model defines various types of managed objects and the information model defines various types of managed objects and the
relationship among them needed to build the interface. The relationship among them needed to build the interface. The
information model is based on the "Event-Condition-Action" (ECA) information model is based on the "Event-Condition-Action" (ECA)
policy model defined by a capability information model for I2NSF policy model defined by a capability information model for I2NSF, and
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability], and the data model is defined for the data model is defined for enabling different users of a given
enabling different users of a given I2NSF system to define, manage, I2NSF system to define, manage, and monitor security policies for
and monitor security policies for specific flows within an specific flows within an administrative domain.
administrative domain.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on September 9, 2021. This Internet-Draft will expire on 22 February 2022.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Information Model for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Information Model for Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Event Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Event Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Condition Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2. Condition Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Action Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. Action Sub-model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Information Model for Policy Endpoint Groups . . . . . . . . 10 4. Information Model for Policy Endpoint Groups . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. User Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2. Device Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.2. Device Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.3. Location Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.3. Location Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Information Model for Threat Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.4. URL Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Threat Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Information Model for Threat Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. Payload Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.1. Threat Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. Payload Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6. Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) for I2NSF 6. Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) for I2NSF
Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. YANG Data Model of Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . 18 7. YANG Data Model of Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . 19
7.1. YANG Module of Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . 18 7.1. YANG Module of Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . 19
8. XML Configuration Examples of High-Level Security Policy 8. XML Configuration Examples of High-Level Security Policy
Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.1. Database Registration: Information of Positions and 8.1. Database Registration: Information of Positions and Devices
Devices (Endpoint Group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 (Endpoint Group) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.2. Scenario 1: Block SNS Access during Business Hours . . . 43 8.2. Scenario 1: Block SNS Access during Business Hours . . . 48
8.3. Scenario 2: Block Malicious VoIP/VoLTE Packets Coming to 8.3. Scenario 2: Block Malicious VoIP/VoLTE Packets Coming to a
a Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.4. Scenario 3: Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS Flood Attacks on a 8.4. Scenario 3: Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS Flood Attacks on a
Company Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Company Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9. XML Configuration Example of a User Group's Access Control 9. XML Configuration Example of a User Group's Access Control for
for I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 12. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 13. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Appendix A. Changes from
draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-13 . . . . 59
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In a framework of Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) In a framework of Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
[RFC8329], each vendor can register their NSFs using a Developer's [RFC8329], each vendor can register their NSFs using a Developer's
Management System (DMS). Assuming that vendors also provide the Management System (DMS). Assuming that vendors also provide the
front-end web applications registered with an I2NSF User, the front-end web applications registered with an I2NSF User, the
Consumer-Facing Interface is required because the web applications Consumer-Facing Interface is required because the web applications
developed by each vendor need to have a standard interface specifying developed by each vendor need to have a standard interface specifying
the data types used when the I2NSF User and Security Controller the data types used when the I2NSF User and Security Controller
skipping to change at page 4, line 13 skipping to change at page 4, line 13
document. document.
+-----------------+ +-----------------+
| Consumer-Facing | | Consumer-Facing |
| Interface | | Interface |
+--------+--------+ +--------+--------+
^ ^
| |
+-------------+------------+ +-------------+------------+
| | | | | |
+-----+----+ +-----+----+ +----+----+ +-----+----+ +-----+----+ +----+---+
| Policy | | Endpoint | | Threat | | Policy | | Endpoint | | Threat |
| | | groups | | feed | | | | groups | | feed |
+-----+----+ +----------+ +---------+ +-----+----+ +----------+ +--------+
^ ^
| |
+------+------+ +------+------+
| Rule | | Rule |
+------+------+ +------+------+
^ ^
| |
+----------------+----------------+ +----------------+----------------+
| | | | | |
+------+------+ +------+------+ +------+------+ +------+------+ +------+------+ +------+------+
skipping to change at page 5, line 7 skipping to change at page 5, line 7
Security Functions (NSFs), such as firewall, Intrusion Detection Security Functions (NSFs), such as firewall, Intrusion Detection
System (IDS)/Intrusion Prevention System (IPS), and attack System (IDS)/Intrusion Prevention System (IPS), and attack
mitigation, can also be provided as Virtual Network Functions (VNF) mitigation, can also be provided as Virtual Network Functions (VNF)
in the NFV system. By the efficient virtualization technology, these in the NFV system. By the efficient virtualization technology, these
VNFs might be automatically provisioned and dynamically migrated VNFs might be automatically provisioned and dynamically migrated
based on real-time security requirements. This document presents a based on real-time security requirements. This document presents a
YANG data model to implement security functions based on NFV. YANG data model to implement security functions based on NFV.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
This document uses the terminology described in [RFC8329]. This document uses the terminology described in [RFC8329].
This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common This document follows the guidelines of [RFC8407], uses the common
YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management YANG types defined in [RFC6991], and adopts the Network Management
Datastore Architecture (NMDA). The meaning of the symbols in tree Datastore Architecture (NMDA). The meaning of the symbols in tree
diagrams is defined in [RFC8340]. diagrams is defined in [RFC8340].
3. Information Model for Policy 3. Information Model for Policy
A Policy object represents a mechanism to express a Security Policy A Policy object represents a mechanism to express a Security Policy
by Security Administrator (i.e., I2NSF User) using Consumer-Facing by Security Administrator (i.e., I2NSF User) using Consumer-Facing
Interface toward Security Controller; the policy would be enforced on Interface toward Security Controller; the policy would be enforced on
an NSF. Figure 2 shows the YANG tree of the Policy object. The an NSF. Figure 2 shows the YANG tree of the Policy object. The
Policy object SHALL have the following information: Policy object SHALL have the following information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
Rule: This field contains a list of rules. These rules are Resolution-strategy: This field represent how to resolve conflicts
that occur between actions of the same or different policy
rules that are matched and contained in this particular
NSF.
Rules: This field contains a list of rules. These rules are
defined for 1) communication between two Endpoint Groups, defined for 1) communication between two Endpoint Groups,
2) for preventing communication with externally or 2) for preventing communication with externally or
internally identified threats, and 3) for implementing internally identified threats, and 3) for implementing
business requirement such as controlling access to internal business requirement such as controlling access to internal
or external resources for meeting regulatory compliance or or external resources for meeting regulatory compliance or
business objectives. An organization may restrict certain business objectives. An organization may restrict certain
communication between a set of user and applications for communication between a set of user and applications for
example. The threats may be from threat feeds obtained example. The threats may be from threat feeds obtained
from external sources or dynamically identified by using from external sources or dynamically identified by using
specialty devices in the network. Rule conflict analysis specialty devices in the network. Rule conflict analysis
should be triggered by the monitoring service to perform an should be triggered by the monitoring service to perform an
exhaustive detection of anomalies among the configuration exhaustive detection of anomalies among the configuration
rules installed into the security functions. rules installed into the security functions.
+--rw i2nsf-cfi-policy* [policy-name] +--rw i2nsf-cfi-policy* [policy-name]
+--rw policy-name string +--rw policy-name string
+--rw rules +--rw resolution-strategy? identityref
+--rw endpoint-groups +--rw rules* [rule-name]
+--rw threat-prevention | ...
+--rw endpoint-groups
| ...
+--rw threat-preventions
| ...
+--rw url-group* [name]
| ...
Figure 2: Policy YANG Data Tree Figure 2: Policy YANG Data Tree
A policy is a container of Rule(s). In order to express a Rule, a A policy is a list of rules. In order to express a Rule, a Rule must
Rule must have complete information such as where and when a policy have complete information such as where and when a policy needs to be
needs to be applied. This is done by defining a set of managed applied. This is done by defining a set of managed objects and
objects and relationship among them. A Policy Rule may be related relationship among them. A Policy Rule may be related segmentation,
segmentation, threat mitigation or telemetry data collection from an threat mitigation or telemetry data collection from an NSF in the
NSF in the network, which will be specified as the sub-model of the network, which will be specified as the sub-model of the policy model
policy model in the subsequent sections. Figure 3 shows the YANG in the subsequent sections. Figure 3 shows the YANG data tree of the
data tree of the Rule object. The rule object SHALL have the Rule object. The rule object SHALL have the following information:
following information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Rule-Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
Event: This field includes the information to determine whether Priority: This field identifies the priority of the rule.
Event: This field includes the information to determine whether
the Rule Condition can be evaluated or not. See details in the Rule Condition can be evaluated or not. See details in
Section 4.1. Section 4.1.
Condition: This field contains all the checking conditions to Condition: This field contains all the checking conditions to apply
apply to the objective traffic. See details in to the objective traffic. See details in Section 4.2.
Section 4.2.
Action: This field identifies the action taken when a rule is Action: This field identifies the action taken when a rule is
matched. There is always an implicit action to drop matched. There is always an implicit action to drop
traffic if no rule is matched for a traffic type. See traffic if no rule is matched for a traffic type. See
details in Section 4.3. details in Section 4.3.
IPsec-method: This field contains the information about IPsec +--rw rules* [rule-name]
method type. There are two types such as IPsec-IKE and | +--rw rule-name string
IPsec-IKEless [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection]. | +--rw priority? uint8
| +--rw event
+--rw rules* [rule-name] | +--rw condition
+--rw rule-name string | +--rw actions
+--rw event
+--rw (condition)?
+--rw action
+--rw ipsec-method
Figure 3: Rule YANG Data Tree Figure 3: Rule YANG Data Tree
Note that in the case of policy conflicts, the resolution of the Note that in the case of policy conflicts, the resolution of the
conflicted policies conforms to the guidelines of "Information Model conflicted policies conforms to the guidelines of "Information Model
of NSFs Capabilities" [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability]. of NSFs Capabilities" [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability].
3.1. Event Sub-model 3.1. Event Sub-model
The Event Object contains information related to scheduling a Rule. The Event Object contains information related to scheduling a Rule.
The Rule could be activated based on a set time or security event. The Rule could be activated based on a set time or security event.
Figure 4 shows the YANG tree of the Event object. Event object SHALL Figure 4 shows the YANG tree of the Event object. Event object SHALL
have following information: have following information:
Security-event: This field identifies for which security event Security-event: This field identifies for which security event the
the policy is enforced. The examples of security events policy is enforced. The examples of security events are:
are: "DDOS", "spyware", "trojan", and "ransomware". "DDOS", "spyware", "trojan", and "ransomware".
Time-information: This represents the security rule is enforced Time-information: This represents the security rule is enforced
based on the period information with the end time for the based on the period information with the end time for the
event. event.
Period: This represents the period of time the rule event is Start-date-time: This represents the start time of the event. The
active. rule will start repeating from the specified time"
End-time: This represents the end time of the event. If the End-date-time: This represents the end time of the event. If the
rule time has pass the end-time, the rule will stop rule time has pass the end-time, the rule will stop
repeating" repeating"
Frequency: This represents how frequent the rule should be Period: This represents the period of time the rule event is
enforced. There are four options: "only-once", "daily", active. It can be configured by the start-time, stop-time,
"weekly" and "monthly". day, date, and month.
Frequency: This represents how frequent the rule should be enforced.
There are four options: "only-once", "daily", "weekly",
"monthly" or "yearly".
+--rw event +--rw event
+--rw security-event identityref +--rw security-event identityref
+--rw time-information +--rw time-information
| +--rw start-date-time? yang:date-and-time | +--rw start-date-time? yang:date-and-time
| +--rw end-date-time? yang:date-and-time | +--rw end-date-time? yang:date-and-time
| +--rw period | +--rw period
| | +--rw start-time? time | | +--rw start-time? time
| | +--rw stop-time? time | | +--rw stop-time? time
| | +--rw day* identityref | | +--rw day* identityref
| | +--rw date* int32 | | +--rw date* int32
| | +--rw month* string | | +--rw month* string
+--rw frequency? enumeration +--rw frequency? enumeration
Figure 4: Event Sub-model YANG Data Tree Figure 4: Event Sub-model YANG Data Tree
3.2. Condition Sub-model 3.2. Condition Sub-model
This object represents Conditions that Security Administrator wants This object represents Conditions that Security Administrator wants
to apply the checking on the traffic in order to determine whether to apply the checking on the traffic in order to determine whether
the set of actions in the Rule can be executed or not. The Condition the set of actions in the Rule can be executed or not. The Condition
Sub-model consists of three different types of containers each Sub-model consists of three different types of containers each
representing different cases, such as general firewall and DDoS- representing different cases, such as general firewall and DDoS-
mitigation cases, and a case when the condition is based on the mitigation cases, and a case when the condition is based on the
payload strings of packets. Each containers have source and payload strings of packets. Each containers have source and
destination-target to represent the source and destination for each destination-target to represent the source and destination for each
case. Figure 5 shows the YANG tree of the Condition object. The case. Figure 5 shows the YANG tree of the Condition object. The
Condition Sub-model SHALL have following information: Condition Sub-model SHALL have following information:
Case (Firewall-condition): This field represents the general Case (firewall-condition): This field represents the general
firewall case, where a security admin can set up firewall firewall case, where a security admin can set up firewall
conditions using the information present in this field. conditions using the information present in this field.
The source and destination is represented as firewall- The source and destination is represented as source,
source and firewall-destination, each referring to the IP- destination, transport layer protocol, port numbers, and
address-based groups defined in the endpoint-groups. ICMP parameters.
Case (DDoS-condition): This field represents the condition for Case (ddos-condition): This field represents the condition for DDoS
DDoS mitigation, where a security admin can set up DDoS mitigation, where a security admin can set up DDoS
mitigation conditions using the information present in this mitigation conditions using the information present in this
field. The source and destination is represented as ddos- field. The rate of packet, byte, or flow threshold can be
source and ddos-destination, each referring to the device- configured to mitigate the DDoS.
groups defined and registered in the endpoint-groups.
Case (Custom-condition): This field contains the payload string Case (anti-virus-condition): This field represents the condition for
Antivirus, where a security admin can set up Antivirus
conditions using the information present in this field.
The file names or types can be configured to be allowed
without the Antivirus interuption.
Case (payload-condition): This field contains the payload string
information. This information is useful when security rule information. This information is useful when security rule
condition is based on the string contents of incoming or condition is based on the string contents of incoming or
outgoing packets. The source and destination is outgoing packets. The name referring to the payload-groups
represented as custom-source and custom-destination, each defined and registered in the endpoint-groups.
referring to the payload-groups defined and registered in
the endpoint-groups.
Case (Threat-feed-condition): This field contains the Case (url-condition): This field represents the URL to be filtered.
information obtained from threat-feeds (e.g., Palo-Alto, or This information can be used to block or allow a certain
RSA-netwitness). This information is useful when security URL or website. The url-name is a group of URL or websites
rule condition is based on the existing threat reports to be matched.
gathered by other sources. The source and destination is
represented as threat-feed-source and threat-feed-
destination. For clarity, threat-feed-source/destination
represent the source/destination of a target security
threat, not the information source/destination of a threat-
feed.
+--rw condition Case (voice-condition): This field contains the call source-id, call
+--:firewall-condition destination-id, and user-agent. This information can be
| +--rw source used to filter a caller id or receiver id to prevent any
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name VoIP or VoLTE exploits or attack.
| +--rw destination*
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name
+--:ddos-condition
| +--rw source*
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name
| +--rw destination*
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name
| +--rw rate-limit
| | +--rw packet-threshold-per-second? uint32
+--:location-condition
| +--rw source*
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name
| +--rw destination
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name
+--:custom-condition
| +--rw source*
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/payload-content/name
| +--rw destination?
| | -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/payload-content/name
+--:threat-feed-condition
+--rw source*
| -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/threat-feed-list/name
+--rw destination?
| -> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/threat-feed-list/name
Figure 5: Condition Sub-model YANG Data Tree Case (context-condition): This field represents a context of a
packet or flow. The context can be extended. This module
provides a context of geography location.
Case (Threat-feed-condition): This field contains the information
obtained from threat-feeds (e.g., Palo-Alto, or RSA-
netwitness). This information is useful when security rule
condition is based on the existing threat reports gathered
by other sources.
+--rw condition
| +--rw firewall-condition
| | +--rw source* union
| | +--rw destination* union
| | +--rw transport-layer-protocol? identityref
| | +--rw range-port-number
| | | +--rw start-port-number? inet:port-number
| | | +--rw end-port-number? inet:port-number
| | +--rw icmp* [version]
| | +--rw version enumeration
| | +--rw type* uint8
| | +--rw code* uint8
| +--rw ddos-condition
| | +--rw rate-limit
| | +--rw packet-rate-threshold? uint32
| | +--rw byte-rate-threshold? uint32
| | +--rw flow-rate-threshold? uint32
| +--rw anti-virus-condition
| | +--rw exception-files* string
| +--rw payload-condition
| | +--rw content*
-> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/payload-content/name
| +--rw url-condition
| | +--rw url-name?
-> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/url-group/name
| +--rw voice-condition
| | +--rw source-id* string
| | +--rw destination-id* string
| | +--rw user-agent* string
| +--rw context-condition
| +--rw geography-location-condition
| +--rw source*
-> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name
| +--rw destination*
-> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name
| | +--rw threat-feed-condition
| | +--rw name*
-> /i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/threat-feed-list/name
Figure 5: Condition Sub-model YANG Data Tree
3.3. Action Sub-model 3.3. Action Sub-model
This object represents actions that Security Admin wants to perform This object represents actions that Security Admin wants to perform
based on certain traffic class. Figure 6 shows the YANG tree of the based on certain traffic class. Figure 6 shows the YANG tree of the
Action object. The Action object SHALL have following information: Action object. The Action object SHALL have following information:
Primary-action: This field identifies the action when a rule is Primary-action: This field identifies the action when a rule is
matched by an NSF. The action could be one of "PASS", matched by an NSF. The action could be one of "pass",
"DROP", "ALERT", "RATE-LIMIT", and "MIRROR". "drop", "rate-limit", "mirror", "invoke-signaling",
"tunnel-encapsulation", "forwarding", and "transformation".
Secondary-action: This field identifies the action when a rule Secondary-action: This field identifies the action when a rule is
is matched by an NSF. The action could be one of "log", matched by an NSF. The action could be one of "rule-log"
"syslog", "session-log". and "session-log".
+--rw action +--rw actions
+--rw primary-action identityref | +--rw primary-action
+--rw secondary-action? identityref | | +--rw action? identityref
| +--rw secondary-action
| +--rw log-action? identityref
Figure 6: Action Sub-model YANG Data Tree Figure 6: Action Sub-model YANG Data Tree
4. Information Model for Policy Endpoint Groups 4. Information Model for Policy Endpoint Groups
The Policy Endpoint Group is a very important part of building User- The Policy Endpoint Group is a very important part of building User-
Construct based policies. A Security Administrator would create and Construct based policies. A Security Administrator would create and
use these objects to represent a logical entity in their business use these objects to represent a logical entity in their business
environment, where a Security Policy is to be applied. There are environment, where a Security Policy is to be applied. There are
multiple managed objects that constitute a Policy's Endpoint Group, multiple managed objects that constitute a Policy's Endpoint Group,
skipping to change at page 10, line 29 skipping to change at page 11, line 40
Groups object. This section lists these objects and relationship Groups object. This section lists these objects and relationship
among them. among them.
It is assumed that the information of Endpoint Groups (e.g., User- It is assumed that the information of Endpoint Groups (e.g., User-
group, Device-group, and Location-group) such as the IP address(es) group, Device-group, and Location-group) such as the IP address(es)
of each member in a group are stored in the I2NSF database available of each member in a group are stored in the I2NSF database available
to the Security Controller, and that the IP address information of to the Security Controller, and that the IP address information of
each group in the I2NSF database is synchronized with other systems each group in the I2NSF database is synchronized with other systems
in the networks under the same administration. in the networks under the same administration.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Endpoint Groups | | Endpoint Groups |
+---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
^ ^
| |
+--------------+----------------+ +--------------+-------+--------+---------------+
0..n | 0..n | 0..n | 0..n | 0..n | 0..n | 0..n |
+-----+----+ +------+-----+ +-------+------+ +-----+----+ +------+-----+ +-------+------+ +-----+---+
|User-group| |Device-group| |Location-group| |User-group| |Device-group| |Location-group| |Url-group|
+----------+ +------------+ +--------------+ +----------+ +------------+ +--------------+ +---------+
Figure 7: Endpoint Group Diagram
Figure 7: Endpoint Group Diagram
+--rw endpoint-groups +--rw endpoint-groups
| +--rw user-group* [name] | +--rw user-group* [name]
| ... | ...
| +--rw device-group* [name] | +--rw device-group* [name]
| ... | ...
| +--rw location-group* [name] | +--rw location-group* [name]
| ... | ...
| +--rw url-group* [name]
| ...
Figure 8: Endpoint Group YANG Data Tree Figure 8: Endpoint Group YANG Data Tree
4.1. User Group 4.1. User Group
This object represents a User-Group. Figure 9 shows the YANG tree of This object represents a User-Group. Figure 9 shows the YANG tree of
the User-Group object. The User-Group object SHALL have the the User-Group object. The User-Group object SHALL have the
following information: following information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
IPv4: This represents the IPv4 address of a user in the user
group.
IPv6: This represents the IPv6 address of a user in the user mac-address: This represents the MAC address of a user in the user
group. group.
Range-ipv4-address: This represents the IPv4 address range of a Range-ipv4-address: This represents the IPv4 address range of a user
user in the user group. in the user group.
Range-ipv6-address: This represents the IPv6 address range of a Range-ipv6-address: This represents the IPv6 address range of a user
user in the user group. in the user group.
+--rw user-group* [name] +--rw user-group* [name]
+--rw name string | +--rw name string
+--rw (match-type) | +--rw mac-address* yang:mac-address
+--:(exact-match-ipv4) | +--rw (match-type)
| +--rw ipv4? inet:ipv4-address | | +--:(range-match-ipv4)
+--:(exact-match-ipv6) | | | +--rw range-ipv4-address
| +--rw ipv6? inet:ipv6-address | | | +--rw start-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address
+--:(range-match-ipv4) | | | +--rw end-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address
| +--rw range-ipv4-address | | +--:(range-match-ipv6)
| +--rw start-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address | | +--rw range-ipv6-address
| +--rw end-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address | | +--rw start-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
+--:(range-match-ipv6) | | +--rw end-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
+--rw range-ipv6-address*
+--rw start-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
+--rw end-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
Figure 9: User Group YANG Data Tree Figure 9: User Group YANG Data Tree
4.2. Device Group 4.2. Device Group
This object represents a Device-Group. Figure 10 shows the YANG tree This object represents a Device-Group. Figure 10 shows the YANG tree
of the Device-group object. The Device-Group object SHALL have the of the Device-group object. The Device-Group object SHALL have the
following information: following information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
IPv4: This represents the IPv4 address of a device in the device IPv4: This represents the IPv4 address of a device in the device
group. group.
IPv6: This represents the IPv6 address of a device in the device IPv6: This represents the IPv6 address of a device in the device
group. group.
Range-ipv4-address: This represents the IPv4 address range of a Range-ipv4-address: This represents the IPv4 address range of a
device in the device group. device in the device group.
Range-ipv6-address: This represents the IPv6 address range of a Range-ipv6-address: This represents the IPv6 address range of a
device in the device group. device in the device group.
Protocol: This represents the communication protocols used by Application-protocol: This represents the application layer
the devices. The protocols are "SSH", "FTP", "SMTP", protocols of devices. If this is not set, it cannot
"HTTP", "HTTPS", and etc. support the appropriate protocol
+--rw device-group* [name] +--rw device-group* [name]
+--rw name string +--rw name string
+--rw (match-type) +--rw (match-type)
| +--:(exact-match-ipv4) | +--:(exact-match-ipv4)
| | +--rw ipv4? inet:ipv4-address | | +--rw ipv4? inet:ipv4-address
| +--:(exact-match-ipv6) | +--:(exact-match-ipv6)
| | +--rw ipv6? inet:ipv6-address | | +--rw ipv6? inet:ipv6-address
| +--:(range-match-ipv4) | +--:(range-match-ipv4)
| | +--rw range-ipv4-address* | | +--rw range-ipv4-address*
| | | +--rw start-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address | | | +--rw start-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address
| | | +--rw end-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address | | | +--rw end-ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address
| +--:(range-match-ipv6) | +--:(range-match-ipv6)
| | +--rw range-ipv6-address* | | +--rw range-ipv6-address*
| | | +--rw start-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address | | | +--rw start-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
| | | +--rw end-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address | | | +--rw end-ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
+--rw protocol identityref +--rw application-protocol* identityref
Figure 10: Device Group YANG Data Tree Figure 10: Device Group YANG Data Tree
4.3. Location Group 4.3. Location Group
This object represents a location group based on either tag or other This object represents a location group based on either tag or other
information. Figure 11 shows the YANG tree of the Location-Group information. Figure 11 shows the YANG tree of the Location-Group
object. The Location-Group object SHALL have the following object. The Location-Group object SHALL have the following
information: information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
Geo-ip-ipv4: This field represents the IPv4 Geo-ip address of a Geo-ip-ipv4: This field represents the IPv4 Geo-ip address of a
location [RFC8805]. location [RFC8805].
Geo-ip-ipv6: This field represents the IPv6 Geo-ip address of a Geo-ip-ipv6: This field represents the IPv6 Geo-ip address of a
location [RFC8805]. location [RFC8805].
Continent: This field represents the continent where the Continent: This field represents the continent where the location
location group member is located. group member is located.
+--rw location-group* [name] +--rw location-group* [name]
+--rw name string | +--rw name string
+--rw geo-ip-ipv4 inet:ipv4-address | +--rw geo-ip-ipv4* [ipv4-address]
+--rw geo-ip-ipv6 inet:ipv6-address | | +--rw ipv4-address inet:ipv4-address
+--rw continent? identityref | | +--rw ipv4-prefix? inet:ipv4-prefix
| +--rw geo-ip-ipv6* [ipv6-address]
| | +--rw ipv6-address inet:ipv6-address
| | +--rw ipv6-prefix? inet:ipv6-prefix
| +--rw continent? identityref
Figure 11: Location Group YANG Data Tree Figure 11: Location Group YANG Data Tree
4.4. URL Group
This object represents a URL group based on a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL) or web address. Figure 12 shows the YANG tree of the
URL-Group object. The URLn-Group object SHALL have the following
information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
url: This field represents the new URL added by a user to the
URL database.
+--rw url-group* [name]
+--rw name string
+--rw url* string
Figure 12: URL Group YANG Data Tree
5. Information Model for Threat Prevention 5. Information Model for Threat Prevention
The threat prevention plays an important part in the overall security The threat prevention plays an important part in the overall security
posture by reducing the attack surfaces. This information could come posture by reducing the attack surfaces. This information could come
from various threat feeds (i.e., sources for obtaining the threat from various threat feeds (i.e., sources for obtaining the threat
information). There are multiple managed objects that constitute information). There are multiple managed objects that constitute
this category. This section lists these objects and relationship this category. This section lists these objects and relationship
among them. Figure 13 shows the YANG tree of a Threat-Prevention among them. Figure 14 shows the YANG tree of a Threat-Prevention
object. object.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Threat Prevention | | Threat Prevention |
+---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
^ ^
| |
+---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
0..n | 0..n | 0..n | 0..n |
+------+------+ +--------+--------+ +------+------+ +--------+--------+
| Threat-feed | | payload-content | | Threat-feed | | payload-content |
+-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+
Figure 12: Threat Prevention Diagram Figure 13: Threat Prevention Diagram
+--rw threat-prevention +--rw threat-prevention
+--rw threat-feed-list* [name] +--rw threat-feed-list* [name]
... ...
+--rw payload-content* [name] +--rw payload-content* [name]
... ...
Figure 13: Threat Prevention YANG Data Tree Figure 14: Threat Prevention YANG Data Tree
5.1. Threat Feed 5.1. Threat Feed
This object represents a threat feed which provides the signatures of This object represents a threat feed which provides the signatures of
malicious activities. Figure 14 shows the YANG tree of a Threat- malicious activities. Figure 15 shows the YANG tree of a Threat-
feed-list. The Threat-Feed object SHALL have the following feed-list. The Threat-Feed object SHALL have the following
information: information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. Name: This field identifies the name of this object.
Server-ipv4: This represents the IPv4 server address of the feed
provider, which may be either an external or local server.
Server-ipv6: This represents the IPv6 server address of the feed
provider, which may be either an external or local server.
Description: This is the description of the threat feed. The Description: This is the description of the threat feed. The
description should have the clear indication of the description should have the clear indication of the
security attack such as attack type (e.g., APT) and file security attack such as attack type (e.g., APT) and file
types used (e.g., executable malware). types used (e.g., executable malware).
Threat-file-types: This field identifies the information about Signatures: This field contains the threat signatures of malicious
the file types identified and reported by the threat-feed. programs or activities provided by the threat-feed. The
examples of signature types are "YARA", "SURICATA", and
Signatures: This field contains the threat signatures of "SNORT" [YARA][SURICATA][SNORT].
malicious programs or activities provided by the threat-
feed. The examples of signature types are "YARA",
"SURICATA", and "SNORT" [YARA][SURICATA][SNORT].
It is assumed that the I2NSF User obtains the threat signatures It is assumed that the I2NSF User obtains the threat signatures
(i.e., threat content patterns) from a threat-feed server (i.e., feed (i.e., threat content patterns) from a threat-feed server (i.e., feed
provider), which is a server providing threat signatures. With the provider), which is a server providing threat signatures. With the
obtained threat signatures, the I2NSF User can deliver them to the obtained threat signatures, the I2NSF User can deliver them to the
Security Controller. The retrieval of the threat signatures by the Security Controller. The retrieval of the threat signatures by the
I2NSF User is out of scope in this document. I2NSF User is out of scope in this document.
+--rw threat-prevention +--rw threat-prevention
+--rw threat-feed-list* [name] +--rw threat-feed-list* [name]
+--rw name identityref +--rw name identityref
+--rw server-ipv4? inet:ipv4-address
+--rw server-ipv6? inet:ipv6-address
+--rw description? string +--rw description? string
+--rw threat-file-types* identityref
+--rw signatures* identityref +--rw signatures* identityref
Figure 14: Threat Feed YANG Data Tree Figure 15: Threat Feed YANG Data Tree
5.2. Payload Content 5.2. Payload Content
This object represents a custom list created for the purpose of This object represents a custom list created for the purpose of
defining an exception to threat feeds. Figure 15 shows the YANG tree defining an exception to threat feeds. Figure 16 shows the YANG tree
of a Payload-content list. The Payload-Content object SHALL have the of a Payload-content list. The Payload-Content object SHALL have the
following information: following information:
Name: This field identifies the name of this object. For Name: This field identifies the name of this object. For
example, the name "backdoor" indicates the payload content example, the name "backdoor" indicates the payload content
is related to a backdoor attack. is related to a backdoor attack.
Description: This represents the description of how the payload Description: This represents the description of how the payload
content is related to a security attack. content is related to a security attack.
Content: This contains the payload contents, which are involed Content: This contains the payload contents, which are involed in a
in a security attack, such as strings. security attack, such as strings.
+--rw payload-content* [name] +--rw payload-content* [name]
+--rw name string +--rw name string
+--rw description string +--rw description string
+--rw content* string +--rw content* string
Figure 15: Payload Content in YANG Data Tree Figure 16: Payload Content in YANG Data Tree
6. Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) for I2NSF 6. Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) for I2NSF
Consumer-Facing Interface Consumer-Facing Interface
Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) provides a user Network Configuration Access Control Model (NACM) provides a user
group with an access control with the following features [RFC8341]: group with an access control with the following features [RFC8341]:
o Independent control of action, data, and notification access is * Independent control of action, data, and notification access is
provided. provided.
o A simple and familiar set of datastore permissions is used. * A simple and familiar set of datastore permissions is used.
o Support for YANG security tagging allows default security modes to * Support for YANG security tagging allows default security modes to
automatically exclude sensitive data. automatically exclude sensitive data.
o Separate default access modes for read, write, and execute * Separate default access modes for read, write, and execute
permissions are provided. permissions are provided.
o Access control rules are applied to configurable groups of users. * Access control rules are applied to configurable groups of users.
The data model of the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface utilizes the The data model of the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface utilizes the
NACM's mechanisms to manage the access control on the I2NSF Consumer- NACM's mechanisms to manage the access control on the I2NSF Consumer-
Facing Interface. The NACM with the above features can be used to Facing Interface. The NACM with the above features can be used to
set up the access control rules of a user group in the I2NSF set up the access control rules of a user group in the I2NSF
Consumer-Facing Interface. Consumer-Facing Interface.
Figure 16 shows part of the NACM module to enable the access control Figure 17 shows part of the NACM module to enable the access control
of a user group for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface. To use the of a user group for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface. To use the
NACM, a user needs to configure either a NETCONF server [RFC6241] or NACM, a user needs to configure either a NETCONF server [RFC6241] or
a RESTCONF server [RFC8040] to enable the NACM module. Then, the a RESTCONF server [RFC8040] to enable the NACM module. Then, the
user can simply use an account of root or admin user for the access user can simply use an account of root or admin user for the access
control for the module of the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface (i.e., control for the module of the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface (i.e.,
ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy). An XML example to configure the access ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy). An XML example to configure the access
control a user group for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface can be control a user group for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface can be
seen in Section 9. seen in Section 9.
list rule { list rule {
skipping to change at page 17, line 47 skipping to change at page 18, line 47
type action-type; type action-type;
mandatory true; mandatory true;
description description
"The access control action associated with the "The access control action associated with the
rule. If a rule is determined to match a rule. If a rule is determined to match a
particular request, then this object is used particular request, then this object is used
to determine whether to permit or deny the to determine whether to permit or deny the
request."; request.";
} }
Figure 16: A Part of the NACM YANG Data Model Figure 17: A Part of the NACM YANG Data Model
7. YANG Data Model of Consumer-Facing Interface 7. YANG Data Model of Consumer-Facing Interface
The main objective of this data model is to provide both an The main objective of this document is to provide both an information
information model and the corresponding YANG data model of I2NSF model and the corresponding YANG data model of I2NSF Consumer-Facing
Consumer-Facing Interface. This interface can be used to deliver Interface. This interface can be used to deliver control and
control and management messages between an I2NSF User and Security management messages between an I2NSF User and Security Controller for
Controller for the I2NSF User's high-level security policies. the I2NSF User's high-level security policies.
The semantics of the data model must be aligned with the information The semantics of the data model must be aligned with the information
model of the Consumer-Facing Interface. The transformation of the model of the Consumer-Facing Interface. The transformation of the
information model is performed so that this YANG data model can information model is performed so that this YANG data model can
facilitate the efficient delivery of the control or management facilitate the efficient delivery of the control or management
messages. messages.
This data model is designed to support the I2NSF framework that can This data model is designed to support the I2NSF framework that can
be extended according to the security needs. In other words, the be extended according to the security needs. In other words, the
model design is independent of the content and meaning of specific model design is independent of the content and meaning of specific
policies as well as the implementation approach. policies as well as the implementation approach.
With the YANG data model of I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface, this With the YANG data model of I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface, this
document suggests use cases for security policy rules such as time- document suggests use cases for security policy rules such as time-
based firewall, VoIP/VoLTE security service, and DDoS-attack based firewall, VoIP/VoLTE security service, and DDoS-attack
mitigation in Section 8. mitigation in Section 8.
7.1. YANG Module of Consumer-Facing Interface 7.1. YANG Module of Consumer-Facing Interface
This section describes a YANG module of Consumer-Facing Interface. This section describes a YANG module of Consumer-Facing Interface.
This YANG module imports from [RFC6991]. It makes references to [RFC This document provides identities in the data model to be used for
0854][RFC0913][RFC0959][RFC1081][RFC1631][RFC2616][RFC2818][RFC4250][ configuration of an NSF. Each identity is used for a different type
RFC5321]. of configuration. The details are explained in the description of
each identity. This YANG module imports from [RFC6991]. It makes
references to
[RFC0854][RFC0959][RFC1939][RFC3022][RFC2818][RFC4250][RFC5321]
[RFC7230][RFC7231][STIX].
<CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy@2021-03-08.yang" <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy@2021-08-21.yang"
module ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy { module ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy {
yang-version 1.1; yang-version 1.1;
namespace namespace
"urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"; "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy";
prefix nsfcfi; prefix nsfcfi;
import ietf-inet-types{ import ietf-inet-types{
prefix inet; prefix inet;
} reference "RFC 6991";
}
import ietf-yang-types{ import ietf-yang-types{
prefix yang; prefix yang;
} reference "RFC 6991";
}
import ietf-netconf-acm { organization
prefix nacm; "IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions)
Working Group";
} contact
"WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf>
WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>
organization Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong
"IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions) <mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu>
Working Group";
contact Editor: Patrick Lingga
"WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf> <mailto:patricklink@skku.edu>";
WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>
Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong description
<mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu> "This module is a YANG module for Consumer-Facing Interface.
Editor: Patrick Lingga Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
<mailto:patricklink@skku.edu>"; authors of the code. All rights reserved.
description Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
"This module is a YANG module for Consumer-Facing Interface. without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to
the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX
authors of the code. All rights reserved. (https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself
for full legal notices.";
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove
without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject to // this note.
the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License set
forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX revision "2021-08-21"{
(https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfcXXXX); see the RFC itself description "Initial revision.";
for full legal notices."; reference
"RFC XXXX: I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model";
// RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove
// this note. // this note.
}
revision "2021-03-08"{ identity resolution-strategy {
description "Initial revision."; description
reference "Base identity for resolution strategy";
"RFC XXXX: I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model"; reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
// RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with an actual RFC number and remove identity fmr {
// this note. base resolution-strategy;
} description
"Identity for First Matching Rule (FMR)";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
identity malware-file-type { identity lmr {
description base resolution-strategy;
"Base identity for malware file types."; description
"Identity for Last Matching Rule (LMR)";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
} identity pmr {
base resolution-strategy;
description
"Identity for Prioritized Matching Rule (PMR)";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
identity executable-file { identity pmre {
base malware-file-type; base resolution-strategy;
description description
"Identity for executable file types."; "Identity for Prioritized Matching Rule
} with Errors (PMRE)";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
identity doc-file { identity pmrn {
base malware-file-type; base resolution-strategy;
description description
"Identity for Microsoft document file types."; "Identity for Prioritized Matching Rule
} with No Errors (PMRN)";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution Strategy";
}
identity html-app-file { identity security-event-type {
base malware-file-type; description
description "Base identity for security event types.";
"Identity for html application file types."; }
}
identity javascript-file { identity ddos {
base malware-file-type; base security-event-type;
description description
"Identity for Javascript file types."; "Identity for DDoS event types.";
} }
identity pdf-file { identity intrusion {
base malware-file-type; base security-event-type;
description description
"Identity for pdf file types."; "Identity for intrusion event types.";
} }
identity dll-file { identity web-attack {
base malware-file-type; base security-event-type;
description description
"Identity for dll file types."; "Identity for web-attack event types.";
} }
identity msi-file { identity voip-volte {
base malware-file-type; base security-event-type;
description description
"Identity for Microsoft installer file types."; "Identity for VoIP/VoLTE event types.";
} }
identity security-event-type { identity protocol {
description description
"Base identity for security event types."; "This identity represents the protocol types.";
} }
identity ddos {
base security-event-type;
description
"Identity for DDoS event types.";
}
identity spyware { identity layer-4-protocol {
base security-event-type; base protocol;
description description
"Identity for spyware event types."; "Base identity for the Layer 4 (i.e., Transport Layer)
} Protocols";
}
identity trojan { identity tcp {
base security-event-type; base layer-4-protocol;
description description
"Identity for Trojan infection event types."; "Base identity for TCP condition capabilities";
} reference
"RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol
draft-ietf-tcpm-rfc793bis: Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) Specification";
}
identity ransomware { identity udp {
base security-event-type; base layer-4-protocol;
description description
"Identity for ransomware infection event types."; "Base identity for UDP condition capabilities";
} reference
"RFC 768: User Datagram Protocol";
}
identity i2nsf-ipsec { identity sctp {
description base layer-4-protocol;
"Base identity for IPsec method types."; description
reference "Identity for SCTP condition capabilities";
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection-08: Software-Defined reference
Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Flow Protection - IPsec method "RFC 4960: Stream Control Transmission Protocol";
types can be selected."; }
}
identity ipsec-ike { identity dccp {
base i2nsf-ipsec; base layer-4-protocol;
description description
"Identity for ipsec-ike."; "Identity for DCCP condition capabilities";
reference reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection-08: Software-Defined "RFC 4340: Datagram Congestion Control Protocol";
Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Flow Protection - IPsec method }
type with IKE is selected.";
}
identity ipsec-ikeless { identity layer-7-protocol {
base i2nsf-ipsec; base protocol;
description description
"Identity for ipsec-ikeless."; "Base identity for the Layer 7 (i.e., Application Layer)
reference Protocols";
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection-08: Software-Defined }
Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Flow Protection - IPsec method
type without IKE is selected.";
}
identity continent { identity ftp {
description base layer-7-protocol;
"Base Identity for continent types."; description
} "The identity for ftp protocol.";
reference
"RFC 959: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)";
}
identity ssh {
base layer-7-protocol;
description
"The identity for ssh protocol.";
reference
"RFC 4250: The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol";
}
identity africa { identity telnet {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for Africa."; "The identity for telnet.";
} reference
"RFC 854: Telnet Protocol";
}
identity asia { identity smtp {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for Asia."; "The identity for smtp.";
} reference
"RFC 5321: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)";
}
identity europe { identity http {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for Europe."; "The identity for http.";
} reference
"RFC7230: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message
Syntax and Routing
RFC7231: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics
and Content";
}
identity north-america { identity https {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for North America."; "The identity for https.";
} reference
"RFC 2818: HTTP over TLS (HTTPS)";
}
identity south-america { identity pop3 {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for South America."; "The identity for pop3.";
} reference
"RFC 1939: Post Office Protocol - Version 3 (POP3)";
}
identity oceania { identity nat {
base continent; base layer-7-protocol;
description description
"Identity for Oceania"; "The identity for nat.";
} reference
"RFC 3022: Traditional IP Network Address Translator (Traditional
NAT)";
}
identity protocol-type { identity action {
description description
"This identity represents the protocol types."; "Base identity for action";
} }
identity ftp { identity ingress-action {
base protocol-type; base action;
description description
"The identity for ftp protocol."; "Base identity to represents the ingress actions, such as
reference pass, drop, rate-limit, and mirror.";
"RFC 959: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)"; }
}
identity ssh { identity egress-action {
base protocol-type; base action;
description description
"The identity for ssh protocol."; "Base identity represents the egress actions, such as
reference pass, drop, rate-limit, mirror, invoke-signaling,
"RFC 4250: The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol"; tunnel-encapsulation, forwarding, and transformation.";
} }
identity telnet { identity pass {
base protocol-type; base ingress-action;
description description
"The identity for telnet."; "The identity for pass.";
reference }
"RFC 854: Telnet Protocol";
}
identity smtp { identity drop {
base protocol-type; base ingress-action;
description description
"The identity for smtp."; "The identity for drop.";
reference }
"RFC 5321: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)";
}
identity sftp { identity rate-limit {
base protocol-type; base ingress-action;
description description
"The identity for sftp."; "The identity for rate-limit.";
reference
"RFC 913: Simple File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)";
}
identity http { }
base protocol-type;
description
"The identity for http.";
reference
"RFC 2616: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)";
}
identity https { identity mirror {
base protocol-type; base ingress-action;
description description
"The identity for https."; "The identity for mirroring.";
reference }
"RFC 2818: HTTP over TLS (HTTPS)";
}
identity pop3 { identity invoke-signaling {
base protocol-type; base egress-action;
description description
"The identity for pop3."; "Identity for invoke signaling action capability";
reference reference
"RFC 1081: Post Office Protocol -Version 3 (POP3)"; "RFC 8329: Framework for Interface to Network Security
} Functions - Invoke-signaling action";
}
identity nat { identity tunnel-encapsulation {
base protocol-type; base egress-action;
description description
"The identity for nat."; "Identity for tunnel encapsulation action capability";
reference reference
"RFC 1631: The IP Network Address Translator (NAT)"; "RFC 8329: Framework for Interface to Network Security
} Functions - Tunnel Encapsulation";
}
identity primary-action { identity forwarding {
description base egress-action;
"This identity represents the primary actions, such as description
PASS, DROP, ALERT, RATE-LIMIT, and MIRROR."; "Identity for forwarding action capability";
} reference
"RFC 8329: Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions - Forwarding action";
}
identity pass { identity transformation {
base primary-action; base egress-action;
description description
"The identity for pass."; "Identity for transformation action capability";
} reference
"RFC 8329: Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions - Redirection action";
}
identity drop { identity log-action {
base primary-action; description
description "Base identity for representing log actions, such as rule-log and
"The identity for drop."; session-log action.";
}
identity alert { }
base primary-action;
description
"The identity for alert.";
}
identity rate-limit { identity rule-log {
base primary-action; base log-action;
description description
"The identity for rate-limit."; "Identity for rule log-action capability.
} Log the received packet based on the rule";
}
identity mirror { identity session-log {
base primary-action; base log-action;
description description
"The identity for mirroring."; "Identity for session log-action capability.
} Log the received packet based on the session.";
}
identity secondary-action { identity signature-type {
description description
"This field identifies additional actions if a rule is "This represents the base identity for signature types.";
matched. This could be one of 'LOG', 'SYSLOG', }
'SESSION-LOG', etc.";
}
identity log { identity signature-yara {
base secondary-action; base signature-type;
description description
"The identity for logging."; "This represents the YARA signatures.";
} reference
"YARA: YARA signatures are explained.";
}
identity syslog { identity signature-snort {
base secondary-action; base signature-type;
description description
"The identity for system logging."; "This represents the SNORT signatures.";
} reference
"SNORT: SNORT signatures are explained.";
}
identity session-log { identity signature-suricata {
base secondary-action; base signature-type;
description description
"The identity for session logging."; "This represents the SURICATA signatures.";
} reference
"SURICATA: SURICATA signatures are explained.";
}
identity signature-type { identity threat-feed-type {
description description
"This represents the base identity for signature types."; "This represents the base identity for threat-feed.";
}
identity signature-yara { }
base signature-type;
description
"This represents the YARA signatures.";
reference
"YARA: YARA signatures are explained.";
}
identity signature-snort { identity day {
base signature-type; description
description "This represents the base for days.";
"This represents the SNORT signatures."; }
reference
"SNORT: SNORT signatures are explained.";
}
identity signature-suricata { identity monday {
base signature-type; base day;
description description
"This represents the SURICATA signatures."; "This represents Monday.";
reference }
"SURICATA: SURICATA signatures are explained.";
}
identity threat-feed-type { identity tuesday {
description base day;
"This represents the base identity for threat-feed."; description
} "This represents Tuesday.";
}
identity day { identity wednesday {
description base day;
"This represents the base for days."; description
} "This represents Wednesday.";
}
identity monday { identity thursday {
base day; base day;
description description
"This represents Monday."; "This represents Thursday.";
} }
identity tuesday { identity friday {
base day; base day;
description description
"This represents Tuesday."; "This represents Friday.";
} }
identity wednesday { identity saturday {
base day; base day;
description description
"This represents Wednesday."; "This represents Saturday.";
} }
identity thursday {
base day;
description
"This represents Thursday.";
}
identity friday { identity sunday {
base day; base day;
description description
"This represents Friday."; "This represents Sunday.";
} }
identity continent {
description
"Base Identity for continent types.";
}
identity saturday { identity africa {
base day; base continent;
description description
"This represents Saturday."; "Identity for Africa.";
} }
identity sunday { identity asia {
base day; base continent;
description description
"This represents Sunday."; "Identity for Asia.";
} }
/* identity europe {
* Typedefs base continent;
*/ description
typedef time { "Identity for Europe.";
type string { }
pattern '(0[0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-3]):[0-5][0-9]:[0-5][0-9](\.\d+)?'
+ '(Z|[\+\-]((1[0-3]|0[0-9]):([0-5][0-9])|14:00))?';
}
description
"The time type represents an instance of time of zero-duration
that recurs every day.";
}
/* identity north-america {
* Groupings base continent;
*/ description
"Identity for North America.";
}
grouping ipv4-list { identity south-america {
description base continent;
"Grouping for an IPv4 address list."; description
leaf-list ipv4 { "Identity for South America.";
type inet:ipv4-address; }
description
"This is the entry for an IPv4 address list.";
} identity oceania {
} base continent;
description
"Identity for Oceania";
}
grouping ipv6-list { /*
description * Typedefs
"Grouping for an IPv6 address list."; */
leaf-list ipv6 { typedef time {
type inet:ipv6-address; type string {
description pattern '(0[0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-3]):[0-5][0-9]:[0-5][0-9](\.\d+)?'
"This is the entry for an IPv6 address list."; + '(Z|[\+\-]((1[0-3]|0[0-9]):([0-5][0-9])|14:00))?';
}
}
grouping ipv4 { }
description description
"Grouping for an IPv4 address."; "The time type represents an instance of time of zero-duration
leaf ipv4 { that recurs every day.";
type inet:ipv4-address; }
description
"This is the entry for an IPv4 address.";
}
}
grouping ipv6 { /*
description * Groupings
"Grouping for an IPv6 address."; */
leaf ipv6 {
type inet:ipv6-address;
description
"This is the entry for an IPv6 address.";
}
}
grouping ip-address-info { grouping ipv4-list {
description description
"There are two types to configure a security policy "Grouping for an IPv4 address list.";
for an IPv4 address, such as exact match and range match."; leaf-list ipv4 {
choice match-type { type inet:ipv4-address;
description description
"User can choose between 'exact match' and 'range match'."; "This is the entry for an IPv4 address list.";
case exact-match-ipv4 { }
uses ipv4; }
description
"Exact ip-address match for IPv4 addresses";
}
case exact-match-ipv6 {
uses ipv6;
description
"Exact ip-address match for IPv6 addresses";
}
case range-match-ipv4 {
container range-ipv4-address {
leaf start-ipv4-address {
type inet:ipv4-address;
mandatory true;
description
"A start IPv4 address for a range match.";
}
leaf end-ipv4-address {
type inet:ipv4-address;
mandatory true;
description
"An end IPv4 address for a range match.";
}
description
"A range match for IPv4 addresses is provided. Note that the
start IPv4 address must be lower than the end IPv4 address.";
}
}
case range-match-ipv6 {
container range-ipv6-address {
leaf start-ipv6-address {
type inet:ipv6-address;
mandatory true;
description
"A start IPv6 address for a range match.";
}
leaf end-ipv6-address {
type inet:ipv6-address;
mandatory true;
description
"An end IPv6 address for a range match.";
}
description
"A range match for IPv6 addresses is provided. Note that the
start IPv6 address must be lower than the end IPv4 address.";
}
}
}
}
grouping ipsec-based-method { grouping ipv6-list {
description description
"This represents the ipsec-based method."; "Grouping for an IPv6 address list.";
list ipsec-method { leaf-list ipv6 {
key "method"; type inet:ipv6-address;
description description
"This represents the list of IPsec method types."; "This is the entry for an IPv6 address list.";
leaf method { }
type identityref { }
base i2nsf-ipsec;
}
description
"This represents IPsec IKE and IPsec IKEless cases. If this
is not set, it cannot support IPsec IKE or IPsec IKEless.";
reference
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection-08:
Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Flow Protection
- IPsec method types can be selected.";
}
}
}
grouping user-group { grouping ipv4 {
description description
"This group represents user group information such as name and "Grouping for an IPv4 address.";
ip-address."; leaf ipv4 {
leaf name { type inet:ipv4-address;
type string; description
description "This is the entry for an IPv4 address.";
"This represents the name of a user-group. A user-group name }
is used to map a user-group's name (e.g., employees) to an IP }
address. It is dependent on implementation.";
}
uses ip-address-info{
refine match-type{
mandatory true;
}
description
"This represents the IP addresses of a user-group.";
}
}
grouping device-group { grouping ipv6 {
description description
"This group represents device group information such as ip-address "Grouping for an IPv6 address.";
protocol."; leaf ipv6 {
leaf name { type inet:ipv6-address;
type string; description
description "This is the entry for an IPv6 address.";
"This represents the name of a device-group."; }
}
uses ip-address-info{
refine match-type{
mandatory true;
}
}
leaf-list protocol {
type identityref {
base protocol-type;
}
description
"This represents the communication protocols of devices. If this
is not set, it cannot support the appropriate protocol";
}
}
grouping location-group { }
description
"This group represents location-group information such as geo-ip
and continent.";
leaf name {
type string;
description
"This represents the name of a location.";
}
list geo-ip-ipv4 {
key "ipv4-address";
description
"This represents the list of IPv4 addresses based on a location.";
leaf ipv4-address{
type inet:ipv4-address;
description
"This represents an IPv4 geo-ip address of a location.";
}
leaf ipv4-prefix{
type inet:ipv4-prefix;
description
"This represents the prefix for the IPv4 addresses.";
}
}
list geo-ip-ipv6 {
key "ipv6-address";
description
"This represents the list of IPv6 addresses based on a location.";
leaf ipv6-address{
type inet:ipv6-address;
description
"This represents an IPv6 geo-ip address of a location.";
}
leaf ipv6-prefix{
type inet:ipv6-prefix;
description
"This represents the prefix for the IPv6 addresses.";
}
}
leaf continent {
type identityref {
base continent;
}
default asia;
description
"location-group has geo-ip addresses of the corresponding
continent.";
}
}
grouping threat-feed-info { grouping ip-address-info {
description description
"This is the grouping for the threat-feed-list"; "There are two types to configure a security policy
leaf threat-type { for an IP address, such as IPv4 adress and IPv6 address.";
type identityref { choice match-type {
base threat-feed-type; description
} "User can choose between IPv4 and IPv6.";
description case range-match-ipv4 {
"This represents the type of the threat-feed."; container range-ipv4-address {
} leaf start-ipv4-address {
leaf server-ipv4 { type inet:ipv4-address;
type inet:ipv4-address; mandatory true;
description description
"The IPv4 address for the threat-feed server."; "A start IPv4 address for a range match.";
} }
leaf server-ipv6 { leaf end-ipv4-address {
type inet:ipv6-address; type inet:ipv4-address;
description mandatory true;
"The IPv6 address for the threat-feed server."; description
} "An end IPv4 address for a range match.";
leaf description { }
type string; description
description "A range match for IPv4 addresses is provided.
"This represents the descriptions of a threat-feed. The Note that the start IPv4 address must be lower than
description should include information, such as type, threat, the end IPv4 address.";
method, and file type. Structured Threat Information Expression }
(STIX) can be used for description of a threat [STIX]."; }
} case range-match-ipv6 {
} container range-ipv6-address {
leaf start-ipv6-address {
type inet:ipv6-address;
mandatory true;
description
"A start IPv6 address for a range match.";
}
leaf end-ipv6-address {
type inet:ipv6-address;
mandatory true;
description
"An end IPv6 address for a range match.";
}
description
"A range match for IPv6 addresses is provided.
Note that the start IPv6 address must be lower than
the end IPv6 address.";
}
grouping payload-string { }
description }
"The grouping for payload-string content. It contains information }
such as name and string content.";
leaf description {
type string;
description
"This represents the description of a payload. If this is not
set, it cannot support the description of how the payload content
is related to a security attack.";
}
leaf-list content {
type string;
description
"This represents the string of the payload contents. This content
leaf-list contains the payload of a packet to analyze a threat.
Due to the types of threats, the type of the content is defined
as a string to accommodate any kind of a payload type such as
HTTP, HTTPS, and SIP. If this is not set, it cannot support the
payload contents involved in a security attack as a string.";
}
}
list i2nsf-cfi-policy { grouping user-group {
key "policy-name"; description
description "This group represents user group information such as name and
"This is a security policy list. Each policy in the list contains ip-address.";
a list of security policy rules, and is a policy instance to have leaf name {
the information of where and when a policy needs to be applied."; type string;
leaf policy-name { description
type string; "This represents the name of a user-group. A user-group name
description is used to map a user-group's name (e.g., employees) to IP
"The name which identifies the policy."; address(es), MAC address(es).
} It is dependent on implementation.";
container rules{ }
description leaf-list mac-address {
"This container has rules."; type yang:mac-address;
nacm:default-deny-write; description
list rule { "Represent the MAC Address of a user-group. A user-group
key "rule-name"; can have multiple MAC Addresses.";
ordered-by user; }
leaf rule-name { uses ip-address-info{
type string; description
description "This represents the IP addresses of a user-group.";
"This represents the name for a rule."; refine match-type{
} mandatory true;
description }
"There can be a single or multiple number of rules."; }
}
container event { grouping device-group {
description description
"This represents an event (i.e., a security event), for which "This group represents device group information such as
a security rule is made."; ip-address protocol.";
leaf security-event { leaf name {
type identityref { type string;
base security-event-type; description
} "This represents the name of a device-group.";
description }
"This contains the description of a security event. If this uses ip-address-info{
is not set, it cannot support what security event will be refine match-type{
enforced."; mandatory true;
} }
}
leaf-list application-protocol {
type identityref {
base layer-7-protocol;
container time-information { }
description description
"The time information when a security policy rule should be "This represents the application layer protocols of devices.
applied."; If this is not set, it cannot support the appropriate
leaf start-date-time { protocol";
type yang:date-and-time; }
description }
"This is the start date and time for a security policy
rule.";
}
leaf end-date-time {
type yang:date-and-time;
description
"This is the end date and time for a policy rule. The
policy rule will stop working after the specified
end-date-time.";
}
container period{
when
"../../frequency!='only-once'";
description
"This represents the repetition time. In the case where
the frequency is weekly, the days can be set.";
leaf start-time {
type time;
description grouping location-group {
"This is a period's start time for an event."; description
} "This group represents location-group information such as geo-ip
leaf end-time { and continent.";
type time; leaf name {
type string;
description
"This represents the name of a location.";
}
list geo-ip-ipv4 {
key "ipv4-address";
description
"This represents the list of IPv4 addresses based on a
location.";
leaf ipv4-address{
type inet:ipv4-address;
description
"This represents an IPv4 geo-ip address of a location.";
}
leaf ipv4-prefix{
type inet:ipv4-prefix;
description
"This represents the prefix for the IPv4 addresses.";
}
}
list geo-ip-ipv6 {
key "ipv6-address";
description
"This represents the list of IPv6 addresses based on a
location.";
leaf ipv6-address{
type inet:ipv6-address;
description
"This represents an IPv6 geo-ip address of a location.";
}
leaf ipv6-prefix{
type inet:ipv6-prefix;
description
"This represents the prefix for the IPv6 addresses.";
}
description }
"This is a period's end time for an event."; leaf continent {
} type identityref {
leaf-list day { base continent;
when }
"../../../frequency='weekly'"; default asia;
type identityref{ description
base day; "location-group has geo-ip addresses of the corresponding
} continent.";
min-elements 1; }
description }
"This represents the repeated day of every week (e.g.,
Monday and Tuesday). More than one day can be
specified.";
}
leaf-list date {
when
"../../../frequency='monthly'";
type int32{
range "1..31";
}
min-elements 1;
description
"This represents the repeated date of every month. More
than one date can be specified.";
}
leaf-list month {
when
"../../../frequency='yearly'";
type string{
pattern '\d{2}-\d{2}';
}
min-elements 1;
description
"This represents the repeated date and month of every
year. More than one can be specified. A pattern used
here is Month and Date (MM-DD).";
}
}
}
leaf frequency { grouping payload-string {
type enumeration { description
enum only-once { "The grouping for payload-string content. It contains information
description such as name and string content.";
"This represents that the rule is immediately enforced leaf description {
only once and not repeated. The policy will type string;
continuously be active from the start-time to the description
end-time."; "This represents the description of a payload. If this is not
} set, it cannot support the description of how the payload
enum daily { content is related to a security attack.";
description }
"This represents that the rule is enforced on a daily leaf-list content {
basis. The policy will be repeated daily until the type string;
end-date."; description
} "This represents the string of the payload contents.
enum weekly { This content leaf-list contains the payload of a packet to
description analyze a threat. Due to the types of threats, the type of
"This represents that the rule is enforced on a weekly the content is defined as a string to accommodate any kind
basis. The policy will be repeated weekly until the of a payload type such as HTTP, HTTPS, and SIP. If this is
end-date. The repeated days can be specified."; not set, it cannot support the payload contents involved in
} a security attack as a string.";
enum monthly { }
description }
"This represents that the rule is enforced on a monthly
basis. The policy will be repeated monthly until the
end-date.";
}
enum yearly {
description
"This represents that the rule is enforced on a yearly
basis. The policy will be repeated yearly until the
end-date.";
}
}
default only-once;
description
"This represents how frequently the rule should be enforced.";
}
}
container condition { list i2nsf-cfi-policy {
description key "policy-name";
"Conditions for general security policies."; description
container firewall-condition { "This is a security policy list. Each policy in the list contains
description a list of security policy rules, and is a policy instance to have
"A general firewall condition."; the information of where and when a policy needs to be applied.";
leaf source { leaf policy-name {
type leafref { type string;
path description
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name"; "The name which identifies the policy.";
} }
description leaf resolution-strategy {
"This describes the path to the source."; type identityref {
} base resolution-strategy;
}
default fmr;
description
"The resolution strategies that can be used to
specify how to resolve conflicts that occur between
actions of the same or different policy rules that
are matched and contained in this particular NSF";
leaf-list destination { reference
type leafref { "draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-data-model-17:
path I2NSF Capability YANG Data Model - Resolution strategy";
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name"; }
list rules {
key "rule-name";
} description
description "There can be a single or multiple number of rules.";
"This describes the paths to the destinations."; leaf rule-name {
} type string;
} description
"This represents the name for a rule.";
}
container ddos-condition { leaf priority {
description type uint8 {
"A condition for a DDoS attack."; range "1..255";
leaf-list source { }
type leafref { description
path "The priority keyword comes with a mandatory
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name"; numeric value which can range from 1 through 255.
} Note that a higher number means a higher priority";
description }
"This describes the paths to the sources.";
}
leaf-list destination {
type leafref {
path
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name";
}
description
"This describes the paths to the destinations.";
}
container rate-limit {
description
"This describes the rate-limit.";
leaf packet-threshold-per-second {
type uint32;
description
"This is a trigger value for a rate limit for a
DDoS-attack mitigation.";
}
}
}
container location-condition { container event {
description description
"A condition for a location-based connection"; "This represents an event (i.e., a security event), for which
leaf-list source { a security rule is made.";
type leafref { leaf security-event {
path type identityref {
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name"; base security-event-type;
} }
description description
"This describes the paths to a location's sources."; "This contains the description of a security event. If this
} is not set, it cannot support what security event will be
leaf-list destination { enforced.";
type leafref { }
path container time {
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/location-group/name"; description
} "The time when a security policy rule should be applied.";
description leaf start-date-time {
"This describes the paths to a location's destinations."; type yang:date-and-time;
} description
} "This is the start date and time for a security policy
rule.";
}
leaf end-date-time {
type yang:date-and-time;
description
"This is the end date and time for a policy rule. The
policy rule will stop working after the specified
end-date-time.";
}
container period{
when
"../frequency!='only-once'";
description
"This represents the repetition time. In the case where
the frequency is weekly, the days can be set.";
leaf start-time {
type time;
description
"This is a period's start time for an event.";
}
leaf end-time {
type time;
description
"This is a period's end time for an event.";
}
leaf-list day {
when
"../../frequency='weekly'";
type identityref{
base day;
}
min-elements 1;
description
"This represents the repeated day of every week (e.g.,
Monday and Tuesday). More than one day can be
specified.";
}
leaf-list date {
when
"../../frequency='monthly'";
type int32{
range "1..31";
}
min-elements 1;
description
"This represents the repeated date of every month.
More than one date can be specified.";
}
leaf-list month {
when
"../../frequency='yearly'";
type string{
pattern '\d{2}-\d{2}';
}
min-elements 1;
description
"This represents the repeated date and month of every
year. More than one can be specified. A pattern
used here is Month and Date (MM-DD).";
}
}
container custom-condition { leaf frequency {
description type enumeration {
"A condition based on a packet's content."; enum only-once {
leaf-list source { description
type leafref { "This represents that the rule is immediately
path enforced only once and not repeated. The policy
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/payload-content/name"; will continuously be active from the start-time
} to the end-time.";
description }
"This describes the paths to a packet content's sources."; enum daily {
} description
leaf destination { "This represents that the rule is enforced on a
type leafref { daily basis. The policy will be repeated daily
path until the end-date.";
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/payload-content/name"; }
} enum weekly {
description description
"This describes the path to a packet content's "This represents that the rule is enforced on a
destination."; weekly basis. The policy will be repeated weekly
} until the end-date. The repeated days can be
} specified.";
}
enum monthly {
description
"This represents that the rule is enforced on a
monthly basis. The policy will be repeated monthly
until the end-date.";
container threat-feed-condition { }
description enum yearly {
"A condition based on the threat-feed information."; description
leaf-list source { "This represents that the rule is enforced on a
type leafref { yearly basis. The policy will be repeated yearly
path until the end-date.";
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/threat-feed-list/name"; }
} }
description default only-once;
"This describes the paths to a threat-feed's sources."; description
} "This represents how frequently the rule should be
leaf destination { enforced.";
type leafref { }
path }
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/threat-feed-list/name"; }
}
description
"This describes the path to a threat-feed's destination.";
}
}
}
container actions { container condition {
description description
"This is the action container."; "Conditions for general security policies.";
leaf primary-action { container firewall-condition {
type identityref { description
base primary-action; "A general firewall condition based on the packet header.";
} leaf-list source {
description type union {
"This represent primary actions (e.g., PASS, DROP, ALERT, type leafref {
and MIRROR) to be applied to a condition. If this is not path
set, it cannot support the primary actions."; "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name";
} }
leaf secondary-action { type leafref {
type identityref { path
base secondary-action; "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name";
} }
description }
"This represents secondary actions (e.g., log and syslog) description
to be applied if they are needed. If this is not set, it "This describes the path of the source.";
cannot support the secondary actions."; }
}
}
container ipsec-method { leaf-list destination {
description type union {
"This container represents the IPsec method such as IKE case type leafref {
and IKEless case."; path
leaf method { "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/user-group/name";
type identityref { }
base i2nsf-ipsec; type leafref {
} path
description "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/device-group/name";
"This represents the IPsec method type such as IKE case and }
IKEless case. If this is not set, it cannot support }
either IPsec IKE or IPsec IKEless."; description
reference "This describes the path to the destinations.";
"draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection-08: }
Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Flow
Protection - IPsec method types can be selected.";
}
}
}
} leaf transport-layer-protocol {
container endpoint-groups { type identityref {
description base layer-4-protocol;
"A logical entity in a business environment, where a security }
policy is to be applied."; description
list user-group{ "The transport-layer protocol to be matched.";
uses user-group; }
key "name";
description
"This represents a user group.";
}
list device-group {
key "name";
uses device-group;
description
"This represents a device group.";
}
list location-group{
key "name";
uses location-group;
description
"This represents a location group.";
}
}
container threat-preventions { container range-port-number {
description leaf start-port-number {
"This describes the list of threat-preventions."; type inet:port-number;
list threat-feed-list { description
key "name"; "A start port number for range match.";
description }
"There can be a single or multiple number of threat-feeds."; leaf end-port-number {
leaf name { type inet:port-number;
type string; description
description "An end port number for range match.";
"This represents the name of the threat-feed."; }
} description
uses threat-feed-info; "A range match for transport-layer port number. Note that
leaf-list threat-file-types { the start port number value must be lower than the end
type identityref { port number value";
base malware-file-type; }
}
description
"This contains a list of file types needed to be scanned for
a security threat (e.g., virus).";
}
leaf-list signatures {
type identityref {
base signature-type;
}
description
"This contains a list of signatures or hashes of the threats.";
}
}
list payload-content {
key "name";
leaf name {
type string;
description
"This represents the name of a packet's payload-content. It
should give an idea of why a specific payload content is
marked as a threat. For example, the name 'backdoor'
indicates the payload content is related to a backdoor
attack.";
}
description
"This represents a payload-string group.";
uses payload-string;
}
}
}
}
<CODE ENDS>
Figure 17: YANG for Consumer-Facing Interface list icmp {
key "version";
description
"Represents the ICMP packet header information to
determine if the set of policy actions in this ECA
policy rule should be executed or not.";
reference
"RFC 792: Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 8335: PROBE: A Utility for Probing Interfaces";
leaf version {
type enumeration {
enum icmpv4 {
value "1";
description
"The ICMPv4 Protocol as defined in RFC 792";
}
enum icmpv6 {
value "2";
description
"The ICMPv6 Protocol as defined in RFC 4443";
}
}
description
"The ICMP version to be matched. This value
affected the type and code values.";
reference
"RFC 792: Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 4443: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6)
for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
Specification";
}
leaf-list type {
type uint8;
description
"The security policy rule according to
ICMP type parameter.";
reference
"RFC 792: Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 8335: PROBE: A Utility for Probing Interfaces
IANA: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Parameters
IANA: Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
(ICMPv6) Parameters";
}
leaf-list code {
type uint8;
description
"The security policy rule according to
ICMP code parameter.";
reference
"RFC 792: Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 8335: PROBE: A Utility for Probing Interfaces
IANA: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Parameters
IANA: Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
(ICMPv6) Parameters";
}
}
}
container ddos-condition {
description
"A condition for a DDoS attack.";
container rate-limit {
description
"This describes the rate-limit.";
leaf packet-rate-threshold {
type uint32;
description
"This is a trigger value for a rate limit of packet rate
for a DDoS-attack mitigation.";
}
leaf byte-rate-threshold {
type uint32;
description
"This is a trigger value for a rate limit of byte rate
for a DDoS-attack mitigation.";
}
leaf flow-rate-threshold {
type uint32;
description
"This is a trigger value for a rate limit of flow rate
for a DDoS-attack mitigation.";
}
}
}
container anti-virus-condition {
description
"A condition for anti-virus";
leaf-list exception-files {
type string;
description
"The type or name of the files to be excluded by the
anti-virus. This can be used to keep the known harmless
files.";
}
}
container payload-condition {
description
"A condition based on a packet's content.";
leaf-list content {
type leafref {
path "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/"
+ "payload-content/name";
}
description
"This describes the paths to a packet content's";
}
}
container url-condition {
description
"Condition for url category";
leaf url-name {
type leafref {
path "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/url-group/name";
}
description
"This is description for the condition of a URL's
category such as SNS sites, game sites, ecommerce
sites, company sites, and university sites.";
}
}
container voice-condition {
description
"For the VoIP/VoLTE security system, a VoIP/
VoLTE security system can monitor each
VoIP/VoLTE flow and manage VoIP/VoLTE
security rules controlled by a centralized
server for VoIP/VoLTE security service
(called VoIP IPS). The VoIP/VoLTE security
system controls each switch for the
VoIP/VoLTE call flow management by
manipulating the rules that can be added,
deleted, or modified dynamically.";
reference
"RFC 3261: SIP: Session Initiation Protocol";
leaf-list source-id {
type string;
description
"The security policy rule according to
a source voice ID for VoIP and VoLTE.";
}
leaf-list destination-id {
type string;
description
"The security policy rule according to
a destination voice ID for VoIP and VoLTE.";
}
leaf-list user-agent {
type string;
description
"The security policy rule according to
an user agent for VoIP and VoLTE.";
}
}
container context-condition {
description
"Condition for matching the context of the packet, such as
geographic location, time, packet direction";
container geography-location-condition {
description
"A condition for a location-based connection";
leaf-list source {
type leafref {
path "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/"
+ "location-group/name";
}
description
"This describes the paths to a location's sources.";
}
leaf-list destination {
type leafref {
path "/i2nsf-cfi-policy/endpoint-groups/"
+ "location-group/name";
}
description
"This describes the paths to a location's
destinations.";
}
}
}
container threat-feed-condition {
description
"A condition based on the threat-feed information.";
leaf-list name {
type leafref {
path
"/i2nsf-cfi-policy/threat-preventions/"
+"threat-feed-list/name";
}
description
"This describes the paths to a threat-feed's sources.";
}
}
}
container actions {
description
"This is the action container.";
container primary-action {
description
"This represent primary actions (e.g., ingress and egress
action) to be applied to a condition.
If this is not set, it cannot support the primary
actions.";
leaf action {
type identityref {
base action;
}
description
"Ingress Action: pass, drop, reject, rate-limit,
and mirror.
Egress action: mirror, invoke-signaling,
tunnel-encapsulation, forwarding, and redirection.";
}
}
container secondary-action {
description
"This represents secondary actions (e.g., log and syslog)
to be applied if they are needed. If this is not set,
it cannot support the secondary actions.";
leaf log-action {
type identityref {
base log-action;
}
description
"Log action: rule log and session log";
}
}
}
}
container endpoint-groups {
description
"A logical entity in a business environment, where a security
policy is to be applied.";
list user-group{
uses user-group;
key "name";
description
"This represents a user group.";
}
list device-group {
key "name";
uses device-group;
description
"This represents a device group.";
}
list location-group{
key "name";
uses location-group;
description
"This represents a location group.";
}
list url-group {
key "name";
description
"This describes the list of URL.";
leaf name {
type string;
description
"This is the name of URL group, e.g., SNS sites,
gaming sites, ecommerce sites";
}
leaf-list url {
type string;
description
"Specifies the URL to be added into the group.";
}
}
}
container threat-preventions {
description
"This describes the list of threat-preventions.";
list threat-feed-list {
key "name";
description
"There can be a single or multiple number of threat-feeds.";
leaf name {
type string;
description
"This represents the name of the threat-feed.";
}
leaf description {
type string;
description
"This represents the descriptions of a threat-feed. The
description should include information, such as type,
threat, method, and file type. Structured Threat
Information Expression (STIX) can be used for description
of a threat [STIX].";
}
leaf-list signatures {
type identityref {
base signature-type;
}
description
"This contains a list of signatures or hashes of the
threats.";
}
}
list payload-content {
key "name";
leaf name {
type string;
description
"This represents the name of a packet's payload-content. It
should give an idea of why a specific payload content is
marked as a threat. For example, the name 'backdoor'
indicates the payload content is related to a backdoor
attack.";
}
description
"This represents a payload-string group.";
uses payload-string;
}
}
}
}
<CODE ENDS>
Figure 18: YANG for Consumer-Facing Interface
8. XML Configuration Examples of High-Level Security Policy Rules 8. XML Configuration Examples of High-Level Security Policy Rules
This section shows XML configuration examples of high-level security This section shows XML configuration examples of high-level security
policy rules that are delivered from the I2NSF User to the Security policy rules that are delivered from the I2NSF User to the Security
Controller over the Consumer-Facing Interface. The considered use Controller over the Consumer-Facing Interface. The considered use
cases are: Database registration, time-based firewall for web cases are: Database registration, time-based firewall for web
filtering, VoIP/VoLTE security service, and DDoS-attack mitigation. filtering, VoIP/VoLTE security service, and DDoS-attack mitigation.
8.1. Database Registration: Information of Positions and Devices 8.1. Database Registration: Information of Positions and Devices
(Endpoint Group) (Endpoint Group)
If new endpoints are introduced to the network, it is necessary to If new endpoints are introduced to the network, it is necessary to
first register their data to the database. For example, if new first register their data to the database. For example, if new
members are newly introduced in either of three different groups members are newly introduced in either of three different groups
(i.e., user-group, device-group, and payload-group), each of them (i.e., user-group, device-group, and url-group), each of them should
should be registered with information such as ip-addresses or be registered with information such as ip-addresses or protocols used
protocols used by devices. by devices.
Figure 18 shows an example XML representation of the registered Figure 19 shows an example XML representation of the registered
information for the user-group and device-group with IPv4 addresses information for the user-group and device-group with IPv4 addresses
[RFC5737]. [RFC5737].
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<i2nsf-cfi-policy xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"> <i2nsf-cfi-policy
<endpoint-groups> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy">
<user-group> <endpoint-groups>
<name>employees</name> <user-group>
<range-ipv4-address> <name>employees</name>
<start-ipv4-address>192.0.2.11</start-ipv4-address> <range-ipv4-address>
<end-ipv4-address>192.0.2.90</end-ipv4-address> <start-ipv4-address>192.0.2.11</start-ipv4-address>
</range-ipv4-address> <end-ipv4-address>192.0.2.90</end-ipv4-address>
</user-group> </range-ipv4-address>
<device-group> </user-group>
<name>webservers</name> <device-group>
<range-ipv4-address> <name>webservers</name>
<start-ipv4-address>198.51.100.11</start-ipv4-address> <range-ipv4-address>
<end-ipv4-address>198.51.100.20</end-ipv4-address> <start-ipv4-address>198.51.100.11</start-ipv4-address>
</range-ipv4-address> <end-ipv4-address>198.51.100.20</end-ipv4-address>
<protocol>nsfcfi:http</protocol> </range-ipv4-address>
<protocol>nsfcfi:https</protocol> <protocol>nsfcfi:http</protocol>
</device-group> <protocol>nsfcfi:https</protocol>
</endpoint-groups> </device-group>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy> <url-group>
<name>sns-websites</name>
<user-defined>SNS_1</user-defined>
<user-defined>SNS_2</user-defined>
</url-group>
</endpoint-groups>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy>
Figure 18: Registering User-group and Device-group Information with Figure 19: Registering User-group and Device-group Information
IPv4 Addresses with IPv4 Addresses
Also, Figure 19 shows an example XML representation of the registered Also, Figure 20 shows an example XML representation of the registered
information for the user-group and device-group with IPv6 addresses information for the user-group and device-group with IPv6 addresses
[RFC3849]. [RFC3849].
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<i2nsf-cfi-policy xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"> <i2nsf-cfi-policy
<endpoint-groups> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy">
<user-group> <endpoint-groups>
<name>employees</name> <user-group>
<range-ipv6-address> <name>employees</name>
<start-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:1::11</start-ipv6-address> <range-ipv6-address>
<end-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:1::90</end-ipv6-address> <start-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:1::11</start-ipv6-address>
</range-ipv6-address> <end-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:1::90</end-ipv6-address>
</user-group> </range-ipv6-address>
<device-group> </user-group>
<name>webservers</name> <device-group>
<range-ipv6-address> <name>webservers</name>
<start-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:2::11</start-ipv6-address> <range-ipv6-address>
<end-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:2::20</end-ipv6-address> <start-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:2::11</start-ipv6-address>
</range-ipv6-address> <end-ipv6-address>2001:DB8:0:2::20</end-ipv6-address>
<protocol>nsfcfi:http</protocol> </range-ipv6-address>
<protocol>nsfcfi:https</protocol> <protocol>nsfcfi:http</protocol>
</device-group> <protocol>nsfcfi:https</protocol>
</endpoint-groups> </device-group>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy> <url-group>
<name>sns-websites</name>
<url>SNS_1</url>
<url>SNS_2</url>
</url-group>
</endpoint-groups>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy>
Figure 19: Registering User-group and Device-group Information with Figure 20: Registering User-group and Device-group Information
IPv6 Addresses with IPv6 Addresses
8.2. Scenario 1: Block SNS Access during Business Hours 8.2. Scenario 1: Block SNS Access during Business Hours
The first example scenario is to "block SNS access during office The first example scenario is to "block SNS access during office
hours" using a time-based firewall policy. In this scenario, all hours" using a time-based firewall policy. In this scenario, all
users registered as "employees" in the user-group list are unable to users registered as "employees" in the user-group list are unable to
access Social Networking Services (SNS) during the office hours access Social Networking Services (SNS) during the office hours
(weekdays). The XML instance is described below: (weekdays). The XML instance is described below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<i2nsf-cfi-policy xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"> <i2nsf-cfi-policy
<policy-name>security_policy_for_blocking_sns123</policy-name> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy">
<rules> <policy-name>security_policy_for_blocking_sns123</policy-name>
<rule> <rules>
<rule-name>block_access_to_sns_during_office_hours</rule-name> <rule-name>block_access_to_sns_during_office_hours</rule-name>
<event> <event>
<time-information> <time-information>
<start-date-time>2020-03-11T09:00:00.00Z</start-date-time> <start-date-time>2021-03-11T09:00:00.00Z</start-date-time>
<end-date-time>2020-12-31T18:00:00.00Z</end-date-time> <end-date-time>2021-12-31T18:00:00.00Z</end-date-time>
<period> <period>
<start-time>09:00:00Z</start-time> <start-time>09:00:00Z</start-time>
<end-time>18:00:00Z</end-time> <end-time>18:00:00Z</end-time>
<day>nsfcfi:monday</day> <day>nsfcfi:monday</day>
<day>nsfcfi:tuesday</day> <day>nsfcfi:tuesday</day>
<day>nsfcfi:wednesday</day> <day>nsfcfi:wednesday</day>
<day>nsfcfi:thursday</day> <day>nsfcfi:thursday</day>
<day>nsfcfi:friday</day> <day>nsfcfi:friday</day>
</period> </period>
</time-information> </time-information>
<frequency>weekly</frequency> <frequency>weekly</frequency>
</event> </event>
<condition> <condition>
<firewall-condition> <firewall-condition>
<source>employees</source> <source>employees</source>
</firewall-condition> </firewall-condition>
<custom-condition> <url-condition>
<destination>sns-websites</destination> <url-name>sns-websites</url-name>
</custom-condition> </url-condition>
</condition> </condition>
<actions> <actions>
<primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action> <primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action>
</actions> </actions>
</rule> </rules>
</rules> </i2nsf-cfi-policy>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy>
Figure 20: An XML Example for Time-based Firewall Figure 21: An XML Example for Time-based Firewall
Time-based-condition Firewall Time-based-condition Firewall
1. The policy name is "security_policy_for_blocking_sns". 1. The policy name is "security_policy_for_blocking_sns".
2. The rule name is "block_access_to_sns_during_office_hours". 2. The rule name is "block_access_to_sns_during_office_hours".
3. The Source is "employees". 3. The Source is "employees".
4. The destination target is "sns-websites". "sns-websites" is the 4. The destination target is "sns-websites". "sns-websites" is the
key which represents the list containing the information, such as key which represents the list containing the information, such as
URL, about sns-websites. URL, about sns-websites.
5. The action required is to "drop" any attempt to connect to 5. The action required is to "drop" any attempt to connect to
websites related to Social networking. websites related to Social networking.
6. The IPsec method type used for nsf traffic steering is set to
"ipsec-ike".
8.3. Scenario 2: Block Malicious VoIP/VoLTE Packets Coming to a Company 8.3. Scenario 2: Block Malicious VoIP/VoLTE Packets Coming to a Company
The second example scenario is to "block malicious VoIP/VoLTE packets The second example scenario is to "block malicious VoIP/VoLTE packets
coming to a company" using a VoIP policy. In this scenario, the coming to a company" using a VoIP policy. In this scenario, the
calls comming from from VOIP and/or VOLTE sources with VOLTE IDs that calls comming from from VOIP and/or VOLTE sources with VOLTE IDs that
are classified as malicious are dropped. The IP addresses of the are classified as malicious are dropped. The IP addresses of the
employees and malicious VOIP IDs should be blocked are stored in the employees and malicious VOIP IDs should be blocked are stored in the
database or datastore of the enterprise. Here and the rest of the database or datastore of the enterprise. Here and the rest of the
cases assume that the security administrators or someone responsible cases assume that the security administrators or someone responsible
for the existing and newly generated policies, are not aware of which for the existing and newly generated policies, are not aware of which
and/or how many NSFs are needed to meet the security requirements. and/or how many NSFs are needed to meet the security requirements.
Figure 21 represents the XML document generated from YANG discussed Figure 22 represents the XML document generated from YANG discussed
in previous sections. Once a high-level seucurity policy is created in previous sections. Once a high-level seucurity policy is created
by a security admin, it is delivered by the Consumer-Facing by a security admin, it is delivered by the Consumer-Facing
Interface, through RESTCONF server, to the security controller. The Interface, through RESTCONF server, to the security controller. The
XML instance is described below: XML instance is described below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<i2nsf-cfi-policy xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"> <i2nsf-cfi-policy
<policy-name> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy">
security_policy_for_blocking_malicious_voip_packets <policy-name>
</policy-name> security_policy_for_blocking_malicious_voip_packets
<rules> </policy-name>
<rule> <rules>
<rule-name>Block_malicious_voip_and_volte_packets</rule-name> <rule-name>Block_malicious_voip_and_volte_packets</rule-name>
<condition> <condition>
<custom-condition> <voice-condition>
<source>malicious-id</source> <source-id>malicious-id</source-id>
</custom-condition> </voice-condition>
<firewall-condition> <firewall-condition>
<destination>employees</destination> <destination>employees</destination>
</firewall-condition> </firewall-condition>
</condition> </condition>
<actions> <actions>
<primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action> <primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action>
</actions> </actions>
<ipsec-method> </rules>
<method>nsfcfi:ipsec-ikeless</method> </i2nsf-cfi-policy>
</ipsec-method>
</rule>
</rules>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy>
Figure 21: An XML Example for VoIP Security Service Figure 22: An XML Example for VoIP Security Service
Custom-condition Firewall Custom-condition Firewall
1. The policy name is 1. The policy name is
"security_policy_for_blocking_malicious_voip_packets". "security_policy_for_blocking_malicious_voip_packets".
2. The rule name is "Block_malicious_voip_and_volte_packets". 2. The rule name is "Block_malicious_voip_and_volte_packets".
3. The Source is "malicious-id". This can be a single ID or a list 3. The Source is "malicious-id". This can be a single ID or a list
of IDs, depending on how the ID are stored in the database. The of IDs, depending on how the ID are stored in the database. The
"malicious-id" is the key so that the security admin can read "malicious-id" is the key so that the security admin can read
every stored malicious VOIP IDs that are named as "malicious-id". every stored malicious VOIP IDs that are named as "malicious-id".
4. The destination target is "employees". "employees" is the key 4. The destination target is "employees". "employees" is the key
which represents the list containing information about employees, which represents the list containing information about employees,
such as IP addresses. such as IP addresses.
5. The action required is "drop" when any incoming packets are from 5. The action required is "drop" when any incoming packets are from
"malicious-id". "malicious-id".
6. The IPsec method used for nsf traffic steering is set to "ipsec-
ikeless".
8.4. Scenario 3: Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS Flood Attacks on a Company Web 8.4. Scenario 3: Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS Flood Attacks on a Company Web
Server Server
The third example scenario is to "Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS flood The third example scenario is to "Mitigate HTTP and HTTPS flood
attacks on a company web server" using a DDoS-attack mitigation attacks on a company web server" using a DDoS-attack mitigation
policy. Here, the time information is not set because the service policy. Here, the time information is not set because the service
provided by the network should be maintained at all times. If the provided by the network should be maintained at all times. If the
packets sent by any sources are more than the set threshold, then the packets sent by any sources are more than the set threshold, then the
admin can set the percentage of the packets to be dropped to safely admin can set the percentage of the packets to be dropped to safely
maintain the service. In this scenario, the source is set as "any" maintain the service. In this scenario, the source is set as "any"
to block any sources which send abnormal amount of packets. The to block any sources which send abnormal amount of packets. The
destination is set as "web_server01". Once the rule is set and destination is set as "web_server01". Once the rule is set and
delivered and enforced to the nsfs by the securiy controller, the delivered and enforced to the nsfs by the securiy controller, the
NSFs will monitor the incoming packet amounts and the destination to NSFs will monitor the incoming packet amounts and the destination to
act according to the rule set. The XML instance is described below: act according to the rule set. The XML instance is described below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<i2nsf-cfi-policy xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy"> <i2nsf-cfi-policy
<policy-name>security_policy_for_ddos_attacks</policy-name> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy">
<rules> <policy-name>security_policy_for_ddos_attacks</policy-name>
<rule> <rules>
<rule-name>100_packets_per_second</rule-name> <rule-name>1000_packets_per_second</rule-name>
<conditions> <conditions>
<ddos-condition> <ddos-condition>
<destination>webservers</destination> <rate-limit>
<rate-limit> <packet-rate-threshold>1000</packet-rate-threshold>
<packet-threshold-per-second>100</packet-threshold-per-second> </rate-limit>
</rate-limit> </ddos-condition>
</ddos-condition> </conditions>
</conditions> <actions>
<actions> <primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action>
<primary-action>nsfcfi:drop</primary-action> </actions>
</actions> </rules>
<ipsec-method> </i2nsf-cfi-policy>
<method>nsfcfi:ipsec-ikeless</method>
</ipsec-method>
</rule>
</rules>
</i2nsf-cfi-policy>
Figure 22: An XML Example for DDoS-attack Mitigation Figure 23: An XML Example for DDoS-attack Mitigation
DDoS-condition Firewall DDoS-condition Firewall
1. The policy name is "security_policy_for_ddos_attacks". 1. The policy name is "security_policy_for_ddos_attacks".
2. The rule name is "100_packets_per_second". 2. The rule name is "100_packets_per_second".
3. The destination target is "webservers". "webservers" is the key 3. The rate limit exists to limit the incoming amount of packets per
which represents the list containing information, such as IP second. In this case the rate limit is "1000" packets per
addresses and ports, about web-servers. second. This amount depends on the packet receiving capacity of
the server devices.
4. The rate limit exists to limit the incoming amount of packets per
second. In this case the rate limit is "100" packets per second.
This amount depends on the packet receiving capacity of the
server devices.
5. The Source is all sources which send abnormal amount of packets.
6. The action required is to "drop" packet reception is more than 4. The Source is all sources which send abnormal amount of packets.
100 packets per second.
7. The IPsec method used for nsf traffic steering is set to "ipsec- 5. The action required is to "drop" packet reception is more than
ike". 1000 packets per second.
9. XML Configuration Example of a User Group's Access Control for I2NSF 9. XML Configuration Example of a User Group's Access Control for I2NSF
Consumer-Facing Interface Consumer-Facing Interface
This is an example for creating privileges for a group of users This is an example for creating privileges for a group of users
(i.e., a user group) to access and use the I2NSF Consumer-Facing (i.e., a user group) to access and use the I2NSF Consumer-Facing
Interface to create security policies via the interface. For the Interface to create security policies via the interface. For the
access control of the Consumer-Facing Interface, the NACM module can access control of the Consumer-Facing Interface, the NACM module can
be used. Figure 23 shows an XML example the access control of a user be used. Figure 24 shows an XML example the access control of a user
group (named Example-Group) for I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface A group (named Example-Group) for I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface A
group called Example-Group can be created and configured with NACM group called Example-Group can be created and configured with NACM
for the Consumer-Facing Interface. For Example-Group, a rule list for the Consumer-Facing Interface. For Example-Group, a rule list
can created with the name of Example-Group-Rules. Example-Group- can created with the name of Example-Group-Rules. Example-Group-
Rules has two rules of Example-Group-Rule1 and Example-Group-Rule2 as Rules has two rules of Example-Group-Rule1 and Example-Group-Rule2 as
follows. For Example-Group-Rule1, the privilege of "Read" is allowed follows. For Example-Group-Rule1, the privilege of "Read" is allowed
to Example-Group for the Consumer-Facing Interface. On the other to Example-Group for the Consumer-Facing Interface. On the other
hand, for Example-Group-Rule2, the privileges of "Create", "Update", hand, for Example-Group-Rule2, the privileges of "Create", "Update",
and "Delete" are denied against Example-Group for the Consumer-Facing and "Delete" are denied against Example-Group for the Consumer-Facing
Interface. Interface.
skipping to change at page 49, line 34 skipping to change at page 53, line 42
</rule> </rule>
<rule> <rule>
<name>Example-Group-Rule2</name> <name>Example-Group-Rule2</name>
<access-operations>create update delete</access-operations> <access-operations>create update delete</access-operations>
<module-name>ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy</module-name> <module-name>ietf-i2nsf-cfi-policy</module-name>
<action>deny</action> <action>deny</action>
</rule> </rule>
</rule-list> </rule-list>
</nacm> </nacm>
Figure 23: An XML Example of a User Group's Access Control for I2NSF Figure 24: An XML Example of a User Group's Access Control for
Consumer-Facing Interface I2NSF Consumer- Facing Interface
The access control for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface is as The access control for the I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface is as
follows. follows.
1. The NACM is enabled. 1. The NACM is enabled.
2. As a group name, Example-Group is specified. 2. As a group name, Example-Group is specified.
3. As members of the group, Alice, Bob, and Eve are specified. 3. As members of the group, Alice, Bob, and Eve are specified.
skipping to change at page 51, line 14 skipping to change at page 55, line 24
13. Contributors 13. Contributors
This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group. This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group.
Many people actively contributed to this document, such as Mahdi F. Many people actively contributed to this document, such as Mahdi F.
Dachmehchi and Daeyoung Hyun. The authors sincerely appreciate their Dachmehchi and Daeyoung Hyun. The authors sincerely appreciate their
contributions. contributions.
The following are co-authors of this document: The following are co-authors of this document:
Patrick Lingga Patrick Lingga Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon, Gyeonggi-do
Sungkyunkwan University 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: patricklink@skku.edu
2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419
Republic of Korea
EMail: patricklink@skku.edu
Hyoungshick Kim
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419
Republic of Korea
EMail: hyoung@skku.edu
Eunsoo Kim
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419
Republic of Korea
EMail: eskim86@skku.edu
Seungjin Lee
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419
Republic of Korea
EMail: jine33@skku.edu
Jinyong Tim Kim
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 16419
Republic of Korea
EMail: timkim@skku.edu Hyoungshick Kim Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon, Gyeonggi-do
16419 Republic of Korea EMail: hyoung@skku.edu
Anil Lohiya Eunsoo Kim Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Juniper Networks Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon,
1133 Innovation Way Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: eskim86@skku.edu
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
US
EMail: alohiya@juniper.net Seungjin Lee Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon,
Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: jine33@skku.edu
Dave Qi Jinyong Tim Kim Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer
Bloomberg Engineering Sungkyunkwan University 2066 Seo-ro Jangan-gu Suwon,
731 Lexington Avenue Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea EMail: timkim@skku.edu
New York, NY 10022
US
EMail: DQI@bloomberg.net Anil Lohiya Juniper Networks 1133 Innovation Way Sunnyvale, CA 94089
US EMail: alohiya@juniper.net
Nabil Bitar Dave Qi Bloomberg 731 Lexington Avenue New York, NY 10022 US EMail:
Nokia DQI@bloomberg.net
755 Ravendale Drive
Mountain View, CA 94043
US
Nabil Bitar Nokia 755 Ravendale Drive Mountain View, CA 94043 US
EMail: nabil.bitar@nokia.com EMail: nabil.bitar@nokia.com
Senad Palislamovic Nokia 755 Ravendale Drive Mountain View, CA 94043
US EMail: senad.palislamovic@nokia.com
Senad Palislamovic Liang Xia Huawei 101 Software Avenue Nanjing, Jiangsu 210012 China
Nokia
755 Ravendale Drive
Mountain View, CA 94043
US
EMail: senad.palislamovic@nokia.com
Liang Xia
Huawei
101 Software Avenue
Nanjing, Jiangsu 210012
China
EMail: Frank.Xialiang@huawei.com EMail: Frank.Xialiang@huawei.com
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[RFC0854] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Protocol [RFC0854] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Telnet Protocol
Specification", STD 8, RFC 854, DOI 10.17487/RFC0854, May Specification", STD 8, RFC 854, DOI 10.17487/RFC0854, May
1983, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc854>. 1983, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc854>.
[RFC0913] Lottor, M., "Simple File Transfer Protocol", RFC 913,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0913, September 1984,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc913>.
[RFC0959] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol", [RFC0959] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol",
STD 9, RFC 959, DOI 10.17487/RFC0959, October 1985, STD 9, RFC 959, DOI 10.17487/RFC0959, October 1985,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc959>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc959>.
[RFC1081] Rose, M., "Post Office Protocol: Version 3", RFC 1081, [RFC1939] Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3",
DOI 10.17487/RFC1081, November 1988, STD 53, RFC 1939, DOI 10.17487/RFC1939, May 1996,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1081>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1939>.
[RFC1631] Egevang, K. and P. Francis, "The IP Network Address
Translator (NAT)", RFC 1631, DOI 10.17487/RFC1631, May
1994, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1631>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2616, June 1999,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2616>.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.
[RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688, [RFC3688] Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004, DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.
[RFC3849] Huston, G., Lord, A., and P. Smith, "IPv6 Address Prefix
Reserved for Documentation", RFC 3849,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3849, July 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3849>.
[RFC4250] Lehtinen, S. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC4250] Lehtinen, S. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH)
Protocol Assigned Numbers", RFC 4250, Protocol Assigned Numbers", RFC 4250,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4250, January 2006, DOI 10.17487/RFC4250, January 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4250>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4250>.
[RFC5321] Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321, [RFC5321] Klensin, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 5321,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5321, October 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5321>.
[RFC5737] Arkko, J., Cotton, M., and L. Vegoda, "IPv4 Address Blocks
Reserved for Documentation", RFC 5737,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5737, January 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5737>.
[RFC6020] Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.
[RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., [RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
(NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011, (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.
[RFC6991] Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types", [RFC6991] Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types",
RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013, RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
[RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.
[RFC7950] Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language", [RFC7950] Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016, RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.
[RFC8040] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF [RFC8040] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017, Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
[RFC8192] Hares, S., Lopez, D., Zarny, M., Jacquenet, C., Kumar, R.,
and J. Jeong, "Interface to Network Security Functions
(I2NSF): Problem Statement and Use Cases", RFC 8192,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8192, July 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8192>.
[RFC8329] Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions", RFC 8329, DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, February 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>.
[RFC8340] Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams", [RFC8340] Bjorklund, M. and L. Berger, Ed., "YANG Tree Diagrams",
BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018, BCP 215, RFC 8340, DOI 10.17487/RFC8340, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8340>.
[RFC8341] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration [RFC8341] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341, Access Control Model", STD 91, RFC 8341,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8341, March 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8341>.
[RFC8407] Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of [RFC8407] Bierman, A., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of
Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407, Documents Containing YANG Data Models", BCP 216, RFC 8407,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8407, October 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8407>.
[RFC8525] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K., [RFC8525] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K.,
and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", RFC 8525, and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", RFC 8525,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8525, March 2019, DOI 10.17487/RFC8525, March 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8525>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8525>.
14.2. Informative References
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.
[RFC3022] Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3022, January 2001,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3022>.
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
Information Models and Data Models", RFC 3444,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3444, January 2003,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3444>.
[RFC3849] Huston, G., Lord, A., and P. Smith, "IPv6 Address Prefix
Reserved for Documentation", RFC 3849,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3849, July 2004,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3849>.
[RFC5737] Arkko, J., Cotton, M., and L. Vegoda, "IPv4 Address Blocks
Reserved for Documentation", RFC 5737,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5737, January 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5737>.
[RFC8329] Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions", RFC 8329, DOI 10.17487/RFC8329, February 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8329>.
[RFC8805] Kline, E., Duleba, K., Szamonek, Z., Moser, S., and W. [RFC8805] Kline, E., Duleba, K., Szamonek, Z., Moser, S., and W.
Kumari, "A Format for Self-Published IP Geolocation Kumari, "A Format for Self-Published IP Geolocation
Feeds", RFC 8805, DOI 10.17487/RFC8805, August 2020, Feeds", RFC 8805, DOI 10.17487/RFC8805, August 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8805>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8805>.
14.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability]
Xia, L., Strassner, J., Basile, C., and D. Lopez, Xia, L., Strassner, J., Basile, C., and D. R. Lopez,
"Information Model of NSFs Capabilities", draft-ietf- "Information Model of NSFs Capabilities", Work in
i2nsf-capability-05 (work in progress), April 2019. Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-i2nsf-capability-05,
24 April 2019, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-
ietf-i2nsf-capability-05.txt>.
[I-D.ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow-protection] [YARA] Alvarez, V., Bengen, H., Metz, J., Buehlmann, S., and W.
Marin-Lopez, R., Lopez-Millan, G., and F. Pereniguez- Shields, "YARA", YARA
Garcia, "Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based IPsec Documents https://yara.readthedocs.io/en/v3.5.0/, August
Flow Protection", draft-ietf-i2nsf-sdn-ipsec-flow- 2020.
protection-12 (work in progress), October 2020.
[SURICATA] Julien, V. and , "SURICATA", SURICATA Documents
https://suricata-ids.org/docs/, August 2020.
[SNORT] Roesch, M., Green, C., and B. Caswell, "SNORT", SNORT [SNORT] Roesch, M., Green, C., and B. Caswell, "SNORT", SNORT
Documents https://www.snort.org/#documents, August 2020. Documents https://www.snort.org/#documents, August 2020.
[STIX] Jordan, B., Piazza, R., and T. Darley, "Structured Threat [STIX] Jordan, B., Piazza, R., and T. Darley, "Structured Threat
Information Expression (STIX)", STIX Version 2.1: Information Expression (STIX)", STIX Version 2.1:
Committee Specification 01 https://docs.oasis- Committee Specification 01 https://docs.oasis-
open.org/cti/stix/v2.1/stix-v2.1.pdf, March 2020. open.org/cti/stix/v2.1/stix-v2.1.pdf, March 2020.
[SURICATA] Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-
Julien, V. and , "SURICATA", SURICATA Documents dm-13
https://suricata-ids.org/docs/, August 2020.
[YARA] Alvarez, V., Bengen, H., Metz, J., Buehlmann, S., and W. The following changes are made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-
Shields, "YARA", YARA interface-dm-13:
Documents https://yara.readthedocs.io/en/v3.5.0/, August
2020. * This version has been updated to synchronize with other I2NSF
documents.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor) Jaehoon (Paul) Jeong (editor)
Department of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419 Suwon
Gyeonggi-Do
16419
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Phone: +82 31 299 4957 Phone: +82 31 299 4957
Fax: +82 31 290 7996 Email: pauljeong@skku.edu
EMail: pauljeong@skku.edu
URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php URI: http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php
Chaehong Chung Chaehong Chung
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419 Suwon
Gyeonggi-Do
16419
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Phone: +82 31 299 4957 Phone: +82 31 299 4957
EMail: darkhong@skku.edu Email: darkhong@skku.edu
Tae-Jin Ahn Tae-Jin Ahn
Korea Telecom Korea Telecom
70 Yuseong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu 70 Yuseong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu
Daejeon 305-811 Daejeon
305-811
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
Phone: +82 42 870 8409 Phone: +82 42 870 8409
EMail: taejin.ahn@kt.com Email: taejin.ahn@kt.com
Rakesh Kumar Rakesh Kumar
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
1133 Innovation Way 1133 Innovation Way
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Sunnyvale, CA 94089
USA United States of America
EMail: rkkumar@juniper.net Email: rkkumar@juniper.net
Susan Hares Susan Hares
Huawei Huawei
7453 Hickory Hill 7453 Hickory Hill
Saline, MI 48176 Saline, MI 48176
USA United States of America
Phone: +1-734-604-0332 Phone: +1-734-604-0332
EMail: shares@ndzh.com Email: shares@ndzh.com
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