draft-ietf-dnssd-push-25.txt   rfc8765.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force T. Pusateri Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) T. Pusateri
Internet-Draft Unaffiliated Request for Comments: 8765 Unaffiliated
Intended status: Standards Track S. Cheshire Category: Standards Track S. Cheshire
Expires: April 15, 2020 Apple Inc. ISSN: 2070-1721 Apple Inc.
October 13, 2019 June 2020
DNS Push Notifications DNS Push Notifications
draft-ietf-dnssd-push-25
Abstract Abstract
The Domain Name System (DNS) was designed to return matching records The Domain Name System (DNS) was designed to return matching records
efficiently for queries for data that are relatively static. When efficiently for queries for data that are relatively static. When
those records change frequently, DNS is still efficient at returning those records change frequently, DNS is still efficient at returning
the updated results when polled, as long as the polling rate is not the updated results when polled, as long as the polling rate is not
too high. But there exists no mechanism for a client to be too high. But, there exists no mechanism for a client to be
asynchronously notified when these changes occur. This document asynchronously notified when these changes occur. This document
defines a mechanism for a client to be notified of such changes to defines a mechanism for a client to be notified of such changes to
DNS records, called DNS Push Notifications. DNS records, called DNS Push Notifications.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 2020. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8765.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements Language
1.2. Fatal Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Fatal Errors
2. Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Motivation
3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Overview
4. State Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. State Considerations
5. Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Transport
6. Protocol Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Protocol Operation
6.1. Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.1. Discovery
6.2. DNS Push Notification SUBSCRIBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2. DNS Push Notification SUBSCRIBE
6.2.1. SUBSCRIBE Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.2.1. SUBSCRIBE Request
6.2.2. SUBSCRIBE Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2.2. SUBSCRIBE Response
6.3. DNS Push Notification Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.3. DNS Push Notification Updates
6.3.1. PUSH Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.3.1. PUSH Message
6.4. DNS Push Notification UNSUBSCRIBE . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4. DNS Push Notification UNSUBSCRIBE
6.4.1. UNSUBSCRIBE Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4.1. UNSUBSCRIBE Message
6.5. DNS Push Notification RECONFIRM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.5. DNS Push Notification RECONFIRM
6.5.1. RECONFIRM Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.5.1. RECONFIRM Message
6.6. DNS Stateful Operations TLV Context Summary . . . . . . . 31 6.6. DNS Stateful Operations TLV Context Summary
6.7. Client-Initiated Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.7. Client-Initiated Termination
6.8. Client Fallback to Polling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.8. Client Fallback to Polling
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7. Security Considerations
7.1. Security Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1. Security Services
7.2. TLS Name Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.2. TLS Name Authentication
7.3. TLS Early Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.3. TLS Early Data
7.4. TLS Session Resumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.4. TLS Session Resumption
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8. IANA Considerations
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9. References
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9.1. Normative References
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 9.2. Informative References
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Acknowledgments
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Authors' Addresses
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Domain Name System (DNS) records may be updated using DNS Update Domain Name System (DNS) records may be updated using DNS Update
[RFC2136]. Other mechanisms such as a Discovery Proxy [DisProx] can [RFC2136]. Other mechanisms such as a Discovery Proxy [RFC8766] can
also generate changes to a DNS zone. This document specifies a also generate changes to a DNS zone. This document specifies a
protocol for DNS clients to subscribe to receive asynchronous protocol for DNS clients to subscribe to receive asynchronous
notifications of changes to RRsets of interest. It is immediately notifications of changes to RRsets of interest. It is immediately
relevant in the case of DNS Service Discovery [RFC6763] but is not relevant in the case of DNS-based Service Discovery [RFC6763] but is
limited to that use case, and provides a general DNS mechanism for not limited to that use case; it provides a general DNS mechanism for
DNS record change notifications. Familiarity with the DNS protocol DNS record change notifications. Familiarity with the DNS protocol
and DNS packet formats is assumed [RFC1034] [RFC1035] [RFC6895]. and DNS packet formats is assumed [RFC1034] [RFC1035] [RFC6895].
1.1. Requirements Language 1.1. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. These words may also appear in this capitals, as shown here.
document in lower case as plain English words, absent their normative
meanings.
1.2. Fatal Errors 1.2. Fatal Errors
Certain invalid situations are described in this specification, like Certain invalid situations are described in this specification, such
a server sending a Push Notification subscription request to a as a server sending a Push Notification subscription request to a
client, or a client sending a Push Notification response to a server. client, or a client sending a Push Notification response to a server.
These should never occur with a correctly implemented client and These should never occur with a correctly implemented client and
server, and if they do occur then they indicate a serious server, and if they do occur, then they indicate a serious
implementation error. In these extreme cases there is no reasonable implementation error. In these extreme cases, there is no reasonable
expectation of a graceful recovery, and the recipient detecting the expectation of a graceful recovery, and the recipient detecting the
error should respond by unilaterally aborting the session without error should respond by unilaterally aborting the session without
regard for data loss. Such cases are addressed by having an engineer regard for data loss. Such cases are addressed by having an engineer
investigate the cause of the failure and fixing the problem in the investigate the cause of the failure and fixing the problem in the
software. software.
Where this specification says "forcibly abort", it means sending a Where this specification says "forcibly abort", it means sending a
TCP RST to terminate the TCP connection, and the TLS session running TCP RST to terminate the TCP connection and the TLS session running
over that TCP connection. In the BSD Sockets API, this is achieved over that TCP connection. In the BSD Sockets API, this is achieved
by setting the SO_LINGER option to zero before closing the socket. by setting the SO_LINGER option to zero before closing the socket.
2. Motivation 2. Motivation
As the domain name system continues to adapt to new uses and changes As the domain name system continues to adapt to new uses and changes
in deployment, polling has the potential to burden DNS servers at in deployment, polling has the potential to burden DNS servers at
many levels throughout the network. Other network protocols have many levels throughout the network. Other network protocols have
successfully deployed a publish/subscribe model following the successfully deployed a publish/subscribe model following the
Observer design pattern [obs]. XMPP Publish-Subscribe [XEP0060] and Observer design pattern [OBS]. Extensible Messaging and Presence
Atom [RFC4287] are examples. While DNS servers are generally highly Protocol (XMPP) Publish-Subscribe [XEP0060] and Atom [RFC4287] are
tuned and capable of a high rate of query/response traffic, adding a examples. While DNS servers are generally highly tuned and capable
publish/subscribe model for tracking changes to DNS records can of a high rate of query/response traffic, adding a publish/subscribe
deliver more timely notification of changes with reduced CPU usage model for tracking changes to DNS records can deliver more timely
and lower network traffic. notifications of changes with reduced CPU usage and lower network
traffic.
Multicast DNS [RFC6762] implementations always listen on a well known The guiding design principle of DNS Push Notifications is that
clients that choose to use DNS Push Notifications, instead of
repeated polling with DNS queries, will receive the same results as
they could via sufficiently rapid polling, except more efficiently.
This means that the rules for which records match a given DNS Push
Notification subscription are the same as the already established
rules used to determine which records match a given DNS query
[RFC1034]. For example, name comparisons are done in a case-
insensitive manner, and a record of type CNAME in a zone matches any
DNS TYPE in a query or subscription.
Multicast DNS [RFC6762] implementations always listen on a well-known
link-local IP multicast group address, and changes are sent to that link-local IP multicast group address, and changes are sent to that
multicast group address for all group members to receive. Therefore, multicast group address for all group members to receive. Therefore,
Multicast DNS already has asynchronous change notification Multicast DNS already has asynchronous change notification
capability. When DNS Service Discovery [RFC6763] is used across a capability. When DNS-based Service Discovery [RFC6763] is used
wide area network using Unicast DNS (possibly facilitated via a across a wide area network using Unicast DNS (possibly facilitated
Discovery Proxy [DisProx]) it would be beneficial to have an via a Discovery Proxy [RFC8766]), it would be beneficial to have an
equivalent capability for Unicast DNS, to allow clients to learn equivalent capability for Unicast DNS in order to allow clients to
about DNS record changes in a timely manner without polling. learn about DNS record changes in a timely manner without polling.
The DNS Long-Lived Queries (LLQ) mechanism [LLQ] is an existing The DNS Long-Lived Queries (LLQ) mechanism [RFC8764] is an existing
deployed solution to provide asynchronous change notifications, used deployed solution to provide asynchronous change notifications; it
by Apple's Back to My Mac [RFC6281] service introduced in Mac OS X was used by Apple's Back to My Mac [RFC6281] service introduced in
10.5 Leopard in 2007. Back to My Mac was designed in an era when the Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard in 2007. Back to My Mac was designed in an era
data center operations staff asserted that it was impossible for a when the data center operations staff asserted that it was impossible
server to handle large numbers of mostly-idle TCP connections, so LLQ for a server to handle large numbers of TCP connections, even if
was defined as a UDP-based protocol, effectively replicating much of those connections carried very little traffic and spent most of their
TCP's connection state management logic in user space, and creating time idle. Consequently, LLQ was defined as a UDP-based protocol,
its own imitation of existing TCP features like the three-way effectively replicating much of TCP's connection state management
handshake, flow control, and reliability. logic in user space and creating its own imitation of existing TCP
features like flow control, reliability, and the three-way handshake.
This document builds on experience gained with the LLQ protocol, with This document builds on experience gained with the LLQ protocol, with
an improved design. Instead of using UDP, this specification uses an improved design. Instead of using UDP, this specification uses
DNS Stateful Operations (DSO) [RFC8490] running over TLS over TCP, DNS Stateful Operations (DSO) [RFC8490] running over TLS over TCP,
and therefore doesn't need to reinvent existing TCP functionality. and therefore doesn't need to reinvent existing TCP functionality.
Using TCP also gives long-lived low-traffic connections better Using TCP also gives long-lived low-traffic connections better
longevity through NAT gateways without depending on the gateway to longevity through NAT gateways without depending on the gateway to
support NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) [RFC6886] or Port Control support NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) [RFC6886] or Port Control
Protocol (PCP) [RFC6887], or resorting to excessive keepalive Protocol (PCP) [RFC6887], or resorting to excessive keepalive
traffic. traffic.
3. Overview 3. Overview
A DNS Push Notification client subscribes for Push Notifications for A DNS Push Notification client subscribes for Push Notifications for
a particular RRset by connecting to the appropriate Push Notification a particular RRset by connecting to the appropriate Push Notification
server for that RRset, and sending DSO message(s) indicating the server for that RRset and sending DSO message(s) indicating the
RRset(s) of interest. When the client loses interest in receiving RRset(s) of interest. When the client loses interest in receiving
further updates to these records, it unsubscribes. further updates to these records, it unsubscribes.
The DNS Push Notification server for a DNS zone is any server capable The DNS Push Notification server for a DNS zone is any server capable
of generating the correct change notifications for a name. It may be of generating the correct change notifications for a name. It may be
a primary, secondary, or stealth name server [RFC7719]. a primary, secondary, or stealth name server [RFC8499].
The "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for a zone MAY reference The "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for a zone MAY reference
the same target host and port as that zone's the same target host and port as that zone's
"_dns-update-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record. When the same target host "_dns-update-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record. When the same target host
and port is offered for both DNS Updates and DNS Push Notifications, and port is offered for both DNS Updates and DNS Push Notifications,
a client MAY use a single DSO session to that server for both DNS a client MAY use a single DSO session to that server for both DNS
Updates and DNS Push Notification Subscriptions. DNS Updates and DNS Updates and DNS Push Notification subscriptions. DNS Updates and DNS
Push Notifications may be handled on different ports on the same Push Notifications may be handled on different ports on the same
target host, in which case they are not considered to be the "same target host, in which case they are not considered to be the "same
server" for the purposes of this specification, and communications server" for the purposes of this specification, and communications
with these two ports are handled independently. Supporting DNS with these two ports are handled independently. Supporting DNS
Updates and DNS Push Notifications on the same server is OPTIONAL. A Updates and DNS Push Notifications on the same server is OPTIONAL. A
DNS Push Notification server is not required to support DNS Update. DNS Push Notification server is not required to support DNS Update.
Standard DNS Queries MAY be sent over a DNS Push Notification (i.e., Standard DNS Queries MAY be sent over a DNS Push Notification (i.e.,
DSO) session. For any zone for which the server is authoritative, it DSO) session. For any zone for which the server is authoritative, it
MUST respond authoritatively for queries for names falling within MUST respond authoritatively for queries for names falling within
that zone (e.g., the "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record) both for that zone (e.g., the "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record) both for
normal DNS queries and for DNS Push Notification subscriptions. For normal DNS queries and for DNS Push Notification subscriptions. For
names for which the server is acting as a recursive resolver (e.g., names for which the server is acting as a recursive resolver (e.g.,
when the server is the local recursive resolver) for any query for when the server is the local recursive resolver) for any query for
which it supports DNS Push Notification subscriptions, it MUST also which it supports DNS Push Notification subscriptions, it MUST also
support standard queries. support standard queries.
DNS Push Notifications impose less load on the responding server than DNS Push Notifications impose less load on the responding server than
rapid polling would, but Push Notifications do still have a cost, so rapid polling would, but Push Notifications do still have a cost.
DNS Push Notification clients MUST NOT recklessly create an excessive Therefore, DNS Push Notification clients MUST NOT recklessly create
number of Push Notification subscriptions. Specifically: an excessive number of Push Notification subscriptions.
Specifically:
(a) A subscription should only be active when there is a valid reason (a) A subscription should only be active when there is a valid
to need live data (for example, an on-screen display is currently reason to need live data (for example, an on-screen display is
showing the results to the user) and the subscription SHOULD be currently showing the results to the user), and the subscription
cancelled as soon as the need for that data ends (for example, when SHOULD be canceled as soon as the need for that data ends (for
the user dismisses that display). In the case of a device like a example, when the user dismisses that display). In the case of
smartphone which, after some period of inactivity, goes to sleep or a device like a smartphone that, after some period of
otherwise darkens its screen, it should cancel its subscriptions when inactivity, goes to sleep or otherwise darkens its screen, it
darkening the screen (since the user cannot see any changes on the should cancel its subscriptions when darkening the screen (since
display anyway) and reinstate its subscriptions when re-awakening the user cannot see any changes on the display anyway) and
from display sleep. reinstate its subscriptions when reawakening from display sleep.
(b) A DNS Push Notification client SHOULD NOT routinely keep a DNS (b) A DNS Push Notification client SHOULD NOT routinely keep a DNS
Push Notification subscription active 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, Push Notification subscription active 24 hours a day, 7 days a
just to keep a list in memory up to date so that if the user does week, just to keep a list in memory up to date so that if the
choose to bring up an on-screen display of that data, it can be user does choose to bring up an on-screen display of that data,
displayed really fast. DNS Push Notifications are designed to be it can be displayed really fast. DNS Push Notifications are
fast enough that there is no need to pre-load a "warm" list in memory designed to be fast enough that there is no need to pre-load a
just in case it might be needed later. "warm" list in memory just in case it might be needed later.
Generally, as described in the DNS Stateful Operations specification Generally, as described in the DNS Stateful Operations specification
[RFC8490], a client must not keep a DSO session to a server open [RFC8490], a client must not keep a DSO session to a server open
indefinitely if it has no subscriptions (or other operations) active indefinitely if it has no subscriptions (or other operations) active
on that session. A client may close a DSO session immediately it on that session. A client should begin closing a DSO session
becomes idle, and then if needed in the future, open a new session immediately after it becomes idle, and then, if needed in the future,
when required. Alternatively, a client may speculatively keep an open a new session when required. Alternatively, a client may
idle DSO session open for some time, subject to the constraint that speculatively keep an idle DSO session open for some time, subject to
it must not keep a session open that has been idle for more than the the constraint that it must not keep a session open that has been
session's idle timeout (15 seconds by default) [RFC8490]. idle for more than the session's idle timeout (15 seconds by default)
[RFC8490].
Note that a DSO session that has an active DNS Push Notification Note that a DSO session that has an active DNS Push Notification
subscription is not considered idle, even if there is no traffic subscription is not considered idle, even if there is no traffic
flowing for an extended period of time. In this case the DSO flowing for an extended period of time. In this case, the DSO
inactivity timeout does not apply, because the session is not inactivity timeout does not apply, because the session is not
inactive, but the keepalive interval does still apply, to ensure inactive, but the keepalive interval does still apply, to ensure the
generation of sufficient messages to maintain state in middleboxes generation of sufficient messages to maintain state in middleboxes
(such at NAT gateways or firewalls) and for the client and server to (such at NAT gateways or firewalls) and for the client and server to
periodically verify that they still have connectivity to each other. periodically verify that they still have connectivity to each other.
This is described in Section 6.2 of the DSO specification [RFC8490]. This is described in Section 6.2 of the DSO specification [RFC8490].
4. State Considerations 4. State Considerations
Each DNS Push Notification server is capable of handling some finite Each DNS Push Notification server is capable of handling some finite
number of Push Notification subscriptions. This number will vary number of Push Notification subscriptions. This number will vary
from server to server and is based on physical machine from server to server and is based on physical machine
characteristics, network bandwidth, and operating system resource characteristics, network capacity, and operating system resource
allocation. After a client establishes a session to a DNS server, allocation. After a client establishes a session to a DNS server,
each subscription is individually accepted or rejected. Servers may each subscription is individually accepted or rejected. Servers may
employ various techniques to limit subscriptions to a manageable employ various techniques to limit subscriptions to a manageable
level. Correspondingly, the client is free to establish simultaneous level. Correspondingly, the client is free to establish simultaneous
sessions to alternate DNS servers that support DNS Push Notifications sessions to alternate DNS servers that support DNS Push Notifications
for the zone and distribute subscriptions at the client's discretion. for the zone and distribute subscriptions at the client's discretion.
In this way, both clients and servers can react to resource In this way, both clients and servers can react to resource
constraints. constraints.
5. Transport 5. Transport
Other DNS operations like DNS Update [RFC2136] MAY use either User Other DNS operations like DNS Update [RFC2136] MAY use either DNS
Datagram Protocol (UDP) [RFC0768] or Transmission Control Protocol over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) [RFC0768] or DNS over Transmission
(TCP) [RFC0793] as the transport protocol, in keeping with the Control Protocol (TCP) [RFC0793] as the transport protocol, provided
historical precedent that DNS queries must first be sent over UDP they follow the historical precedent that DNS queries must first be
[RFC1123]. This requirement to use UDP has subsequently been relaxed sent using DNS over UDP and only switch to DNS over TCP if needed
[RFC7766]. [RFC1123]. This requirement to prefer UDP has subsequently been
relaxed [RFC7766].
In keeping with the more recent precedent, DNS Push Notification is In keeping with the more recent precedent, DNS Push Notification is
defined only for TCP. DNS Push Notification clients MUST use DNS defined only for TCP. DNS Push Notification clients MUST use DNS
Stateful Operations [RFC8490] running over TLS over TCP [RFC7858]. Stateful Operations [RFC8490] running over TLS over TCP [RFC7858].
Connection setup over TCP ensures return reachability and alleviates Connection setup over TCP ensures return reachability and alleviates
concerns of state overload at the server, which is a potential concerns of state overload at the server, a potential problem with
problem with connectionless protocols, which can be more vulnerable connectionless protocols, which can be more vulnerable to being
to being exploited by attackers using spoofed source addresses. All exploited by attackers using spoofed source addresses. All
subscribers are guaranteed to be reachable by the server by virtue of subscribers are guaranteed to be reachable by the server by virtue of
the TCP three-way handshake. Flooding attacks are possible with any the TCP three-way handshake. Flooding attacks are possible with any
protocol, and a benefit of TCP is that there are already established protocol, and a benefit of TCP is that there are already established
industry best practices to guard against SYN flooding and similar industry best practices to guard against SYN flooding and similar
attacks [SYN] [RFC4953]. attacks [SYN] [RFC4953].
Use of TCP also allows DNS Push Notifications to take advantage of Use of TCP also allows DNS Push Notifications to take advantage of
current and future developments in TCP, such as Multipath TCP (MPTCP) current and future developments in TCP such as Multipath TCP (MPTCP)
[RFC6824], TCP Fast Open (TFO) [RFC7413], the TCP RACK fast loss [RFC8684], TCP Fast Open (TFO) [RFC7413], the TCP RACK fast loss
detection algorithm [I-D.ietf-tcpm-rack], and so on. detection algorithm [TCPRACK], and so on.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC8446] is well understood, and used Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC8446] is well understood and is
by many application-layer protocols running over TCP. TLS is used by many application-layer protocols running over TCP. TLS is
designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery. designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery.
TLS is REQUIRED for every connection between a client subscriber and TLS is REQUIRED for every connection between a client subscriber and
server in this protocol specification. Additional security measures server in this protocol specification. Additional security measures
such as client authentication during TLS negotiation may also be such as client authentication during TLS negotiation may also be
employed to increase the trust relationship between client and employed to increase the trust relationship between client and
server. server.
6. Protocol Operation 6. Protocol Operation
The DNS Push Notification protocol is a session-oriented protocol, The DNS Push Notification protocol is a session-oriented protocol and
and makes use of DNS Stateful Operations (DSO) [RFC8490]. makes use of DNS Stateful Operations (DSO) [RFC8490].
For details of the DSO message format refer to the DNS Stateful Oper- For details of the DSO message format, refer to the DNS Stateful
ations specification [RFC8490]. Those details are not repeated here. Operations specification [RFC8490]. Those details are not repeated
here.
DNS Push Notification clients and servers MUST support DSO. A single DNS Push Notification clients and servers MUST support DSO. A single
server can support DNS Queries, DNS Updates, and DNS Push server can support DNS Queries, DNS Updates, and DNS Push
Notifications (using DSO) on the same TCP port. Notifications (using DSO) on the same TCP port.
A DNS Push Notification exchange begins with the client discovering A DNS Push Notification exchange begins with the client discovering
the appropriate server, using the procedure described in Section 6.1, the appropriate server, using the procedure described in Section 6.1,
and then making a TLS/TCP connection to it. and then making a TLS/TCP connection to it.
A typical DNS Push Notification client will immediately issue a DSO After making the TLS/TCP connection to the server, a typical DNS Push
Keepalive operation to request a session timeout and/or keepalive Notification client will then immediately issue a DSO Keepalive
interval longer than the 15-second default values, but this is not operation to establish the DSO session and request a session timeout
required. A DNS Push Notification client MAY issue other requests on and/or keepalive interval longer than the 15-second default values,
the session first, and only issue a DSO Keepalive operation later if but this is not required. A DNS Push Notification client MAY issue
it determines that to be necessary. Sending either a DSO Keepalive other requests on the session first, and only issue a DSO Keepalive
operation or a Push Notification subscription request over the TLS/ operation later if it determines that to be necessary. Sending
TCP connection to the server signals the client's support of DSO and either a DSO Keepalive operation or a Push Notification subscription
serves to establish a DSO session. request over the TLS/TCP connection to the server signals the
client's support of DSO and serves to establish a DSO session.
In accordance with the current set of active subscriptions, the In accordance with the current set of active subscriptions, the
server sends relevant asynchronous Push Notifications to the client. server sends relevant asynchronous Push Notifications to the client.
Note that a client MUST be prepared to receive (and silently ignore) Note that a client MUST be prepared to receive (and silently ignore)
Push Notifications for subscriptions it has previously removed, since Push Notifications for subscriptions it has previously removed, since
there is no way to prevent the situation where a Push Notification is there is no way to prevent the situation where a Push Notification is
in flight from server to client while the client's UNSUBSCRIBE in flight from server to client while the client's UNSUBSCRIBE
message cancelling that subscription is simultaneously in flight from message canceling that subscription is simultaneously in flight from
client to server. client to server.
6.1. Discovery 6.1. Discovery
The first step in establishing a DNS Push Notification subscription The first step in establishing a DNS Push Notification subscription
is to discover an appropriate DNS server that supports DNS Push is to discover an appropriate DNS server that supports DNS Push
Notifications for the desired zone. Notifications for the desired zone.
The client begins by opening a DSO Session to its normal configured The client begins by opening a DSO session to its normal configured
DNS recursive resolver and requesting a Push Notification DNS recursive resolver and requesting a Push Notification
subscription. This connection is made to TCP port 853, the default subscription. This connection is made to TCP port 853, the default
port for DNS-over-TLS [RFC7858]. If the request for a Push port for DNS over TLS [RFC7858]. If the request for a Push
Notification subscription is successful, and the recursive resolver Notification subscription is successful, and the recursive resolver
doesn't already have an active subscription for that name, type, and doesn't already have an active subscription for that name, type, and
class, then the recursive resolver will make a corresponding Push class, then the recursive resolver will make a corresponding Push
Notification subscription on the client's behalf. Results received Notification subscription on the client's behalf. Results received
are relayed to the client. This is closely analogous to how a client are relayed to the client. This is closely analogous to how a client
sends a normal DNS query to its configured DNS recursive resolver sends a normal DNS query to its configured DNS recursive resolver,
which, if it doesn't already have appropriate answer(s) in its cache, which, if it doesn't already have appropriate answer(s) in its cache,
issues an upstream query to satisfy the request. issues an upstream query to satisfy the request.
In many contexts, the recursive resolver will be able to handle Push In many contexts, the recursive resolver will be able to handle Push
Notifications for all names that the client may need to follow. Use Notifications for all names that the client may need to follow. Use
of VPN tunnels and Private DNS [RFC8499] can create some additional of VPN tunnels and Private DNS [RFC8499] can create some additional
complexity in the client software here; the techniques to handle VPN complexity in the client software here; the techniques to handle VPN
tunnels and Private DNS for DNS Push Notifications are the same as tunnels and Private DNS for DNS Push Notifications are the same as
those already used to handle this for normal DNS queries. those already used to handle this for normal DNS queries.
If the recursive resolver does not support DNS over TLS, or supports If the recursive resolver does not support DNS over TLS, or supports
DNS over TLS but is not listening on TCP port 853, or supports DNS DNS over TLS but is not listening on TCP port 853, or supports DNS
over TLS on TCP port 853 but does not support DSO on that port, then over TLS on TCP port 853 but does not support DSO on that port, then
the DSO Session session establishment will fail [RFC8490]. the DSO session establishment will fail [RFC8490].
If the recursive resolver does support DSO but not Push Notification If the recursive resolver does support DSO on TCP port 853 but does
subscriptions, then it will return the DSO error code DSOTYPENI (11). not support Push Notification subscriptions, then when the client
attempts to create a subscription, the server will return the DSO
error code DSOTYPENI (11).
In some cases, the recursive resolver may support DSO and Push In some cases, the recursive resolver may support DSO and Push
Notification subscriptions, but may not be able to subscribe for Push Notification subscriptions but may not be able to subscribe for Push
Notifications for a particular name. In this case, the recursive Notifications for a particular name. In this case, the recursive
resolver should return SERVFAIL to the client. This includes being resolver should return SERVFAIL to the client. This includes being
unable to establish a connection to the zone's DNS Push Notification unable to establish a connection to the zone's DNS Push Notification
server or establishing a connection but receiving a non success server or establishing a connection but receiving a non-success
response code. In some cases, where the client has a pre-established response code. In some cases, where the client has a pre-established
trust relationship with the owner of the zone (that is not handled trust relationship with the owner of the zone (that is not handled
via the usual mechanisms for VPN software) the client may handle via the usual mechanisms for VPN software), the client may handle
these failures by contacting the zone's DNS Push server directly. these failures by contacting the zone's DNS Push Notification server
directly.
In any of the cases described above where the client fails to In any of the cases described above where the client fails to
establish a DNS Push Notification subscription via its configured establish a DNS Push Notification subscription via its configured
recursive resolver, the client should proceed to discover the recursive resolver, the client should proceed to discover the
appropriate server for direct communication. The client MUST also appropriate server for direct communication. The client MUST also
determine which TCP port on the server is listening for connections, determine on which TCP port the server is listening for connections,
which need not be (and often is not) the typical TCP port 53 used for which need not be, and often is not, TCP port 53 (traditionally used
conventional DNS, or TCP port 853 used for DNS over TLS. for conventional DNS) or TCP port 853 (traditionally used for DNS
over TLS).
The discovery algorithm described here is an iterative algorithm, The discovery algorithm described here is an iterative algorithm,
which starts with the full name of the record to which the client which starts with the full name of the record to which the client
wishes to subscribe. Successive SOA queries are then issued, wishes to subscribe. Successive SOA queries are then issued,
trimming one label each time, until the closest enclosing trimming one label each time, until the closest enclosing
authoritative server is discovered. There is also an optimization to authoritative server is discovered. There is also an optimization to
enable the client to take a "short cut" directly to the SOA record of enable the client to take a "short cut" directly to the SOA record of
the closest enclosing authoritative server in many cases. the closest enclosing authoritative server in many cases.
1. The client begins the discovery by sending a DNS query to its 1. The client begins the discovery by sending a DNS query to its
local resolver, with record type SOA [RFC1035] for the record local resolver, with record type SOA [RFC1035] for the record
name to which it wishes to subscribe. As an example, suppose the name to which it wishes to subscribe. As an example, suppose the
client wishes to subscribe to PTR records with the name client wishes to subscribe to PTR records with the name
_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com (to discover Internet Printing "_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com" (to discover Internet Printing
Protocol (IPP) printers [RFC8010] [RFC8011] being advertised in Protocol (IPP) printers [RFC8010] [RFC8011] being advertised in
the head office of Example Company.). The client begins by the head office of Example Company). The client begins by
sending an SOA query for _ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com to the sending an SOA query for "_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com" to
local recursive resolver. The goal is to determine the server the local recursive resolver. The goal is to determine the
authoritative for the name _ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com. The server that is authoritative for the name
closest enclosing DNS zone containing the name "_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com". The closest enclosing DNS
_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com could be example.com, or zone containing the name "_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com" could
headoffice.example.com, or _tcp.headoffice.example.com, or even be "example.com", or "headoffice.example.com", or
_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com. The client does not know in "_tcp.headoffice.example.com", or even
"_ipp._tcp.headoffice.example.com". The client does not know in
advance where the closest enclosing zone cut occurs, which is why advance where the closest enclosing zone cut occurs, which is why
it uses the iterative procedure described here to discover this it uses the iterative procedure described here to discover this
information. information.
2. If the requested SOA record exists, it will be returned in the 2. If the requested SOA record exists, it will be returned in the
Answer section with a NOERROR response code, and the client has Answer Section with a NOERROR response code, and the client has
succeeded in discovering the information it needs. succeeded in discovering the information it needs.
(This language is not placing any new requirements on DNS (This language is not placing any new requirements on DNS
recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing
operation of the DNS protocol [RFC1034] [RFC1035].) operation of the DNS protocol [RFC1034] [RFC1035].)
3. If the requested SOA record does not exist, the client will get 3. If the requested SOA record does not exist, the client will get
back a NOERROR/NODATA response or an NXDOMAIN/Name Error back a NOERROR/NODATA response or an NXDOMAIN/Name Error
response. In either case, the local resolver would normally response. In either case, the local resolver would normally
include the SOA record for the closest enclosing zone of the include the SOA record for the closest enclosing zone of the
requested name in the Authority Section. If the SOA record is requested name in the Authority Section. If the SOA record is
received in the Authority Section, then the client has succeeded received in the Authority Section, then the client has succeeded
skipping to change at page 10, line 49 skipping to change at line 451
recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing
operation of the DNS protocol [RFC1034] [RFC1035].) operation of the DNS protocol [RFC1034] [RFC1035].)
3. If the requested SOA record does not exist, the client will get 3. If the requested SOA record does not exist, the client will get
back a NOERROR/NODATA response or an NXDOMAIN/Name Error back a NOERROR/NODATA response or an NXDOMAIN/Name Error
response. In either case, the local resolver would normally response. In either case, the local resolver would normally
include the SOA record for the closest enclosing zone of the include the SOA record for the closest enclosing zone of the
requested name in the Authority Section. If the SOA record is requested name in the Authority Section. If the SOA record is
received in the Authority Section, then the client has succeeded received in the Authority Section, then the client has succeeded
in discovering the information it needs. in discovering the information it needs.
(This language is not placing any new requirements on DNS (This language is not placing any new requirements on DNS
recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing recursive resolvers. This text merely describes the existing
operation of the DNS protocol regarding negative responses operation of the DNS protocol regarding negative responses
[RFC2308].) [RFC2308].)
4. If the client receives a response containing no SOA record, then 4. If the client receives a response containing no SOA record, then
it proceeds with the iterative approach. The client strips the it proceeds with the iterative approach. The client strips the
leading label from the current query name, and if the resulting leading label from the current query name, and if the resulting
name has at least two labels in it, the client sends an SOA query name has at least two labels in it, then the client sends an SOA
for that new name, and processing continues at step 2 above, query for that new name and processing continues at step 2 above,
repeating the iterative search until either an SOA is received, repeating the iterative search until either an SOA is received or
or the query name consists of a single label, i.e., a Top Level the query name consists of a single label, i.e., a Top-Level
Domain (TLD). In the case of a single-label name (TLD), this is Domain (TLD). In the case of a single-label name (TLD), this is
a network configuration error, which should not happen, and the a network configuration error, which should not happen, and the
client gives up. The client may retry the operation at a later client gives up. The client may retry the operation at a later
time, of the client's choosing, such after a change in network time of the client's choosing, such as after a change in network
attachment. attachment.
5. Once the SOA is known (either by virtue of being seen in the 5. Once the SOA is known (by virtue of being seen either in the
Answer Section, or in the Authority Section), the client sends a Answer Section or in the Authority Section), the client sends a
DNS query with type SRV [RFC2782] for the record name DNS query with type SRV [RFC2782] for the record name
"_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>", where <zone> is the owner name of "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>", where <zone> is the owner name of
the discovered SOA record. the discovered SOA record.
6. If the zone in question is set up to offer DNS Push Notifications 6. If the zone in question is set up to offer DNS Push
then this SRV record MUST exist. (If this SRV record does not Notifications, then this SRV record MUST exist. (If this SRV
exist then the zone is not correctly configured for DNS Push record does not exist, then the zone is not correctly configured
Notifications as specified in this document.) The SRV "target" for DNS Push Notifications as specified in this document.) The
contains the name of the server providing DNS Push Notifications SRV "target" contains the name of the server providing DNS Push
for the zone. The port number on which to contact the server is Notifications for the zone. The port number on which to contact
in the SRV record "port" field. The address(es) of the target the server is in the SRV record "port" field. The address(es) of
host MAY be included in the Additional Section, however, the the target host MAY be included in the Additional Section,
address records SHOULD be authenticated before use as described however, the address records SHOULD be authenticated before use
below in Section 7.2 and in the specification for using DANE TLSA as described in Section 7.2 and in the specification for using
Records with SRV Records [RFC7673], if applicable. DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) TLSA Records
with SRV Records [RFC7673], if applicable.
7. More than one SRV record may be returned. In this case, the 7. More than one SRV record may be returned. In this case, the
"priority" and "weight" values in the returned SRV records are "priority" and "weight" values in the returned SRV records are
used to determine the order in which to contact the servers for used to determine the order in which to contact the servers for
subscription requests. As described in the SRV specification subscription requests. As described in the SRV specification
[RFC2782], the server with the lowest "priority" is first [RFC2782], the server with the lowest "priority" is first
contacted. If more than one server has the same "priority", the contacted. If more than one server has the same "priority", the
"weight" indicates the weighted probability that the client "weight" indicates the weighted probability that the client
should contact that server. Higher weights have higher should contact that server. Higher weights have higher
probabilities of being selected. If a server is not willing to probabilities of being selected. If a server is not willing to
accept a subscription request, or is not reachable within a accept a subscription request, or is not reachable within a
reasonable time, as determined by the client, then a subsequent reasonable time, as determined by the client, then a subsequent
server is to be contacted. server is to be contacted.
Each time a client makes a new DNS Push Notification subscription, it Each time a client makes a new DNS Push Notification subscription, it
SHOULD repeat the discovery process in order to determine the SHOULD repeat the discovery process in order to determine the
preferred DNS server for that subscription at that time. If a client preferred DNS server for that subscription at that time. If a client
already has a DSO session with that DNS server the client SHOULD already has a DSO session with that DNS server, the client SHOULD
reuse that existing DSO session for the new subscription, otherwise, reuse that existing DSO session for the new subscription; otherwise,
a new DSO session is established. The client MUST respect the DNS a new DSO session is established. The client MUST respect the DNS
TTL values on records it receives while performing the discovery TTL values on records it receives while performing the discovery
process and store them in its local cache with this lifetime (as it process and store them in its local cache with this lifetime (as it
will generally be do anyway for all DNS queries it performs). This will generally do anyway for all DNS queries it performs). This
means that, as long as the DNS TTL values on the authoritative means that, as long as the DNS TTL values on the authoritative
records are set to reasonable values, repeated application of the records are set to reasonable values, repeated application of the
discovery process can be completed nearly instantaneously by the discovery process can be completed practically instantaneously by the
client, using only locally-stored cached data. client, using only locally stored cached data.
6.2. DNS Push Notification SUBSCRIBE 6.2. DNS Push Notification SUBSCRIBE
After connecting, and requesting a longer idle timeout and/or After connecting, and requesting a longer idle timeout and/or
keepalive interval if necessary, a DNS Push Notification client keepalive interval if necessary, a DNS Push Notification client then
then indicates its desire to receive DNS Push Notifications for indicates its desire to receive DNS Push Notifications for a given
a given domain name by sending a SUBSCRIBE request to the server. domain name by sending a SUBSCRIBE request to the server. A
A SUBSCRIBE request is encoded in a DSO message [RFC8490]. SUBSCRIBE request is encoded in a DSO message [RFC8490]. This
This specification defines a primary DSO TLV for DNS Push specification defines a DSO Primary TLV for DNS Push Notification
Notification SUBSCRIBE Requests (tentatively DSO Type Code 0x40). SUBSCRIBE Requests (DSO Type Code 0x0040).
DSO messages with the SUBSCRIBE TLV as the Primary TLV are permitted DSO messages with the SUBSCRIBE TLV as the Primary TLV are permitted
in TLS early data, provided that the precautions described in in TLS early data, provided that the precautions described in
Section 7.3 are followed. Section 7.3 are followed.
The entity that initiates a SUBSCRIBE request is by definition the The entity that initiates a SUBSCRIBE request is by definition the
client. A server MUST NOT send a SUBSCRIBE request over an existing client. A server MUST NOT send a SUBSCRIBE request over an existing
session from a client. If a server does send a SUBSCRIBE request session from a client. If a server does send a SUBSCRIBE request
over a DSO session initiated by a client, this is a fatal error and over a DSO session initiated by a client, this is a fatal error and
the client MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately. the client MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately.
Each SUBSCRIBE request generates exactly one SUBSCRIBE response from Each SUBSCRIBE request generates exactly one SUBSCRIBE response from
the server. The entity that initiates a SUBSCRIBE response is by the server. The entity that initiates a SUBSCRIBE response is by
definition the server. A client MUST NOT send a SUBSCRIBE response. definition the server. A client MUST NOT send a SUBSCRIBE response.
If a client does send a SUBSCRIBE response, this is a fatal error and If a client does send a SUBSCRIBE response, this is a fatal error and
the server MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately. the server MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately.
6.2.1. SUBSCRIBE Request 6.2.1. SUBSCRIBE Request
A SUBSCRIBE request begins with the standard DSO 12-byte header A SUBSCRIBE request begins with the standard DSO 12-byte header
[RFC8490], followed by the SUBSCRIBE primary TLV. A SUBSCRIBE [RFC8490], followed by the SUBSCRIBE Primary TLV. A SUBSCRIBE
request is illustrated in Figure 1. request is illustrated in Figure 1.
The MESSAGE ID field MUST be set to a unique value, that the client The MESSAGE ID field MUST be set to a unique value that the client is
is not using for any other active operation on this DSO session. For not using for any other active operation on this DSO session. For
the purposes here, a MESSAGE ID is in use on this session if the the purposes here, a MESSAGE ID is in use on this session if either
client has used it in a request for which it has not yet received a the client has used it in a request for which it has not yet received
response, or if the client has used it for a subscription which it a response, or if the client has used it for a subscription that it
has not yet cancelled using UNSUBSCRIBE. In the SUBSCRIBE response has not yet canceled using UNSUBSCRIBE. In the SUBSCRIBE response,
the server MUST echo back the MESSAGE ID value unchanged. the server MUST echo back the MESSAGE ID value unchanged.
The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO spec- The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO
ification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE value specification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE
for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be zero, value for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be
and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e., absent). zero, and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e.,
absent).
The DSO-TYPE is SUBSCRIBE (tentatively 0x40). The DSO-TYPE is SUBSCRIBE (0x0040).
The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the DSO-DATA that follows, which The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the DSO-DATA that follows, which
specifies the name, type, and class of the record(s) being sought. specifies the name, type, and class of the record(s) being sought.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
| MESSAGE ID | \ | MESSAGE ID | \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
|QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | | |QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER
| ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | / | ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
| DSO-TYPE = SUBSCRIBE (tentatively 0x40) | | DSO-TYPE = SUBSCRIBE (0x0040) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) | | DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
\ NAME \ \ \ NAME \ \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| TYPE | > DSO-DATA | TYPE | > DSO-DATA
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| CLASS | / | CLASS | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
skipping to change at page 14, line 46 skipping to change at line 605
The DSO-DATA for a SUBSCRIBE request MUST contain exactly one NAME, The DSO-DATA for a SUBSCRIBE request MUST contain exactly one NAME,
TYPE, and CLASS. Since SUBSCRIBE requests are sent over TCP, TYPE, and CLASS. Since SUBSCRIBE requests are sent over TCP,
multiple SUBSCRIBE DSO request messages can be concatenated in a multiple SUBSCRIBE DSO request messages can be concatenated in a
single TCP stream and packed efficiently into TCP segments. single TCP stream and packed efficiently into TCP segments.
If accepted, the subscription will stay in effect until the client If accepted, the subscription will stay in effect until the client
cancels the subscription using UNSUBSCRIBE or until the DSO session cancels the subscription using UNSUBSCRIBE or until the DSO session
between the client and the server is closed. between the client and the server is closed.
SUBSCRIBE requests on a given session MUST be unique. A client MUST SUBSCRIBE requests on a given session MUST be unique. A client MUST
NOT send a SUBSCRIBE message that duplicates the NAME, TYPE and CLASS NOT send a SUBSCRIBE message that duplicates the name, type and class
of an existing active subscription on that DSO session. For the of an existing active subscription on that DSO session. For the
purpose of this matching, the established DNS case-insensitivity for purpose of this matching, the established DNS case insensitivity for
US-ASCII letters [RFC0020] applies (e.g., "example.com" and US-ASCII letters [RFC0020] applies (e.g., "example.com" and
"Example.com" are the same). If a server receives such a duplicate "Example.com" are the same). If a server receives such a duplicate
SUBSCRIBE message, this is a fatal error and the server MUST forcibly SUBSCRIBE message, this is a fatal error and the server MUST forcibly
abort the connection immediately. abort the connection immediately.
DNS wildcarding is not supported. That is, a wildcard ("*") in a DNS wildcarding is not supported. That is, an asterisk character
SUBSCRIBE message matches only a literal wildcard character ("*") in ("*") in a SUBSCRIBE message matches only a literal asterisk
the zone, and nothing else. character ("*") in a name and nothing else. Similarly, a CNAME in a
SUBSCRIBE message matches only a CNAME record with that name in the
Aliasing is not supported. That is, a CNAME in a SUBSCRIBE message zone and no other records with that name.
matches only a literal CNAME record in the zone, and no other records
with the same owner name.
A client may SUBSCRIBE to records that are unknown to the server at A client may SUBSCRIBE to records that are unknown to the server at
the time of the request (providing that the name falls within one of the time of the request (providing that the name falls within one of
the zone(s) the server is responsible for) and this is not an error. the zone(s) the server is responsible for), and this is not an error.
The server MUST NOT return NXDOMAIN in this case. The server MUST The server MUST NOT return NXDOMAIN in this case. The server MUST
accept these requests and send Push Notifications if and when accept these requests and send Push Notifications if and when
matching records are found in the future. matching records are found in the future.
If neither TYPE nor CLASS are ANY (255) then this is a specific If neither TYPE nor CLASS are ANY (255), then this is a specific
subscription to changes for the given NAME, TYPE and CLASS. If one subscription to changes for the given name, type, and class. If one
or both of TYPE or CLASS are ANY (255) then this subscription matches or both of TYPE or CLASS are ANY (255), then this subscription
any type and/or any class, as appropriate. matches all types and/or all classes as appropriate.
NOTE: A little-known quirk of DNS is that in DNS QUERY requests, NOTE: A little-known quirk of DNS is that in DNS QUERY requests,
QTYPE and QCLASS 255 mean "ANY" not "ALL". They indicate that the QTYPE and QCLASS 255 mean "ANY", not "ALL". They indicate that the
server should respond with ANY matching records of its choosing, not server should respond with ANY matching records of its choosing, not
necessarily ALL matching records. This can lead to some surprising necessarily ALL matching records. This can lead to some surprising
and unexpected results, where a query returns some valid answers but and unexpected results, where a query returns some valid answers, but
not all of them, and makes QTYPE = 255 (ANY) queries less useful than not all of them, and makes QTYPE = 255 (ANY) queries less useful than
people sometimes imagine. people sometimes imagine.
When used in conjunction with SUBSCRIBE, TYPE and CLASS 255 should be When used in conjunction with SUBSCRIBE, TYPE 255 and CLASS 255
interpreted to mean "ALL", not "ANY". After accepting a subscription should be interpreted to mean "ALL", not "ANY". After accepting a
where one or both of TYPE or CLASS are 255, the server MUST send Push subscription where one or both of TYPE or CLASS are 255, the server
Notification Updates for ALL record changes that match the MUST send Push Notification Updates for ALL record changes that match
subscription, not just some of them. the subscription, not just some of them.
6.2.2. SUBSCRIBE Response 6.2.2. SUBSCRIBE Response
A SUBSCRIBE response begins with the standard DSO 12-byte header A SUBSCRIBE response begins with the standard DSO 12-byte header
[RFC8490]. The QR bit in the header is set indicating it is a [RFC8490]. The QR bit in the header is set indicating it is a
response. The header MAY be followed by one or more optional TLVs, response. The header MAY be followed by one or more optional
such as a Retry Delay TLV. A SUBSCRIBE response is illustrated in Additional TLVs such as a Retry Delay Additional TLV. A SUBSCRIBE
Figure 2. response is illustrated in Figure 2.
The MESSAGE ID field MUST echo the value given in the MESSAGE ID The MESSAGE ID field MUST echo the value given in the MESSAGE ID
field of the SUBSCRIBE request. This is how the client knows which field of the SUBSCRIBE request. This is how the client knows which
request is being responded to. request is being responded to.
The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO spec- The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO
ification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE value specification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE
for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be zero, value for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be
and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e., absent). zero, and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e.,
absent).
A SUBSCRIBE response message MUST NOT include a SUBSCRIBE TLV. If a A SUBSCRIBE response message MUST NOT include a SUBSCRIBE TLV. If a
client receives a SUBSCRIBE response message containing a SUBSCRIBE client receives a SUBSCRIBE response message containing a SUBSCRIBE
TLV then the response message is processed but the SUBSCRIBE TLV MUST TLV, then the response message is processed but the SUBSCRIBE TLV
be silently ignored. MUST be silently ignored.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
| MESSAGE ID | \ | MESSAGE ID | \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
|QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | | |QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER
| ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | / | ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
Figure 2: SUBSCRIBE Response Figure 2: SUBSCRIBE Response
In the SUBSCRIBE response the RCODE indicates whether or not the In the SUBSCRIBE response, the RCODE indicates whether or not the
subscription was accepted. Supported RCODEs are as follows: subscription was accepted. Supported RCODEs are as follows:
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| Mnemonic | Value | Description | | Mnemonic | Value | Description |
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+ +===========+=======+===================================+
| NOERROR | 0 | SUBSCRIBE successful. | | NOERROR | 0 | SUBSCRIBE successful. |
| FORMERR | 1 | Server failed to process request due to a | +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| | | malformed request. | | FORMERR | 1 | Server failed to process request |
| SERVFAIL | 2 | Server failed to process request due to a | | | | due to a malformed request. |
| | | problem with the server. | +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| NOTIMP | 4 | Server does not implement DSO. | | SERVFAIL | 2 | Server failed to process request |
| REFUSED | 5 | Server refuses to process request for policy | | | | due to a problem with the server. |
| | | or security reasons. | +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| NOTAUTH | 9 | Server is not authoritative for the requested | | NOTIMP | 4 | Server does not implement DSO. |
| | | name. | +-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| DSOTYPENI | 11 | SUBSCRIBE operation not supported. | | REFUSED | 5 | Server refuses to process request |
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------------------+ | | | for policy or security reasons. |
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| NOTAUTH | 9 | Server is not authoritative for |
| | | the requested name. |
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
| DSOTYPENI | 11 | SUBSCRIBE operation not |
| | | supported. |
+-----------+-------+-----------------------------------+
Table 1: SUBSCRIBE Response codes Table 1: SUBSCRIBE Response Codes
This document specifies only these RCODE values for SUBSCRIBE This document specifies only these RCODE values for SUBSCRIBE
Responses. Servers sending SUBSCRIBE Responses SHOULD use one of Responses. Servers sending SUBSCRIBE Responses SHOULD use one of
these values. Note that NXDOMAIN is not a valid RCODE in response to these values. Note that NXDOMAIN is not a valid RCODE in response to
a SUBSCRIBE Request. However, future circumstances may create a SUBSCRIBE Request. However, future circumstances may create
situations where other RCODE values are appropriate in SUBSCRIBE situations where other RCODE values are appropriate in SUBSCRIBE
Responses, so clients MUST be prepared to accept SUBSCRIBE Responses Responses, so clients MUST be prepared to accept and handle SUBSCRIBE
with any other RCODE value. Responses with any other nonzero RCODE error values.
If the server sends a nonzero RCODE in the SUBSCRIBE response, that If the server sends a nonzero RCODE in the SUBSCRIBE response, that
means: means:
a. the client is (at least partially) misconfigured, or a. the client is (at least partially) misconfigured, or
b. the server resources are exhausted, or b. the server resources are exhausted, or
c. there is some other unknown failure on the server. c. there is some other unknown failure on the server.
In any case, the client shouldn't retry the subscription to this In any case, the client shouldn't retry the subscription to this
server right away. If multiple SRV records were returned as server right away. If multiple SRV records were returned as
described in Section 6.1, Paragraph 7, a subsequent server MAY be described in Section 6.1, Paragraph 9, Item 7, a subsequent server
tried immediately. MAY be tried immediately.
If the client has other successful subscriptions to this server, If the client has other successful subscriptions to this server,
these subscriptions remain even though additional subscriptions may these subscriptions remain even though additional subscriptions may
be refused. Neither the client nor the server are required to close be refused. Neither the client nor the server is required to close
the connection, although, either end may choose to do so. the connection, although either end may choose to do so.
If the server sends a nonzero RCODE then it SHOULD append a Retry If the server sends a nonzero RCODE, then it SHOULD append a Retry
Delay TLV [RFC8490] to the response specifying a delay before the Delay Additional TLV [RFC8490] to the response specifying a delay
client attempts this operation again. Recommended values for the before the client attempts this operation again. Recommended values
delay for different RCODE values are given below. These recommended for the delay for different RCODE values are given below. These
values apply both to the default values a server should place in the recommended values apply both to the default values a server should
Retry Delay TLV, and the default values a client should assume if the place in the Retry Delay Additional TLV and the default values a
server provides no Retry Delay TLV. client should assume if the server provides no Retry Delay Additional
TLV.
For RCODE = 1 (FORMERR) the delay may be any value selected by the For RCODE = 1 (FORMERR), the delay may be any value selected by
implementer. A value of five minutes is RECOMMENDED, to reduce the implementer. A value of five minutes is RECOMMENDED to reduce
the risk of high load from defective clients. the risk of high load from defective clients.
For RCODE = 2 (SERVFAIL) the delay should be chosen according to For RCODE = 2 (SERVFAIL), the delay should be chosen according to
the level of server overload and the anticipated duration of that the level of server overload and the anticipated duration of that
overload. By default, a value of one minute is RECOMMENDED. If a overload. By default, a value of one minute is RECOMMENDED. If a
more serious server failure occurs, the delay may be longer in more serious server failure occurs, the delay may be longer in
accordance with the specific problem encountered. accordance with the specific problem encountered.
For RCODE = 4 (NOTIMP), which occurs on a server that doesn't For RCODE = 4 (NOTIMP), which occurs on a server that doesn't
implement DNS Stateful Operations [RFC8490], it is unlikely that implement DNS Stateful Operations [RFC8490], it is unlikely that
the server will begin supporting DSO in the next few minutes, so the server will begin supporting DSO in the next few minutes, so
the retry delay SHOULD be one hour. Note that in such a case, a the retry delay SHOULD be one hour. Note that in such a case, a
server that doesn't implement DSO is unlikely to place a Retry server that doesn't implement DSO is unlikely to place a Retry
Delay TLV in its response, so this recommended value in particular Delay Additional TLV in its response, so this recommended value in
applies to what a client should assume by default. particular applies to what a client should assume by default.
For RCODE = 5 (REFUSED), which occurs on a server that implements For RCODE = 5 (REFUSED), which occurs on a server that implements
DNS Push Notifications, but is currently configured to disallow DNS Push Notifications but is currently configured to disallow DNS
DNS Push Notifications, the retry delay may be any value selected Push Notifications, the retry delay may be any value selected by
by the implementer and/or configured by the operator. the implementer and/or configured by the operator.
If the server being queried is listed in a If the server being queried is listed in a
"_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for the zone, then this is "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for the zone, then this is
a misconfiguration, since this server is being advertised as a misconfiguration, since this server is being advertised as
supporting DNS Push Notifications for this zone, but the server supporting DNS Push Notifications for this zone, but the server
itself is not currently configured to perform that task. Since it itself is not currently configured to perform that task. Since it
is possible that the misconfiguration may be repaired at any time, is possible that the misconfiguration may be repaired at any time,
the retry delay should not be set too high. By default, a value the retry delay should not be set too high. By default, a value
of 5 minutes is RECOMMENDED. of 5 minutes is RECOMMENDED.
For RCODE = 9 (NOTAUTH), which occurs on a server that implements For RCODE = 9 (NOTAUTH), which occurs on a server that implements
DNS Push Notifications, but is not configured to be authoritative DNS Push Notifications but is not configured to be authoritative
for the requested name, the retry delay may be any value selected for the requested name, the retry delay may be any value selected
by the implementer and/or configured by the operator. by the implementer and/or configured by the operator.
If the server being queried is listed in a If the server being queried is listed in a
"_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for the zone, then this is "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record for the zone, then this is
a misconfiguration, since this server is being advertised as a misconfiguration, since this server is being advertised as
supporting DNS Push Notifications for this zone, but the server supporting DNS Push Notifications for this zone, but the server
itself is not currently configured to perform that task. Since it itself is not currently configured to perform that task. Since it
is possible that the misconfiguration may be repaired at any time, is possible that the misconfiguration may be repaired at any time,
the retry delay should not be set too high. By default, a value the retry delay should not be set too high. By default, a value
skipping to change at page 19, line 21 skipping to change at line 807
Notifications in the next few minutes, so the retry delay SHOULD Notifications in the next few minutes, so the retry delay SHOULD
be one hour. be one hour.
For other RCODE values, the retry delay should be set by the For other RCODE values, the retry delay should be set by the
server as appropriate for that error condition. By default, a server as appropriate for that error condition. By default, a
value of 5 minutes is RECOMMENDED. value of 5 minutes is RECOMMENDED.
For RCODE = 9 (NOTAUTH), the time delay applies to requests for other For RCODE = 9 (NOTAUTH), the time delay applies to requests for other
names falling within the same zone. Requests for names falling names falling within the same zone. Requests for names falling
within other zones are not subject to the delay. For all other within other zones are not subject to the delay. For all other
RCODEs the time delay applies to all subsequent requests to this RCODEs, the time delay applies to all subsequent requests to this
server. server.
After sending an error response the server MAY allow the session to After sending an error response, the server MAY allow the session to
remain open, or MAY send a DNS Push Notification Retry Delay remain open, or MAY follow it with a DSO Retry Delay operation (using
Operation TLV instructing the client to close the session, as the Retry Delay Primary TLV) instructing the client to close the
described in the DSO specification [RFC8490]. Clients MUST correctly session as described in the DSO specification [RFC8490]. Clients
handle both cases. MUST correctly handle both cases. Note that the DSO Retry Delay
operation (using the Retry Delay Primary TLV) is different to the
Retry Delay Additional TLV mentioned above.
6.3. DNS Push Notification Updates 6.3. DNS Push Notification Updates
Once a subscription has been successfully established, the server Once a subscription has been successfully established, the server
generates PUSH messages to send to the client as appropriate. In the generates PUSH messages to send to the client as appropriate. In the
case that the answer set was already non-empty at the moment the case that the answer set was already non-empty at the moment the
subscription was established, an initial PUSH message will be sent subscription was established, an initial PUSH message will be sent
immediately following the SUBSCRIBE Response. Subsequent changes to immediately following the SUBSCRIBE Response. Subsequent changes to
the answer set are then communicated to the client in subsequent PUSH the answer set are then communicated to the client in subsequent PUSH
messages. messages.
A client MUST NOT send a PUSH message. If a client does send a PUSH A client MUST NOT send a PUSH message. If a client does send a PUSH
message, or a PUSH message is sent with the QR bit set indicating message, or a PUSH message is sent with the QR bit set indicating
that it is a response, this is a fatal error and the receiver MUST that it is a response, this is a fatal error and the receiver MUST
forcibly abort the connection immediately. forcibly abort the connection immediately.
6.3.1. PUSH Message 6.3.1. PUSH Message
A PUSH unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO 12-byte A PUSH unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO 12-byte
header [RFC8490], followed by the PUSH primary TLV. A PUSH message header [RFC8490], followed by the PUSH Primary TLV. A PUSH message
is illustrated in Figure 3. is illustrated in Figure 3.
In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the
MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no client response to a PUSH MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no client response to a PUSH
message. message.
The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO spec- The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO
ification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE value specification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE
for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be zero, value for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be
and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e., absent). zero, and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e.,
absent).
The DSO-TYPE is PUSH (tentatively 0x41). The DSO-TYPE is PUSH (0x0041).
The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the DSO-DATA that follows, which The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the DSO-DATA that follows, which
specifies the changes being communicated. specifies the changes being communicated.
The DSO-DATA contains one or more change notifications. A PUSH The DSO-DATA contains one or more change notifications. A PUSH
Message MUST contain at least one change notification. If a PUSH Message MUST contain at least one change notification. If a PUSH
Message is received that contains no change notifications, this is a Message is received that contains no change notifications, this is a
fatal error, and the client MUST forcibly abort the connection fatal error and the client MUST forcibly abort the connection
immediately. immediately.
The change notification records are formatted similarly to how DNS The change notification records are formatted similarly to how DNS
Resource Records are conventionally expressed in DNS messages, as Resource Records are conventionally expressed in DNS messages, as
illustrated in Figure 3, and are interpreted as described below. illustrated in Figure 3, and are interpreted as described below.
The TTL field holds an unsigned 32-bit integer [RFC2181]. If the TTL The TTL field holds an unsigned 32-bit integer [RFC2181]. If the TTL
is in the range 0 to 2,147,483,647 seconds (0 to 2^31 - 1, or is in the range 0 to 2,147,483,647 seconds (0 to 2^(31) - 1, or
0x7FFFFFFF), then a new DNS Resource Record with the given name, 0x7FFFFFFF), then a new DNS Resource Record with the given name,
type, class and RDATA is added. Type and class MUST NOT be 255 type, class, and RDATA is added. Type and class MUST NOT be 255
(ANY). If either type or class are 255 (ANY) this is a fatal error, (ANY). If either type or class are 255 (ANY), this is a fatal error
and the client MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately. A TTL and the client MUST forcibly abort the connection immediately. A TTL
of 0 means that this record should be retained for as long as the of 0 means that this record should be retained for as long as the
subscription is active, and should be discarded immediately the subscription is active and should be discarded immediately the moment
moment the subscription is cancelled. the subscription is canceled.
If the TTL has the value 0xFFFFFFFF, then the DNS Resource Record If the TTL has the value 0xFFFFFFFF, then the DNS Resource Record
with the given name, type, class and RDATA is removed. Type and with the given name, type, class, and RDATA is removed. Type and
class MUST NOT be 255 (ANY). If either type or class are 255 (ANY) class MUST NOT be 255 (ANY). If either type or class are 255 (ANY),
this is a fatal error, and the client MUST forcibly abort the this is a fatal error and the client MUST forcibly abort the
connection immediately. connection immediately.
If the TTL has the value 0xFFFFFFFE, then this is a 'collective' If the TTL has the value 0xFFFFFFFE, then this is a 'collective'
remove notification. For collective remove notifications RDLEN MUST remove notification. For collective remove notifications, RDLEN MUST
be zero and consequently the RDATA MUST be empty. If a change be zero, and consequently, the RDATA MUST be empty. If a change
notification is received where TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE and RDLEN is not notification is received where TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE and RDLEN is not
zero, this is a fatal error, and the client MUST forcibly abort the zero, this is a fatal error and the client MUST forcibly abort the
connection immediately. connection immediately.
There are three types of collective remove notification: There are three types of collective remove notification. For
collective remove notifications:
For collective remove notifications, if CLASS is not 255 (ANY) and * If CLASS is not 255 (ANY) and TYPE is not 255 (ANY), then for the
TYPE is not 255 (ANY) then for the given name this removes all given name, this removes all records of the specified type in the
records of the specified type in the specified class. specified class.
For collective remove notifications, if CLASS is not 255 (ANY) and * If CLASS is not 255 (ANY) and TYPE is 255 (ANY), then for the
TYPE is 255 (ANY) then for the given name this removes all records of given name, this removes all records of all types in the specified
all types in the specified class. class.
For collective remove notifications, if CLASS is 255 (ANY), then for * If CLASS is 255 (ANY), then for the given name, this removes all
the given name this removes all records of all types in all classes. records of all types in all classes. In this case, TYPE MUST be
In this case TYPE MUST be set to zero on transmission, and MUST be set to zero on transmission and MUST be silently ignored on
silently ignored on reception. reception.
Summary of change notification types: Summary of change notification types:
Remove all RRsets from a name, in all classes * Remove all RRsets from a name in all classes:
TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0, CLASS = 255 (ANY) TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0, CLASS = 255 (ANY).
Remove all RRsets from a name, in given class: * Remove all RRsets from a name in given class:
TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0, CLASS gives class, TYPE = 255 (ANY) TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0, CLASS gives class, TYPE = 255 (ANY).
Remove specified RRset from a name, in given class: * Remove specified RRset from a name in given class:
TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0 TTL = 0xFFFFFFFE, RDLEN = 0,
CLASS and TYPE specify the RRset being removed CLASS and TYPE specify the RRset being removed.
Remove an individual RR from a name: * Remove an individual RR from a name:
TTL = 0xFFFFFFFF TTL = 0xFFFFFFFF,
CLASS, TYPE, RDLEN and RDATA specify the RR being removed CLASS, TYPE, RDLEN, and RDATA specify the RR being removed.
Add individual RR to a name * Add individual RR to a name:
TTL >= 0 and TTL <= 0x7FFFFFFF TTL >= 0 and TTL <= 0x7FFFFFFF,
CLASS, TYPE, RDLEN, RDATA and TTL specify the RR being added CLASS, TYPE, RDLEN, RDATA, and TTL specify the RR being added.
Note that it is valid for the RDATA of an added or removed DNS Note that it is valid for the RDATA of an added or removed DNS
Resource Record to be empty (zero length). For example, an Address Resource Record to be empty (zero length). For example, an Address
Prefix List Resource Record [RFC3123] may have empty RDATA. Prefix List Resource Record [RFC3123] may have empty RDATA.
Therefore, a change notification with RDLEN = 0 does not Therefore, a change notification with RDLEN = 0 does not
automatically indicate a remove notification. If RDLEN = 0 and TTL automatically indicate a remove notification. If RDLEN = 0 and TTL
is the in the range 0 - 0x7FFFFFFF, this change notification signals is in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF, this change notification signals the
the addition of a record with the given name, type, class, and empty addition of a record with the given name, type, class, and empty
RDATA. If RDLEN = 0 and TTL = 0xFFFFFFFF, this change notification RDATA. If RDLEN = 0 and TTL = 0xFFFFFFFF, this change notification
signals the removal specifically of that single record with the given signals the removal specifically of that single record with the given
name, type, class, and empty RDATA. name, type, class, and empty RDATA.
If the TTL is any value other than 0xFFFFFFFF, 0xFFFFFFFE, or a value If the TTL is any value other than 0xFFFFFFFF, 0xFFFFFFFE, or a value
in the range 0 - 0x7FFFFFFF, then the receiver SHOULD silently ignore in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF, then the receiver SHOULD silently
this particular change notification record. The connection is not ignore this particular change notification record. The connection is
terminated and other valid change notification records within this not terminated and other valid change notification records within
PUSH message are processed as usual. this PUSH message are processed as usual.
For efficiency, when generating a PUSH message, a server SHOULD In the case where a single change affects more than one active
subscription, only one PUSH message is sent. For example, a PUSH
message adding a given record may match both a SUBSCRIBE request with
the same TYPE and a different SUBSCRIBE request with TYPE = 255
(ANY). It is not the case that two PUSH messages are sent because
the new record matches two active subscriptions.
The server SHOULD encode change notifications in the most efficient
manner possible. For example, when three AAAA records are removed
from a given name, and no other AAAA records exist for that name, the
server SHOULD send a "Remove specified RRset from a name in given
class" PUSH message, not three separate "Remove an individual RR from
a name" PUSH messages. Similarly, when both an SRV and a TXT record
are removed from a given name, and no other records of any kind exist
for that name in that class, the server SHOULD send a "Remove all
RRsets from a name in given class" PUSH message, not two separate
"Remove specified RRset from a name in given class" PUSH messages.
For efficiency, when generating a PUSH message, rather than sending
each change notification as a separate DSO message, a server SHOULD
include as many change notifications as it has immediately available include as many change notifications as it has immediately available
to send, rather than sending each change notification as a separate to send to that client, even if those change notifications apply to
DSO message. Once it has exhausted the list of change notifications different subscriptions from that client. Conceptually, a PUSH
immediately available to send, a server SHOULD then send the PUSH message is a session-level mechanism, not a subscription-level
message immediately, rather than waiting to see if additional change mechanism. Once it has exhausted the list of change notifications
notifications become available. immediately available to send to that client, a server SHOULD then
send the PUSH message immediately rather than waiting speculatively
to see if additional change notifications become available.
For efficiency, when generating a PUSH message, a server SHOULD use For efficiency, when generating a PUSH message a server SHOULD use
standard DNS name compression, with offsets relative to the beginning standard DNS name compression, with offsets relative to the beginning
of the DNS message [RFC1035]. When multiple change notifications in of the DNS message [RFC1035]. When multiple change notifications in
a single PUSH message have the same owner name, this name compression a single PUSH message have the same owner name, this name compression
can yield significant savings. Name compression should be performed can yield significant savings. Name compression should be performed
as specified in Section 18.14 of the Multicast DNS specification as specified in Section 18.14 of the Multicast DNS specification
[RFC6762], namely, owner names should always be compressed, and names [RFC6762]; namely, owner names should always be compressed, and names
appearing within RDATA should be compressed for only the RR types appearing within RDATA should be compressed for only the RR types
listed below: listed below:
NS, CNAME, PTR, DNAME, SOA, MX, AFSDB, RT, KX, RP, PX, SRV, NSEC NS, CNAME, PTR, DNAME, SOA, MX, AFSDB, RT, KX, RP, PX, SRV, NSEC
Servers may generate PUSH messages up to a maximum DNS message length Servers may generate PUSH messages up to a maximum DNS message length
of 16,382 bytes, counting from the start of the DSO 12-byte header. of 16,382 bytes, counting from the start of the DSO 12-byte header.
Including the two-byte length prefix that is used to frame DNS over a Including the two-byte length prefix that is used to frame DNS over a
byte stream like TLS, this makes a total of 16,384 bytes. Servers byte stream like TLS, this makes a total of 16,384 bytes. Servers
MUST NOT generate PUSH messages larger than this. Where the MUST NOT generate PUSH messages larger than this. Where the
immediately available change notifications are sufficient to exceed a immediately available change notifications are sufficient to exceed a
DNS message length of 16,382 bytes, the change notifications MUST be DNS message length of 16,382 bytes, the change notifications MUST be
communicated in separate PUSH messages of up to 16,382 bytes each. communicated in separate PUSH messages of up to 16,382 bytes each.
DNS name compression becomes less effective for messages larger than DNS name compression becomes less effective for messages larger than
16,384 bytes, so little efficiency benefit is gained by sending 16,384 bytes, so little efficiency benefit is gained by sending
messages larger than this. messages larger than this.
If a client receives a PUSH message with a DNS message length larger If a client receives a PUSH message with a DNS message length larger
than 16,382 bytes, this is a fatal error, and the client MUST than 16,382 bytes, this is a fatal error and the client MUST forcibly
forcibly abort the connection immediately. abort the connection immediately.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
| MESSAGE ID (MUST BE ZERO) | \ | MESSAGE ID (MUST BE ZERO) | \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
|QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | | |QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER
| ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | / | ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
| DSO-TYPE = PUSH (tentatively 0x41) | | DSO-TYPE = PUSH (0x0041) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) | | DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
\ NAME \ \ \ NAME \ \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| TYPE | | | TYPE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| CLASS | | | CLASS | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| TTL | | | TTL | |
| (32-bit unsigned big-endian integer) | > DSO-DATA | (32-bit unsigned big-endian integer) | > DSO-DATA
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| RDLEN (16-bit unsigned big-endian integer) | | | RDLEN (16-bit unsigned big-endian integer) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
\ RDATA (sized as necessary) \ | \ RDATA (sized as necessary) \ |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
: NAME, TYPE, CLASS, TTL, RDLEN, RDATA : | : NAME, TYPE, CLASS, TTL, RDLEN, RDATA : |
: Repeated As Necessary : / : Repeated As Necessary : /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
Figure 3: PUSH Message Figure 3: PUSH Message
When processing the records received in a PUSH Message, the receiving When processing the records received in a PUSH Message, the receiving
client MUST validate that the records being added or removed client MUST validate that the records being added or removed
correspond with at least one currently active subscription on that correspond with at least one currently active subscription on that
session. Specifically, the record name MUST match the name given in session. Specifically, the record name MUST match the name given in
the SUBSCRIBE request, subject to the usual established DNS case- the SUBSCRIBE request, subject to the usual established DNS case-
insensitivity for US-ASCII letters. For individual additions and insensitivity for US-ASCII letters. For individual additions and
removals, if the TYPE in the SUBSCRIBE request was not ANY (255) then removals, if the TYPE in the SUBSCRIBE request was not ANY (255),
the TYPE of the record must match the TYPE given in the SUBSCRIBE then the TYPE of the record must either be CNAME or match the TYPE
request, and if the CLASS in the SUBSCRIBE request was not ANY (255) given in the SUBSCRIBE request, and if the CLASS in the SUBSCRIBE
then the CLASS of the record must match the CLASS given in the request was not ANY (255), then the CLASS of the record must match
SUBSCRIBE request. For collective removals, at least one of the the CLASS given in the SUBSCRIBE request. For collective removals,
records being removed must match an active subscription. If a at least one of the records being removed must match an active
matching active subscription on that session is not found, then that subscription. If a matching active subscription on that session is
particular addition/removal record is silently ignored. Processing not found, then that particular addition/removal record is silently
of other additions and removal records in this message is not ignored. The processing of other additions and removal records in
affected. The DSO session is not closed. This is to allow for the this message is not affected. The DSO session is not closed. This
unavoidable race condition where a client sends an outbound is to allow for the unavoidable race condition where a client sends
UNSUBSCRIBE while inbound PUSH messages for that subscription from an outbound UNSUBSCRIBE while inbound PUSH messages for that
the server are still in flight. subscription from the server are still in flight.
In the case where a single change affects more than one active
subscription, only one PUSH message is sent. For example, a PUSH
message adding a given record may match both a SUBSCRIBE request with
the same TYPE and a different SUBSCRIBE request with TYPE = 255
(ANY). It is not the case that two PUSH messages are sent because
the new record matches two active subscriptions.
The server SHOULD encode change notifications in the most efficient
manner possible. For example, when three AAAA records are removed
from a given name, and no other AAAA records exist for that name, the
server SHOULD send a "remove an RRset from a name" PUSH message, not
three separate "remove an individual RR from a name" PUSH messages.
Similarly, when both an SRV and a TXT record are removed from a given
name, and no other records of any kind exist for that name, the
server SHOULD send a "remove all RRsets from a name" PUSH message,
not two separate "remove an RRset from a name" PUSH messages.
A server SHOULD combine multiple change notifications in a single
PUSH message when possible, even if those change notifications apply
to different subscriptions. Conceptually, a PUSH message is a
session-level mechanism, not a subscription-level mechanism.
The TTL of an added record is stored by the client. While the The TTL of an added record is stored by the client. While the
subscription is active, the TTL is not decremented, because a change subscription is active the TTL is not decremented, because a change
to the TTL would produce a new update. For as long as a relevant to the TTL would produce a new update. For as long as a relevant
subscription remains active, the client SHOULD assume that when a subscription remains active, the client SHOULD assume that when a
record goes away the server will notify it of that fact. record goes away, the server will notify it of that fact.
Consequently, a client does not have to poll to verify that the Consequently, a client does not have to poll to verify that the
record is still there. Once a subscription is cancelled record is still there. Once a subscription is canceled
(individually, or as a result of the DSO session being closed) record (individually, or as a result of the DSO session being closed),
aging for records covered by the subscription resumes and records are record aging for records covered by the subscription resumes and
removed from the local cache when their TTL reaches zero. records are removed from the local cache when their TTL reaches zero.
6.4. DNS Push Notification UNSUBSCRIBE 6.4. DNS Push Notification UNSUBSCRIBE
To cancel an individual subscription without closing the entire DSO To cancel an individual subscription without closing the entire DSO
session, the client sends an UNSUBSCRIBE message over the established session, the client sends an UNSUBSCRIBE message over the established
DSO session to the server. DSO session to the server.
The entity that initiates an UNSUBSCRIBE message is by definition the The entity that initiates an UNSUBSCRIBE message is by definition the
client. A server MUST NOT send an UNSUBSCRIBE message over an client. A server MUST NOT send an UNSUBSCRIBE message over an
existing session from a client. If a server does send an UNSUBSCRIBE existing session from a client. If a server does send an UNSUBSCRIBE
message over a DSO session initiated by a client, or an UNSUBSCRIBE message over a DSO session initiated by a client, or an UNSUBSCRIBE
message is sent with the QR bit set indicating that it is a response, message is sent with the QR bit set indicating that it is a response,
this is a fatal error and the receiver MUST forcibly abort the this is a fatal error and the receiver MUST forcibly abort the
connection immediately. connection immediately.
6.4.1. UNSUBSCRIBE Message 6.4.1. UNSUBSCRIBE Message
An UNSUBSCRIBE unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO An UNSUBSCRIBE unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO
12-byte header [RFC8490], followed by the UNSUBSCRIBE primary TLV. 12-byte header [RFC8490], followed by the UNSUBSCRIBE Primary TLV.
An UNSUBSCRIBE message is illustrated in Figure 4. An UNSUBSCRIBE message is illustrated in Figure 4.
In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the
MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no server response to an MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no server response to an
UNSUBSCRIBE message. UNSUBSCRIBE message.
The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO spec- The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO
ification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE value specification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE
for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be zero, value for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be
and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e., absent). zero, and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e.,
absent).
The DSO-TYPE is UNSUBSCRIBE (tentatively 0x42). The DSO-TYPE is UNSUBSCRIBE (0x0042).
The DSO-LENGTH field contains the value 2, the length of the 2-octet The DSO-LENGTH field contains the value 2, the length of the 2-octet
MESSAGE ID contained in the DSO-DATA. MESSAGE ID contained in the DSO-DATA.
The DSO-DATA contains the value previously given in the MESSAGE ID The DSO-DATA contains the value previously given in the MESSAGE ID
field of an active SUBSCRIBE request. This is how the server knows field of an active SUBSCRIBE request. This is how the server knows
which SUBSCRIBE request is being cancelled. After receipt of the which SUBSCRIBE request is being canceled. After receipt of the
UNSUBSCRIBE message, the SUBSCRIBE request is no longer active. UNSUBSCRIBE message, the SUBSCRIBE request is no longer active.
It is allowable for the client to issue an UNSUBSCRIBE message for a It is allowable for the client to issue an UNSUBSCRIBE message for a
previous SUBSCRIBE request for which the client has not yet received previous SUBSCRIBE request for which the client has not yet received
a SUBSCRIBE response. This is to allow for the case where a client a SUBSCRIBE response. This is to allow for the case where a client
starts and stops a subscription in less than the round-trip time to starts and stops a subscription in less than the round-trip time to
the server. The client is NOT required to wait for the SUBSCRIBE the server. The client is NOT required to wait for the SUBSCRIBE
response before issuing the UNSUBSCRIBE message. response before issuing the UNSUBSCRIBE message.
Consequently, it is possible for a server to receive an UNSUBSCRIBE Consequently, it is possible for a server to receive an UNSUBSCRIBE
skipping to change at page 27, line 28 skipping to change at line 1136
|QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | | |QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER
| ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | / | ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
| DSO-TYPE = UNSUBSCRIBE (tentatively 0x42) | | DSO-TYPE = UNSUBSCRIBE (0x0042) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| DSO-LENGTH (2) | | DSO-LENGTH (2) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
| SUBSCRIBE MESSAGE ID | > DSO-DATA | SUBSCRIBE MESSAGE ID | > DSO-DATA
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
Figure 4: UNSUBSCRIBE Message Figure 4: UNSUBSCRIBE Message
6.5. DNS Push Notification RECONFIRM 6.5. DNS Push Notification RECONFIRM
Sometimes, particularly when used with a Discovery Proxy [DisProx], a Sometimes, particularly when used with a Discovery Proxy [RFC8766], a
DNS Zone may contain stale data. When a client encounters data that DNS Zone may contain stale data. When a client encounters data that
it believes may be stale (e.g., an SRV record referencing a target it believes may be stale (e.g., an SRV record referencing a target
host+port that is not responding to connection requests) the client host+port that is not responding to connection requests), the client
can send a RECONFIRM message to ask the server to re-verify that the can send a RECONFIRM message to ask the server to re-verify that the
data is still valid. For a Discovery Proxy, this causes it to issue data is still valid. For a Discovery Proxy, this causes it to issue
new Multicast DNS queries to ascertain whether the target device is new Multicast DNS queries to ascertain whether the target device is
still present. How the Discovery Proxy causes these new Multicast still present. How the Discovery Proxy causes these new Multicast
DNS queries to be issued depends on the details of the underlying DNS queries to be issued depends on the details of the underlying
Multicast DNS implementation being used. For example, a Discovery Multicast DNS implementation being used. For example, a Discovery
Proxy built on Apple's dns_sd.h API [SD-API] responds to a DNS Push Proxy built on Apple's dns_sd.h API [SD-API] responds to a DNS Push
Notification RECONFIRM message by calling the underlying API's Notification RECONFIRM message by calling the underlying API's
DNSServiceReconfirmRecord() routine. DNSServiceReconfirmRecord() routine.
For other types of DNS server, the RECONFIRM operation is currently For other types of DNS server, the RECONFIRM operation is currently
undefined, and SHOULD result in a NOERROR response, but otherwise undefined and SHOULD result in a NOERROR response, but it need not
need not cause any action to occur. cause any other action to occur.
Frequent use of RECONFIRM operations may be a sign of network Frequent use of RECONFIRM operations may be a sign of network
unreliability, or some kind of misconfiguration, so RECONFIRM unreliability, or some kind of misconfiguration, so RECONFIRM
operations MAY be logged or otherwise communicated to a human operations MAY be logged or otherwise communicated to a human
administrator to assist in detecting and remedying such network administrator to assist in detecting and remedying such network
problems. problems.
If, after receiving a valid RECONFIRM message, the server determines If, after receiving a valid RECONFIRM message, the server determines
that the disputed records are in fact no longer valid, then that the disputed records are in fact no longer valid, then
subsequent DNS PUSH Messages will be generated to inform interested subsequent DNS PUSH Messages will be generated to inform interested
clients. Thus, one client discovering that a previously-advertised clients. Thus, one client discovering that a previously advertised
device (like a network printer) is no longer present has the side device (like a network printer) is no longer present has the side
effect of informing all other interested clients that the device in effect of informing all other interested clients that the device in
question is now gone. question is now gone.
The entity that initiates a RECONFIRM message is by definition the The entity that initiates a RECONFIRM message is by definition the
client. A server MUST NOT send a RECONFIRM message over an existing client. A server MUST NOT send a RECONFIRM message over an existing
session from a client. If a server does send a RECONFIRM message session from a client. If a server does send a RECONFIRM message
over a DSO session initiated by a client, or a RECONFIRM message is over a DSO session initiated by a client, or a RECONFIRM message is
sent with the QR bit set indicating that it is a response, this is a sent with the QR bit set indicating that it is a response, this is a
fatal error and the receiver MUST forcibly abort the connection fatal error and the receiver MUST forcibly abort the connection
immediately. immediately.
6.5.1. RECONFIRM Message 6.5.1. RECONFIRM Message
A RECONFIRM unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO A RECONFIRM unidirectional message begins with the standard DSO
12-byte header [RFC8490], followed by the RECONFIRM primary TLV. 12-byte header [RFC8490], followed by the RECONFIRM Primary TLV. A
A RECONFIRM message is illustrated in Figure 5. RECONFIRM message is illustrated in Figure 5.
In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the In accordance with the definition of DSO unidirectional messages, the
MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no server response to a MESSAGE ID field MUST be zero. There is no server response to a
RECONFIRM message. RECONFIRM message.
The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO spec- The other header fields MUST be set as described in the DSO
ification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE value specification [RFC8490]. The DNS OPCODE field contains the OPCODE
for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be zero, value for DNS Stateful Operations (6). The four count fields must be
and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e., absent). zero, and the corresponding four sections must be empty (i.e.,
absent).
The DSO-TYPE is RECONFIRM (tentatively 0x43). The DSO-TYPE is RECONFIRM (0x0043).
The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the data that follows, which The DSO-LENGTH is the length of the data that follows, which
specifies the name, type, class, and content of the record being specifies the name, type, class, and content of the record being
disputed. disputed.
The DSO-DATA for a RECONFIRM message MUST contain exactly one record. A DNS Push Notifications RECONFIRM message contains exactly one
The DSO-DATA for a RECONFIRM message has no count field to specify RECONFIRM Primary TLV. The DSO-DATA in a RECONFIRM Primary TLV MUST
more than one record. Since RECONFIRM messages are sent over TCP, contain exactly one record. The DSO-DATA in a RECONFIRM Primary TLV
multiple RECONFIRM messages can be concatenated in a single TCP has no count field to specify more than one record. Since RECONFIRM
stream and packed efficiently into TCP segments. messages are sent over TCP, multiple RECONFIRM messages can be
concatenated in a single TCP stream and packed efficiently into TCP
segments. Note that this means that DNS name compression cannot be
used between different RECONFIRM messages. However, when a client is
sending multiple RECONFIRM messages this indicates a situation with
serious network problems, and this is not expected to occur
frequently enough that optimizing efficiency in this case is
important.
TYPE MUST NOT be the value ANY (255) and CLASS MUST NOT be the value TYPE MUST NOT be the value ANY (255) and CLASS MUST NOT be the value
ANY (255). ANY (255).
DNS wildcarding is not supported. That is, a wildcard ("*") in a DNS wildcarding is not supported. That is, an asterisk character
RECONFIRM message matches only a literal wildcard character ("*") in ("*") in a RECONFIRM message matches only a literal asterisk
the zone, and nothing else. character ("*") in a name and nothing else. Similarly, a CNAME in a
RECONFIRM message matches only a CNAME record with that name in the
Aliasing is not supported. That is, a CNAME in a RECONFIRM message zone and no other records with that name.
matches only a literal CNAME record in the zone, and no other records
with the same owner name.
Note that there is no RDLEN field, since the length of the RDATA can Note that there is no RDLEN field, since the length of the RDATA can
be inferred from DSO-LENGTH, so an additional RDLEN field would be be inferred from DSO-LENGTH, so an additional RDLEN field would be
redundant. redundant.
Following the same rules as for PUSH messages, DNS name compression
SHOULD be used within the RDATA of the RECONFIRM message, with
offsets relative to the beginning of the DNS message [RFC1035].
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
| MESSAGE ID (MUST BE ZERO) | \ | MESSAGE ID (MUST BE ZERO) | \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
|QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | | |QR| OPCODE(6) | Z | RCODE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | QDCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > HEADER
| ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | ANCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | | | NSCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | / | ARCOUNT (MUST BE ZERO) | /
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ /
| DSO-TYPE = RECONFIRM (tentatively 0x43) | | DSO-TYPE = RECONFIRM (0x0043) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
| DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) | | DSO-LENGTH (number of octets in DSO-DATA) |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \ +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ \
\ NAME \ \ \ NAME \ \
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
| TYPE | | | TYPE | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > DSO-DATA +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ > DSO-DATA
| CLASS | | | CLASS | |
+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |
\ RDATA \ / \ RDATA \ /
skipping to change at page 31, line 13 skipping to change at line 1277
Figure 5: RECONFIRM Message Figure 5: RECONFIRM Message
6.6. DNS Stateful Operations TLV Context Summary 6.6. DNS Stateful Operations TLV Context Summary
This document defines four new DSO TLVs. As recommended in This document defines four new DSO TLVs. As recommended in
Section 8.2 of the DNS Stateful Operations specification [RFC8490], Section 8.2 of the DNS Stateful Operations specification [RFC8490],
the valid contexts of these new TLV types are summarized below. the valid contexts of these new TLV types are summarized below.
The client TLV contexts are: The client TLV contexts are:
C-P: Client request message, primary TLV C-P: Client request message, Primary TLV
C-U: Client unidirectional message, primary TLV C-U: Client Unidirectional message, primary TLV
C-A: Client request or unidirectional message, additional TLV C-A: Client request or unidirectional message, Additional TLV
CRP: Response back to client, primary TLV CRP: Response back to client, Primary TLV
CRA: Response back to client, additional TLV CRA: Response back to client, Additional TLV
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| TLV Type | C-P | C-U | C-A | CRP | CRA | | TLV Type | C-P | C-U | C-A | CRP | CRA |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +=============+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
| SUBSCRIBE | X | | | | | | SUBSCRIBE | X | | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| PUSH | | | | | | | PUSH | | | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| UNSUBSCRIBE | | X | | | | | UNSUBSCRIBE | | X | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| RECONFIRM | | X | | | | | RECONFIRM | | X | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
Table 2: DSO TLV Client Context Summary Table 2: DSO TLV Client Context Summary
The server TLV contexts are: The server TLV contexts are:
S-P: Server request message, primary TLV S-P: Server request message, Primary TLV
S-U: Server unidirectional message, primary TLV S-U: Server Unidirectional message, primary TLV
S-A: Server request or unidirectional message, additional TLV S-A: Server request or unidirectional message, Additional TLV
SRP: Response back to server, primary TLV SRP: Response back to server, Primary TLV
SRA: Response back to server, additional TLV SRA: Response back to server, Additional TLV
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| TLV Type | S-P | S-U | S-A | SRP | SRA | | TLV Type | S-P | S-U | S-A | SRP | SRA |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +=============+=====+=====+=====+=====+=====+
| SUBSCRIBE | | | | | | | SUBSCRIBE | | | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| PUSH | | X | | | | | PUSH | | X | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| UNSUBSCRIBE | | | | | | | UNSUBSCRIBE | | | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
| RECONFIRM | | | | | | | RECONFIRM | | | | | |
+-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
Table 3: DSO TLV Server Context Summary Table 3: DSO TLV Server Context Summary
6.7. Client-Initiated Termination 6.7. Client-Initiated Termination
An individual subscription is terminated by sending an UNSUBSCRIBE An individual subscription is terminated by sending an UNSUBSCRIBE
TLV for that specific subscription, or all subscriptions can be TLV for that specific subscription, or all subscriptions can be
cancelled at once by the client closing the DSO session. When a canceled at once by the client closing the DSO session. When a
client terminates an individual subscription (via UNSUBSCRIBE) or all client terminates an individual subscription (via UNSUBSCRIBE) or all
subscriptions on that DSO session (by ending the session) it is subscriptions on that DSO session (by ending the session), it is
signaling to the server that it is no longer interested in receiving signaling to the server that it is no longer interested in receiving
those particular updates. It is informing the server that the server those particular updates. It is informing the server that the server
may release any state information it has been keeping with regards to may release any state information it has been keeping with regards to
these particular subscriptions. these particular subscriptions.
After terminating its last subscription on a session via UNSUBSCRIBE, After terminating its last subscription on a session via UNSUBSCRIBE,
a client MAY close the session immediately, or it may keep it open if a client MAY close the session immediately or it may keep it open if
it anticipates performing further operations on that session in the it anticipates performing further operations on that session in the
future. If a client wishes to keep an idle session open, it MUST future. If a client wishes to keep an idle session open, it MUST
respect the maximum idle time required by the server [RFC8490]. respect the maximum idle time required by the server [RFC8490].
If a client plans to terminate one or more subscriptions on a session If a client plans to terminate one or more subscriptions on a session
and doesn't intend to keep that session open, then as an efficiency and doesn't intend to keep that session open, then as an efficiency
optimization it MAY instead choose to simply close the session, which optimization, it MAY instead choose to simply close the session,
implicitly terminates all subscriptions on that session. This may which implicitly terminates all subscriptions on that session. This
occur because the client computer is being shut down, is going to may occur because the client computer is being shut down, is going to
sleep, the application requiring the subscriptions has terminated, or sleep, the application requiring the subscriptions has terminated, or
simply because the last active subscription on that session has been simply because the last active subscription on that session has been
cancelled. canceled.
When closing a session, a client should perform an orderly close of When closing a session, a client should perform an orderly close of
the TLS session. Typical APIs will provide a session close method the TLS session. Typical APIs will provide a session close method
that will send a TLS close_notify alert (see Section 6.1 of the TLS that will send a TLS close_notify alert as described in Section 6.1
1.3 specification [RFC8446]). This instructs the recipient that the of the TLS 1.3 specification [RFC8446]. This instructs the recipient
sender will not send any more data over the session. After sending that the sender will not send any more data over the session. After
the TLS close_notify alert the client MUST gracefully close the sending the TLS close_notify alert, the client MUST gracefully close
underlying connection using a TCP FIN, so that the TLS close_notify the underlying connection using a TCP FIN so that the TLS
is reliably delivered. The mechanisms for gracefully closing a TCP close_notify is reliably delivered. The mechanisms for gracefully
connection with a TCP FIN vary depending on the networking API. For closing a TCP connection with a TCP FIN vary depending on the
example, in the BSD Sockets API, sending a TCP FIN is achieved by networking API. For example, in the BSD Sockets API, sending a TCP
calling "shutdown(s,SHUT_WR)" and keeping the socket open until all FIN is achieved by calling "shutdown(s,SHUT_WR)" and keeping the
remaining data has been read from it. socket open until all remaining data has been read from it.
If the session is forcibly closed at the TCP level by sending a RST If the session is forcibly closed at the TCP level by sending a RST
from either end of the connection, data may be lost. from either end of the connection, data may be lost.
6.8. Client Fallback to Polling 6.8. Client Fallback to Polling
There are cases where a client may exhaust all avenues for There are cases where a client may exhaust all avenues for
establishing a DNS Push Notification subscription without success. establishing a DNS Push Notification subscription without success.
This can happen if the client's configured recursive resolver does This can happen if the client's configured recursive resolver does
not support DNS over TLS, or supports DNS over TLS but is not not support DNS over TLS, or supports DNS over TLS but is not
listening on TCP port 853, or supports DNS over TLS on TCP port 853 listening on TCP port 853, or supports DNS over TLS on TCP port 853
but does not support DSO on that port, or for some other reason is but does not support DSO on that port, or for some other reason is
unable to provide a DNS Push Notification subscription. In this case unable to provide a DNS Push Notification subscription. In this
the client will attempt to communicate directly with an appropriate case, the client will attempt to communicate directly with an
server, and it may be that the zone apex discovery fails, or there is appropriate server, and it may be that the zone apex discovery fails,
no "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record, or server indicated in the or there is no "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>" SRV record, or the server
SRV record is misconfigured, or is unresponsive for some other indicated in the SRV record is misconfigured, overloaded, or is
reason. unresponsive for some other reason.
Regardless of the reason for the failure, after being unable to Regardless of the reason for the failure, after being unable to
establish the desired DNS Push Notification subscription, it is establish the desired DNS Push Notification subscription, it is
likely that the client will still wish to know the answer it seeks, likely that the client will still wish to know the answer it seeks,
even if that answer cannot be obtained with the timely change even if that answer cannot be obtained with the timely change
notifications provided by DNS Push Notifications. In such cases it notifications provided by DNS Push Notifications. In such cases, it
is likely that the client will obtain the answer it seeks via a is likely that the client will obtain the answer it seeks via a
conventional DNS query instead, repeated at some interval to detect conventional DNS query instead, repeated at some interval to detect
when the answer RRset changes. when the answer RRset changes.
In the case where a client responds to its failure to establish a DNS In the case where a client responds to its failure to establish a DNS
Push Notification subscription by falling back to polling with Push Notification subscription by falling back to polling with
conventional DNS queries instead, the polling rate should be conventional DNS queries instead, the polling rate should be
controlled to avoid placing excessive burden on the server. The controlled to avoid placing excessive burden on the server. The
interval between successive DNS queries for the same name, type and interval between successive DNS queries for the same name, type, and
class SHOULD be at least the minimum of: 900 seconds (15 minutes), or class SHOULD be at least the minimum of 900 seconds (15 minutes) or
two seconds more than the TTL of the answer RRset. two seconds more than the TTL of the answer RRset.
The reason that for TTLs shorter than 898 seconds the query should The reason that for TTLs up to 898 seconds the query should not be
not be reissued until two seconds *after* the answer RRset has reissued until two seconds _after_ the answer RRset has expired, is
expired is to ensure that the answer RRset has also expired from the to ensure that the answer RRset has also expired from the cache on
cache on the client's configured recursive resolver. Otherwise the client's configured recursive resolver. Otherwise (particularly
(particularly if the clocks on the client and the recursive resolver if the clocks on the client and the recursive resolver do not run at
do not run at precisely the same rate) there's a risk of a race precisely the same rate), there's a risk of a race condition where
condition where the client queries its configured recursive resolver the client queries its configured recursive resolver just as the
just as the answer RRset has one second remaining in the recursive answer RRset has one second remaining in the recursive resolver's
resolver's cache. The client would then receive a reply telling it cache. The client would receive a reply telling it that the answer
that the answer RRset has one second remaining, and then the client RRset has one second remaining; the client would then requery the
would then re-query the recursive resolver again one second later recursive resolver again one second later. If by this time the
when the answer RRset actually expires, and only then would the answer RRset has actually expired from the recursive resolver's
recursive resolver issue a new query to fetch new fresh data from the cache, the recursive resolver would then issue a new query to fetch
authoritative server. Waiting until the answer RRset has definitely fresh data from the authoritative server. Waiting until the answer
expired from the the cache on the client's configured recursive RRset has definitely expired from the cache on the client's
resolver avoids this race condition and unnecessary additional configured recursive resolver avoids this race condition and any
queries it causes. unnecessary additional queries it causes.
Each time a client is about to reissue its query to discover changes Each time a client is about to reissue its query to discover changes
to the answer RRset, it should first make a new attempt to establish to the answer RRset, it should first make a new attempt to establish
a DNS Push Notification subscription, using previously cached DNS a DNS Push Notification subscription using previously cached DNS
answers as appropriate. After a temporary misconfiguration has been answers as appropriate. After a temporary misconfiguration has been
remedied, this allows a client that is polling to return to using DNS remedied, this allows a client that is polling to return to using DNS
Push Notifications for asynchronous notification of changes. Push Notifications for asynchronous notification of changes.
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
The Strict Privacy Usage Profile for DNS over TLS is REQUIRED for DNS The Strict Privacy profile for DNS over TLS is REQUIRED for DNS Push
Push Notifications [RFC8310]. Cleartext connections for DNS Push Notifications [RFC8310]. Cleartext connections for DNS Push
Notifications are not permissible. Since this is a new protocol, Notifications are not permissible. Since this is a new protocol,
transition mechanisms from the Opportunistic Privacy profile are transition mechanisms from the Opportunistic Privacy profile are
unnecessary. unnecessary.
Also, see Section 9 of the DNS over (D)TLS Usage Profiles document Also, see Section 9 of the document Usage Profiles for DNS over
[RFC8310] for additional recommendations for various versions of TLS (D)TLS [RFC8310] for additional recommendations for various versions
usage. of TLS usage.
As a consequence of requiring TLS, client certificate authentication As a consequence of requiring TLS, client certificate authentication
and verification may also be enforced by the server for stronger and verification may also be enforced by the server for stronger
client-server security or end-to-end security. However, client-server security or end-to-end security. However,
recommendations for security in particular deployment scenarios are recommendations for security in particular deployment scenarios are
outside the scope of this document. outside the scope of this document.
DNSSEC is RECOMMENDED for the authentication of DNS Push Notification DNSSEC is RECOMMENDED for the authentication of DNS Push Notification
servers. TLS alone does not provide complete security. TLS servers. TLS alone does not provide complete security. TLS
certificate verification can provide reasonable assurance that the certificate verification can provide reasonable assurance that the
client is really talking to the server associated with the desired client is really talking to the server associated with the desired
host name, but since the desired host name is learned via a DNS SRV host name, but since the desired host name is learned via a DNS SRV
query, if the SRV query is subverted then the client may have a query, if the SRV query is subverted, then the client may have a
secure connection to a rogue server. DNSSEC can provide added secure connection to a rogue server. DNSSEC can provide added
confidence that the SRV query has not been subverted. confidence that the SRV query has not been subverted.
7.1. Security Services 7.1. Security Services
It is the goal of using TLS to provide the following security It is the goal of using TLS to provide the following security
services: services:
Confidentiality: All application-layer communication is encrypted Confidentiality: All application-layer communication is encrypted
with the goal that no party should be able to decrypt it except with the goal that no party should be able to decrypt it except
the intended receiver. the intended receiver.
Data integrity protection: Any changes made to the communication in Data integrity protection: Any changes made to the communication in
transit are detectable by the receiver. transit are detectable by the receiver.
Authentication: An end-point of the TLS communication is Authentication: An endpoint of the TLS communication is
authenticated as the intended entity to communicate with. authenticated as the intended entity to communicate with.
Anti-replay protection: TLS provides for the detection of and Anti-replay protection: TLS provides for the detection of and
prevention against messages sent previously over a TLS connection prevention against messages sent previously over a TLS connection
(such as DNS Push Notifications). If prior messages are re-sent (such as DNS Push Notifications). If prior messages are re-sent
at a later time as a form of a man-in-the-middle attack then the at a later time as a form of a man-in-the-middle attack, then the
receiver will detect this and reject the replayed messages. receiver will detect this and reject the replayed messages.
Deployment recommendations on the appropriate key lengths and cypher Deployment recommendations on the appropriate key lengths and cipher
suites are beyond the scope of this document. Please refer to TLS suites are beyond the scope of this document. Please refer to the
Recommendations [BCP195] for the best current practices. Keep in current TLS Recommendations [BCP195] for the best current practices.
mind that best practices only exist for a snapshot in time and Keep in mind that best practices only exist for a snapshot in time,
recommendations will continue to change. Updated versions or errata and recommendations will continue to change. Updated versions or
may exist for these recommendations. errata may exist for these recommendations.
7.2. TLS Name Authentication 7.2. TLS Name Authentication
As described in Section 6.1, the client discovers the DNS Push As described in Section 6.1, the client discovers the DNS Push
Notification server using an SRV lookup for the record name Notification server using an SRV lookup for the record name
"_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>". The server connection endpoint SHOULD "_dns-push-tls._tcp.<zone>". The server connection endpoint SHOULD
then be authenticated using DANE TLSA records for the associated SRV then be authenticated using DANE TLSA records for the associated SRV
record. This associates the target's name and port number with a record. This associates the target's name and port number with a
trusted TLS certificate [RFC7673]. This procedure uses the TLS trusted TLS certificate [RFC7673]. This procedure uses the TLS
Server Name Indication (SNI) extension [RFC6066] to inform the server Server Name Indication (SNI) extension [RFC6066] to inform the server
of the name the client has authenticated through the use of TLSA of the name the client has authenticated through the use of TLSA
records. Therefore, if the SRV record passes DNSSEC validation and a records. Therefore, if the SRV record passes DNSSEC validation and a
TLSA record matching the target name is useable, an SNI extension TLSA record matching the target name is usable, an SNI extension must
must be used for the target name to ensure the client is connecting be used for the target name to ensure the client is connecting to the
to the server it has authenticated. If the target name does not have server it has authenticated. If the target name does not have a
a usable TLSA record, then the use of the SNI extension is optional. usable TLSA record, then the use of the SNI extension is optional.
See Usage Profiles for DNS over TLS and DNS over DTLS [RFC8310] for See Usage Profiles for DNS over TLS and DNS over DTLS [RFC8310] for
more information on authenticating domain names. more information on authenticating domain names.
7.3. TLS Early Data 7.3. TLS Early Data
DSO messages with the SUBSCRIBE TLV as the Primary TLV are permitted DSO messages with the SUBSCRIBE TLV as the Primary TLV are permitted
in TLS early data. Using TLS early data can save one network round in TLS early data. Using TLS early data can save one network round
trip, and can result in the client obtaining results faster. trip and can result in the client obtaining results faster.
However, there are some factors to consider before using TLS early However, there are some factors to consider before using TLS early
data. data.
TLS Early Data is not forward secret. In cases where forward secrecy TLS early data is not forward secret. In cases where forward secrecy
of DNS Push Notification subscriptions is required, the client should of DNS Push Notification subscriptions is required, the client should
not use TLS Early Data. not use TLS early data.
With TLS early data there are no guarantees of non-replay between With TLS early data, there are no guarantees of non-replay between
connections. If packets are duplicated and delayed in the network, connections. If packets are duplicated and delayed in the network,
the later arrivals could be mistaken for new subscription requests. the later arrivals could be mistaken for new subscription requests.
Generally this is not a major concern, since the amount of state Generally, this is not a major concern since the amount of state
generated on the server for these spurious subscriptions is small and generated on the server for these spurious subscriptions is small and
short-lived, since the TCP connection will not complete the three-way short lived since the TCP connection will not complete the three-way
handshake. Servers MAY choose to implement rate-limiting measures handshake. Servers MAY choose to implement rate-limiting measures
that are activated when the server detects an excessive number of that are activated when the server detects an excessive number of
spurious subscription requests. spurious subscription requests.
For further guidance please see discussion of zero round-trip data For further guidance on use of TLS early data, please see discussion
(Section 2.3, Section 8, and Appendix E.5) in the TLS 1.3 of zero round-trip data in Sections 2.3 and 8, and Appendix E.5, of
specification, [RFC8446]. the TLS 1.3 specification [RFC8446].
7.4. TLS Session Resumption 7.4. TLS Session Resumption
TLS Session Resumption [RFC8446] is permissible on DNS Push TLS session resumption [RFC8446] is permissible on DNS Push
Notification servers. However, closing the TLS connection terminates Notification servers. However, closing the TLS connection terminates
the DSO session. When the TLS session is resumed, the DNS Push the DSO session. When the TLS session is resumed, the DNS Push
Notification server will not have any subscription state and will Notification server will not have any subscription state and will
proceed as with any other new DSO session. Use of TLS Session proceed as with any other new DSO session. Use of TLS session
Resumption may allow a TLS connection to be set up more quickly, but resumption may allow a TLS connection to be set up more quickly, but
the client will still have to recreate any desired subscriptions. the client will still have to recreate any desired subscriptions.
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
This document defines a new service name, only applicable for the TCP This document defines a new service name, only applicable for the TCP
protocol, to be recorded in the IANA Service Type Registry protocol, which has been recorded in the IANA "Service Name and
[RFC6335][SRVTYPE]. Transport Protocol Port Number Registry" [RFC6335] [SRVTYPE].
+-----------------------+------+----------------------+-------------+ +-----------------------+------+----------------------+---------+
| Name | Port | Value | Definition | | Name | Port | Value | Section |
+-----------------------+------+----------------------+-------------+ +=======================+======+======================+=========+
| DNS Push Notification | None | "_dns-push-tls._tcp" | Section 6.1 | | DNS Push Notification | None | "_dns-push-tls._tcp" | 6.1 |
| Service Type | | | | | Service Type | | | |
+-----------------------+------+----------------------+-------------+ +-----------------------+------+----------------------+---------+
Table 4: IANA Service Type Assignments Table 4: IANA Service Type Assignments
This document defines four new DNS Stateful Operation TLV types to be This document defines four new DNS Stateful Operation TLV types,
recorded in the IANA DSO Type Code Registry [RFC8490][DSOTYPE]. which have been recorded in the IANA "DSO Type Codes" registry
[RFC8490] [DSOTYPE].
+-------------+------------+--------+-----------------+-------------+ +-------------+--------+------------+-----------------+---------+
| Name | Value | Early | Status | Definition | | Name | Value | Early Data | Status | Section |
| | | Data | | | +=============+========+============+=================+=========+
+-------------+------------+--------+-----------------+-------------+ | SUBSCRIBE | 0x0040 | OK | Standards Track | 6.2 |
| SUBSCRIBE | TBA (0x40) | OK | Standards Track | Section 6.2 | +-------------+--------+------------+-----------------+---------+
| PUSH | TBA (0x41) | NO | Standards Track | Section 6.3 | | PUSH | 0x0041 | NO | Standards Track | 6.3 |
| UNSUBSCRIBE | TBA (0x42) | NO | Standards Track | Section 6.4 | +-------------+--------+------------+-----------------+---------+
| RECONFIRM | TBA (0x43) | NO | Standards Track | Section 6.5 | | UNSUBSCRIBE | 0x0042 | NO | Standards Track | 6.4 |
+-------------+------------+--------+-----------------+-------------+ +-------------+--------+------------+-----------------+---------+
| RECONFIRM | 0x0043 | NO | Standards Track | 6.5 |
+-------------+--------+------------+-----------------+---------+
Table 5: IANA DSO TLV Type Code Assignments Table 5: IANA DSO TLV Type Code Assignments
This document defines no new DNS OPCODEs or RCODEs. This document defines no new DNS OPCODEs or RCODEs.
9. Acknowledgements 9. References
The authors would like to thank Kiren Sekar and Marc Krochmal for
previous work completed in this field.
This draft has been improved due to comments from Ran Atkinson, Tim
Chown, Sara Dickinson, Mark Delany, Ralph Droms, Jan Komissar, Eric
Rescorla, Michael Richardson, David Schinazi, Manju Shankar Rao,
Robert Sparks, Markus Stenberg, Andrew Sullivan, Michael Sweet, Dave
Thaler, Brian Trammell, Bernie Volz, Eric Vyncke, Christopher Wood,
Liang Xia, and Soraia Zlatkovic. Ted Lemon provided clarifying text
that was greatly appreciated.
10. References
10.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[DSOTYPE] "DSO Type Code Registry", [DSOTYPE] IANA, "Domain Name System (DNS) Parameters",
<https://www.iana.org/assignments/dns-parameters/>. <https://www.iana.org/assignments/dns-parameters/>.
[RFC0020] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", STD 80, [RFC0020] Cerf, V., "ASCII format for network interchange", STD 80,
RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969, RFC 20, DOI 10.17487/RFC0020, October 1969,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc20>.
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, [RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
skipping to change at page 40, line 10 skipping to change at line 1664
[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.
[RFC8490] Bellis, R., Cheshire, S., Dickinson, J., Dickinson, S., [RFC8490] Bellis, R., Cheshire, S., Dickinson, J., Dickinson, S.,
Lemon, T., and T. Pusateri, "DNS Stateful Operations", Lemon, T., and T. Pusateri, "DNS Stateful Operations",
RFC 8490, DOI 10.17487/RFC8490, March 2019, RFC 8490, DOI 10.17487/RFC8490, March 2019,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8490>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8490>.
[SRVTYPE] "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number [SRVTYPE] IANA, "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number
Registry", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names- Registry", <https://www.iana.org/assignments/service-
port-numbers/>. names-port-numbers/>.
10.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[BCP195] Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre, [BCP195] Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
"Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
(DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, May 2015, (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp195>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/bcp195>.
[DisProx] Cheshire, S., "Discovery Proxy for Multicast DNS-Based
Service Discovery", draft-ietf-dnssd-hybrid-10 (work in
progress), March 2019.
[I-D.ietf-tcpm-rack]
Cheng, Y., Cardwell, N., Dukkipati, N., and P. Jha, "RACK:
a time-based fast loss detection algorithm for TCP",
draft-ietf-tcpm-rack-05 (work in progress), April 2019.
[LLQ] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS Long-Lived Queries",
draft-sekar-dns-llq-03 (work in progress), March 2019.
[obs] "Observer Pattern", [OBS] Wikipedia, "Observer pattern", February 2020,
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observer_pattern>. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/
index.php?title=Observer_pattern&oldid=939702131>.
[RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS [RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
NCACHE)", RFC 2308, DOI 10.17487/RFC2308, March 1998, NCACHE)", RFC 2308, DOI 10.17487/RFC2308, March 1998,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2308>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2308>.
[RFC3123] Koch, P., "A DNS RR Type for Lists of Address Prefixes [RFC3123] Koch, P., "A DNS RR Type for Lists of Address Prefixes
(APL RR)", RFC 3123, DOI 10.17487/RFC3123, June 2001, (APL RR)", RFC 3123, DOI 10.17487/RFC3123, June 2001,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3123>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3123>.
[RFC4287] Nottingham, M., Ed. and R. Sayre, Ed., "The Atom [RFC4287] Nottingham, M., Ed. and R. Sayre, Ed., "The Atom
skipping to change at page 41, line 18 skipping to change at line 1709
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6281>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6281>.
[RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762, [RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6762, February 2013, DOI 10.17487/RFC6762, February 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6762>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6762>.
[RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service [RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service
Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013, Discovery", RFC 6763, DOI 10.17487/RFC6763, February 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6763>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6763>.
[RFC6824] Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., and O. Bonaventure,
"TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with Multiple
Addresses", RFC 6824, DOI 10.17487/RFC6824, January 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6824>.
[RFC6886] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "NAT Port Mapping Protocol [RFC6886] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "NAT Port Mapping Protocol
(NAT-PMP)", RFC 6886, DOI 10.17487/RFC6886, April 2013, (NAT-PMP)", RFC 6886, DOI 10.17487/RFC6886, April 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6886>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6886>.
[RFC6887] Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and [RFC6887] Wing, D., Ed., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and
P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013, DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6887>.
[RFC7413] Cheng, Y., Chu, J., Radhakrishnan, S., and A. Jain, "TCP [RFC7413] Cheng, Y., Chu, J., Radhakrishnan, S., and A. Jain, "TCP
Fast Open", RFC 7413, DOI 10.17487/RFC7413, December 2014, Fast Open", RFC 7413, DOI 10.17487/RFC7413, December 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7413>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7413>.
[RFC7719] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
Terminology", RFC 7719, DOI 10.17487/RFC7719, December
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7719>.
[RFC8010] Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing [RFC8010] Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing
Protocol/1.1: Encoding and Transport", STD 92, RFC 8010, Protocol/1.1: Encoding and Transport", STD 92, RFC 8010,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8010, January 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8010, January 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8010>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8010>.
[RFC8011] Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing [RFC8011] Sweet, M. and I. McDonald, "Internet Printing
Protocol/1.1: Model and Semantics", STD 92, RFC 8011, Protocol/1.1: Model and Semantics", STD 92, RFC 8011,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8011, January 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8011, January 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8011>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8011>.
[RFC8499] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS [RFC8499] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
Terminology", BCP 219, RFC 8499, DOI 10.17487/RFC8499, Terminology", BCP 219, RFC 8499, DOI 10.17487/RFC8499,
January 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8499>. January 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8499>.
[SD-API] "dns_sd.h API", [RFC8684] Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., Bonaventure, O., and C.
Paasch, "TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with
Multiple Addresses", RFC 8684, DOI 10.17487/RFC8684, March
2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8684>.
[RFC8764] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Apple's DNS Long-Lived
Queries Protocol", RFC 8764, DOI 10.17487/RFC8764, June
2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8764>.
[RFC8766] Cheshire, S., "Discovery Proxy for Multicast DNS-Based
Service Discovery", RFC 8766, DOI 10.17487/RFC8766, June
2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8766>.
[SD-API] Apple Inc., "dns_sd.h",
<https://opensource.apple.com/source/mDNSResponder/ <https://opensource.apple.com/source/mDNSResponder/
mDNSResponder-878.70.2/mDNSShared/dns_sd.h.auto.html>. mDNSResponder-878.70.2/mDNSShared/dns_sd.h.auto.html>.
[SYN] Eddy, W., "Defenses Against TCP SYN Flooding Attacks", The [SYN] Eddy, W., "Defenses Against TCP SYN Flooding Attacks", The
Internet Protocol Journal, Cisco Systems, Volume 9, Internet Protocol Journal, Cisco Systems, Volume 9, Number
Number 4, December 2006. 4, December 2006,
<https://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac123/ac147/
archived_issues/ipj_9-4/ipj_9-4.pdf>.
[TCPRACK] Cheng, Y., Cardwell, N., Dukkipati, N., and P. Jha, "RACK:
a time-based fast loss detection algorithm for TCP", Work
in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-tcpm-rack-08, 9
March 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-tcpm-rack-08>.
[XEP0060] Millard, P., Saint-Andre, P., and R. Meijer, "Publish- [XEP0060] Millard, P., Saint-Andre, P., and R. Meijer, "Publish-
Subscribe", XSF XEP 0060, July 2010. Subscribe", XSF XEP 0060, October 2019,
<https://xmpp.org/extensions/xep-0060.html>.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Kiren Sekar and Marc Krochmal for
previous work completed in this field.
This document has been improved due to comments from Ran Atkinson,
Tim Chown, Sara Dickinson, Mark Delany, Ralph Droms, Jan Komissar,
Eric Rescorla, Michael Richardson, David Schinazi, Manju Shankar Rao,
Robert Sparks, Markus Stenberg, Andrew Sullivan, Michael Sweet, Dave
Thaler, Brian Trammell, Bernie Volz, √Čric Vyncke, Christopher Wood,
Liang Xia, and Soraia Zlatkovic. Ted Lemon provided clarifying text
that was greatly appreciated.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Tom Pusateri Tom Pusateri
Unaffiliated Unaffiliated
Raleigh, NC 27608 Raleigh, NC 27608
USA United States of America
Phone: +1 919 867 1330 Phone: +1 919 867 1330
Email: pusateri@bangj.com Email: pusateri@bangj.com
Stuart Cheshire Stuart Cheshire
Apple Inc. Apple Inc.
One Apple Park Way One Apple Park Way
Cupertino, CA 95014 Cupertino, CA 95014
USA United States of America
Phone: +1 (408) 996-1010 Phone: +1 (408) 996-1010
Email: cheshire@apple.com Email: cheshire@apple.com
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