draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-02.txt   draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-03.txt 
Diameter Maintenance and J. Korhonen, Ed. Diameter Maintenance and J. Korhonen, Ed.
Extensions (DIME) TeliaSonera Extensions (DIME) TeliaSonera
Internet-Draft H. Tschofenig Internet-Draft H. Tschofenig
Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Siemens Networks Intended status: Standards Track Nokia Siemens Networks
Expires: April 1, 2008 M. Arumaithurai Expires: May 21, 2008 M. Arumaithurai
University of Goettingen University of Goettingen
September 29, 2007 M. Jones
Bridgewater Systems
November 18, 2007
Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter
draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-02.txt draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-03.txt
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
This document extends the QoSFilterRule AVP functionality of the This document extends the QoSFilterRule AVP functionality of the
Diameter Base protocol and the functionality of the QoS-Filter-Rule Diameter Base protocol and the functionality of the QoS-Filter-Rule
AVP defined in RFC 4005. The ability to convey Quality of Service AVP defined in RFC 4005. The ability to convey Quality of Service
information is made available to the Diameter Network Access Server information using the AVPs defined in this document is available to
Application, the Diameter Credit Control Application and the Diameter existing Diameter applications where permitted by the command ABNF
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application. Future and to all new applications.
Diameter applications can easily integrate Quality of Service support
in addition to packet filtering.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support . . . . . . 3 3. Diameter QoS Defined AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3.1. QoS-Capability AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.2. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. QoS-Profile-Template AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.3. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3. QoS-Resources AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.4. Credit-Control-Request (CCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.5. Credit-Control-Answer (CCA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.5. QoS-Profile AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.6. AA-Request (AAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.6. QoS-Profile-ID AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.7. AA-Answer (AAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.7. QoS-Semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Diameter QoS Defined AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.8. QoS-Parameters AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. QoS-Capability AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.9. QoS-Flow-State AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. QoS-Profile AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.10. QoS-Flow-Direction AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3. QoS-Resources AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Semantics of QoS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.4. Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.5. QoSBlob-Group AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1. Diameter EAP with QoS Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.6. QoS-ID AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.7. QoS-ObjectType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3. QoS Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.8. QoSBlob AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.4. Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS . . . . 11
4.9. QoS-Flow-State AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.5. Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information . . . . . . . 12
4.10. QoS-Flow-Direction AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Semantics of QoS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1. Diameter EAP with QoS Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.2. Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.3. QoS Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.4. Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.5. Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information . . . . . . . 17 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. AVP Occurrence Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.1. DER and DEA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.2. CCR and CCA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7.3. AAR and AAA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines a number of Diameter Quality of Service (QoS) This document defines a number of Diameter Quality of Service (QoS)
related AVPs that can be used with the Diameter Base protocol, and related AVPs that can be used in existing Diameter applications where
the Diameter Credit Control Application, the Diameter Extensible permitted by the command ABNF and in all new applications. The
Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application and the Diameter Network Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP thereby replaces the QoSFilterRule,
Access Server Application to convey Quality of Service information.
The Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP thereby replaces the QoSFilterRule,
defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588], and the QoS-Filter-Rule, defined in defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588], and the QoS-Filter-Rule, defined in
RFC 4005 [RFC4005]. RFC 4005 [RFC4005].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
3. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support 3. Diameter QoS Defined AVPs
3.1. Command Codes
This document re-uses the Diameter Base protocol [RFC3588], Diameter
Credit Control [RFC4006], Diameter NASREQ [RFC4005] and Diameter EAP
[RFC4072] application commands. The following commands are re-used
to carry QoS related AVPs:
Command-Name Abbrev. Code Reference
Diameter-EAP-Request DER 268 RFC 4072
Diameter-EAP-Answer DEA 268 RFC 4072
Credit-Control-Request CCR 272 RFC 4006
Credit-Control-Answer CCA 272 RFC 4006
AA-Request AAR 265 RFC 4005
AA-Answer AAA 265 RFC 4005
Figure 1: Command Codes
When the Re-Auth-Request (RAR), Re-Auth-Answer (RAA), Session-
Termination-Request (STR), Session-Termination-Answer (STA), Abort-
Session-Request (ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (ASA), Accounting-Request
(ACR), and Accounting-Answer (ACA) commands are used together with
this specification they follow the rules in Diameter NASREQ
[RFC4005], Diameter EAP [RFC4072], Credit Control [RFC4006] and
Diameter Base Protocol [RFC3588]. The accounting commands use the
Application Identifier value of the respective application.
3.2. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER)
The Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) command [RFC4072], indicated by the
Command-Code field set to 268 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
Flags field, may be sent by the NAS to the Diameter server providing
network access authentication and authorization services. At the
same time as the network access authentication and authorization, the
NAS MAY request the Diameter server to authorize provisioning of QoS
resources.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4072] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 2 shows the DER message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<Diameter-EAP-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type }
[ Destination-Host ]
[ User-Name ]
[ QoS-Capability ]
* [ QoS-Resources ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 2: Diameter EAP Request Command
3.3. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA)
The Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) message defined in [RFC4072], indicated
by the Command- Code field set to 268 and 'R' bit cleared in the
Command Flags field is sent in response to the Diameter-EAP-Request
message (DER). If the QoS service is successfully authorized and the
Diameter server was able to fulfill the QoS Authorization request (if
needed) then the response MAY include the QoS-Resources AVPs.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4072] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 3 shows the DEA message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<Diameter-EAP-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ Auth-Request-Type }
{ Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
* [ QoS-Resources ]
[ Session-Timeout ]
[ User-Name ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 3: Diameter EAP Answer Command
3.4. Credit-Control-Request (CCR)
The Credit-Control-Request (CCR) command [RFC4006], indicated by the
Command-Code field set to 272 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
Flags field, may be sent by the NAS to the Diameter-QoS server to
request QoS credit authorization for a given QoS provisioning
request. In that case the CCR command MAY also carry the QoS-
Resources AVPs.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4006] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 4 shows the CCR message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<Credit-Control-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type }
{ Service-Context-Id }
{ CC-Request-Type }
{ CC-Request-Number }
[ Destination-Host ]
[ User-Name ]
[ QoS-Capability ]
* [ QoS-Resources ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 4: Credit Control Request Command
3.5. Credit-Control-Answer (CCA)
The Credit-Control-Answer (CCA) command [RFC4006], indicated by the
Command-Code field set to 272 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
Flags field is sent in response to the CC-Request (CCR) message to
acknowledge a CC-Request command. If the Diameter QoS server was
able to fulfill the QoS request (if needed) then the response MAY
include the QoS-Resources AVPs.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4006] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 5 shows the CCA message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<Credit-Control-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ CC-Request-Type }
{ CC-Request-Number }
[ User-Name ]
[ CC-Session-Failover ]
[ CC-Sub-Session-Id ]
[ Acct-Multi-Session-Id ]
[ Origin-State-Id ]
[ Event-Timestamp ]
* [ QoS-Resources ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 5: Credit Control Answer Command
3.6. AA-Request (AAR)
The AA-Request (AAR) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set
to 265 and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, may be sent by the
NAS to the Diameter server providing network access configuration
services. At the same time as the network access authentication and
authorization, the NAS MAY request the Diameter server to authorize
provisioning of QoS resources.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4005] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 6 shows the AAR message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<AA-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type }
[ QoS-Capability ]
* [ QoS-Resources ]
[ Destination-Host ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 6: AA Request Command
3.7. AA-Answer (AAA)
The AA-Answer (AAA) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set
to 265 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is sent in
response to the AA-Request (AAR) message for confirmation of the
result of QoS provisioning. If the QoS service is successfully
authorized and the Diameter server was able to fulfill the QoS
provisioning request (if needed) then the response MAY include the
QoS-Resources AVPs.
The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4005] with an
addition of QoS specific AVPs. Figure 7 shows the AAA message used
with the QoS specific AVPs:
<AA-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, PXY >
< Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id }
{ Auth-Request-Type }
{ Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm }
* [ QoS-Resources ]
[ User-Name ]
[ Session-Timeout ]
...
* [ AVP ]
Figure 7: AA Answer Command
4. Diameter QoS Defined AVPs
The following table lists the Diameter AVPs used by this document, The following table lists the Diameter AVPs used by this document,
their AVP code values, types, possible flag values, and whether the their AVP code values, types, possible flag values, and whether the
AVP may be encrypted. AVP may be encrypted.
+------------------+ +------------------+
| AVP Flag Rules | | AVP Flag Rules |
+-------------------------------------------------|----+---+----+----+ +-------------------------------------------------|----+---+----+----+
| AVP Section |MUST|MAY|SHLD|MUST| | AVP Section |MUST|MAY|SHLD|MUST|
| Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type | | | NOT| NOT| | Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type | | | NOT| NOT|
+-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+ +-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+
|QoS-Capability TBD 4.1 Grouped | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Capability TBD 3.1 Grouped | |M,P| | V |
|QoS-Profile TBD 4.2 Unsigned32 | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Profile-Template TBD 3.2 Unsigned64 | |M,P| | V |
|QoS-Resources TBD 4.3 Grouped | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Resources TBD 3.3 Grouped | |M,P| | V |
|Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule TBD 4.4 Grouped | |M,P| | V | |Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule TBD 3.4 Grouped | |M,P| | V |
|QoSBlob-Group TBD 4.5 Grouped | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Profile TBD 3.5 Grouped | |M,P| | V |
|QoS-ID TBD 4.6 Unsigned32 | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Profile-ID TBD 3.6 Unsigned32 | |M,P| | V |
|QoS-ObjectType TBD 4.7 Enumerated | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Semantics TBD 3.7 Enumerated | |M,P| | V |
|QoSBlob TBD 4.8 OctetString| |M,P| | V | |QoS-Parameters TBD 3.8 OctetString| |M,P| | V |
|QoS-Flow-State TBD 4.9 Enumerated | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Flow-State TBD 3.9 Enumerated | |M,P| | V |
|QoS-Flow-Direction TBD 4.10 Enumerated | |M,P| | V | |QoS-Flow-Direction TBD 3.10 Enumerated | |M,P| | V |
+-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+ +-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+
4.1. QoS-Capability AVP 3.1. QoS-Capability AVP
The QoS-Capability AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and contains The QoS-Capability AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and contains
a list of supported Quality of Service profiles (and therefore the a list of supported Quality of Service profile templates (and
support of respective AVPs). therefore the support of the respective parameter AVPs).
QoS-Capability ::= < AVP Header: XXX > QoS-Capability ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
1* { QoS-Profile } 1* { QoS-Profile-Template }
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.2. QoS-Profile AVP 3.2. QoS-Profile-Template AVP
The QoS-Profile AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned64 and contains The QoS-Profile-Template AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned64 and
the vendor and a specifier field. The 64-bit value in the QoS- contains the vendor and a specifier field. The 64-bit value in the
Profile AVP is structured as shown below. QoS-Profile-Template AVP is structured as shown below.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Vendor | | Vendor |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Specifier | | Specifier |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor Field: Vendor Field:
32 bits of IANA SMI Network Management Private Enterprise Code. 32 bits of IANA SMI Network Management Private Enterprise Code.
The Vendor-ID 0x00000000 is reserved for IANA registered QoS The Vendor-ID 0x00000000 is reserved for IANA registered QoS
profiles. profiles.
Specifier Field: Specifier Field:
32-bit unsigned integer, representing the defined profile value. 32-bit unsigned integer, representing the defined profile value.
An initial QoS profile is defined with vendor field set to 0x00000000 An initial QoS profile template is defined with vendor field set to
and the specifier field set to 0, as described in 0x00000000 and the specifier field set to 0, as described in
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]. The registry for the QoS profiles is [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]. The registry for the QoS profile
created with the same document. templates is created with the same document.
4.3. QoS-Resources AVP 3.3. QoS-Resources AVP
The QoS-Resources AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and includes The QoS-Resources AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and includes
description of the Quality of Service resources. a description of the Quality of Service resources for policing
traffic flows.
QoS-Resources ::= < AVP Header: XXX > QoS-Resources ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
0* [ Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ] 0* [ Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ]
0* [ QoSBlob-Group ] [ QoS-Profile ]
[ QoS-Flow-State ] [ QoS-Flow-State ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.4. Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP 3.4. Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP
TheExtended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped. The Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped
The QoS filter rule associated with the QoS-ID re-uses the RADIUS and defines one or more traffic flows together with the QoS profile
NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP [I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules]. This AVP ties a that should be applied to the flow(s) by the Resource Management
specific filter to a QoS-ID that in turn refers to a specific Function. This AVP re-uses the RADIUS NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP
QoSBlob-Group. At least either one of the NAS-Traffic-Rule or the [I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules] to describe traffic flows. The
QoS-Flow-Direction AVPs SHOULD be included. Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP ties a specific traffic filter to a QoS-
Profile-ID that in turn refers to a specific set of QoS parameters.
At least either one of the NAS-Traffic-Rule or the QoS-Flow-Direction
AVPs SHOULD be included.
Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ::= < AVP Header: XXX > Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
{ QoS-ID } [ QoS-Profile-ID ]
[ NAS-Traffic-Rule ] [ NAS-Traffic-Rule ]
[ QoS-Flow-Direction ] [ QoS-Flow-Direction ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.5. QoSBlob-Group AVP 3.5. QoS-Profile AVP
The QoSBlob-Group AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and ties the The QoS-Profile AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and ties the
QoS-ID AVP together to the QoSBlob AVP. All parameters followed by QoS-Profile-ID AVP to a set of QoS-Parameters AVPs. All parameters
the QoSBlob-Type AVP refer to the same QoS model/profile. refer to the same QoS model/profile described by the QoS-Profile-
Template AVP.
QoSBlob-Group ::= < AVP Header: XXX > QoS-Profile ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
{ QoS-ID } [ QoS-Profile-ID ]
{ QoS-ObjectType } { QoS-Semantics }
{ QoS-Profile } { QoS-Profile-Template }
0* [ QoSBlob ] [ QoS-Parameters ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
It is possible to have predefined QoS profiles that contains very 3.6. QoS-Profile-ID AVP
specific QoS values and refer to it only using a specifically
assigned QoS-Profile AVP value. In this case including QoSBlob AVP
is not needed.
4.6. QoS-ID AVP
The QoS-ID AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned32 and references The QoS-Profile-ID AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned32 and
the QoSBlob. references a set of QoS-Parameters AVPs.
4.7. QoS-ObjectType 3.7. QoS-Semantics
The QoS-ObjectType AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated and The QoS-Semantics AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated and
provides the semantic for the content of the QoSBlob AVP. provides the semantics for the content of the QoS-Profile AVP.
This document defines the following values: This document defines the following values:
(0): QoS-Desired (0): QoS-Desired
(1): QoS-Available (1): QoS-Available
(2): QoS-Reserved (2): QoS-Reserved
(3): Minimum-QoS (3): Minimum-QoS
(4): QoS-Authorized (4): QoS-Authorized
4.8. QoSBlob AVP 3.8. QoS-Parameters AVP
The QoSBlob AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString and contains The QoS-Parameters AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString and
Quality of Service parameters. These parameters are defined in a contains Quality of Service parameters. These parameters are defined
separate document, see [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]. in a separate document, see [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].
4.9. QoS-Flow-State AVP 3.9. QoS-Flow-State AVP
The QoS-Flow-State AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated. It The QoS-Flow-State AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated. It
gives an indication as to how the flow has to be treated. The gives an indication as to how the flow has to be treated. The
Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule already provides an indicate whether a flow Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule already provides an indicate whether a flow
is permitted or denied. This optional AVP provides additional is permitted or denied. This optional AVP provides additional
information about the treatment. Currently, a single value is information about the treatment. Currently, a single value is
defined; further values are available via IANA registration. defined; further values are available via IANA registration.
Value | Name and Semantic Value | Name and Semantic
------+------------------------------------------------------------ ------+------------------------------------------------------------
0 | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING - The QoS reservation is kept 0 | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING - The QoS reservation is kept
| pending. The QoS resources are not installed and subsequent | pending. The QoS resources are not installed and subsequent
| QoS signaling is necessary to active them. | QoS signaling is necessary to active them.
4.10. QoS-Flow-Direction AVP 3.10. QoS-Flow-Direction AVP
The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated. It The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated. It
gives an indication of the direction the provided QoS information gives an indication of the direction the provided QoS information
should be applied to. The QoS information can be applied to downlink should be applied to. The QoS information can be applied to downlink
flows or to uplink flows. The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP may be used in flows or to uplink flows. The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP may be used in
conjunction with the NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP. In a case conflicting conjunction with the NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP. In a case conflicting
definitions between the QoS-Flow-Direction and the NAS-Traffic-Rule, definitions between the QoS-Flow-Direction and the NAS-Traffic-Rule,
the QoS-Flow-Direction has precedence meaning the filter rules are the QoS-Flow-Direction has precedence meaning the filter rules are
applied only to the flows going to the direction indicated by the applied only to the flows going to the direction indicated by the
QoS-Flow-Direction AVP. In the absence of the QoS-Flow-Direction the QoS-Flow-Direction AVP. In the absence of the QoS-Flow-Direction the
default treatment is to both directions. Currently, three values are default treatment is to both directions.
defined; further values are available via IANA registration.
Value | Name and Semantic Value | Name and Semantic
------+------------------------------------------------------------ ------+------------------------------------------------------------
0 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_BOTH - The QoS information in applied to 0 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_BOTH - The QoS information in applied to
| both downlink and uplink flows. This is also the default. | both downlink and uplink flows. This is also the default.
1 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_DL - The QoS information in applied to 1 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_DL - The QoS information in applied to
| downlink flows only. | downlink flows only.
2 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_UL - The QoS information in applied to 2 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_UL - The QoS information in applied to
| uplink flows only. | uplink flows only.
5. Semantics of QoS Parameters 4. Semantics of QoS Parameters
The QoS parameters carried in the QoS-Resources AVP may appear in The QoS parameters carried in the QoS-Resources AVP may appear in
different messages. The semantic of the QoS parameters depend on the different messages. The semantic of the QoS parameters depend on the
information provided in the Object Type defined in information provided in the QoS-Semantics AVP which currently defines
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]. The Object Type currently lists 5 5 values, namely QoS-Desired (0), QoS-Available (1), QoS-Reserved
values, namely QoS-Desired (0), QoS-Available (1), QoS-Reserved (2), (2), Minimum-QoS (3), and QoS-Authorized (4).
Minimum-QoS (3), and QoS-Authorized (4).
The semantics of the different Object Types are as follows: The semantics of the different values are as follows:
Object Type Direction Semantic Object Type Direction Semantic
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------
QoS-Desired C->S Please authorize the indicated QoS QoS-Desired C->S Please authorize the indicated QoS
QoS-Desired C<-S NA QoS-Desired C<-S NA
QoS-Available C->S Adminission Control at router indicates QoS-Available C->S Admission Control at router indicates
that this QoS is available. (note 1) that this QoS is available. (note 1)
QoS-Available C<-S Indicated QoS is available. (note 2) QoS-Available C<-S Indicated QoS is available. (note 2)
QoS-Reserved C->S Used for reporting during accounting. QoS-Reserved C->S Used for reporting during accounting.
QoS-Reserved C<-S NA QoS-Reserved C<-S NA
Minimum-QoS C->S Indicates that the client is not interested Minimum-QoS C->S Indicates that the client is not interested
interested in authorizing QoS that is interested in authorizing QoS that is
lower than Min. QoS lower than Min. QoS
Minimum-QoS C<-S The client must not provide QoS guarantees Minimum-QoS C<-S The client must not provide QoS guarantees
lower than Min. QoS lower than Min. QoS
QoS-Authorized C->S NA QoS-Authorized C->S NA
skipping to change at page 13, line 38 skipping to change at page 8, line 5
NA: Not applicable to this document; NA: Not applicable to this document;
no semantic defined in this specification no semantic defined in this specification
Notes: Notes:
(1) QoS-Available is only useful in relationship with QoS-Desired (1) QoS-Available is only useful in relationship with QoS-Desired
(and optionally with Minimum-QoS). (and optionally with Minimum-QoS).
(2) QoS-Available is only useful when the AAA server performs (2) QoS-Available is only useful when the AAA server performs
admission control and knows about the resources in the network. admission control and knows about the resources in the network.
6. Examples 5. Examples
This section shows a number of signaling flows where QoS negotiation This section shows a number of signaling flows where QoS negotiation
and authorization is part of the conventional NASREQ, EAP or Credit and authorization is part of the conventional NASREQ, EAP or Credit
Control applications message exchanges. Control applications message exchanges. The signalling flows for the
Diameter QoS Application are described in
[I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos].
6.1. Diameter EAP with QoS Information 5.1. Diameter EAP with QoS Information
Figure 18 shows a simple signaling flow where a NAS (Diameter Client) Figure 11 shows a simple signaling flow where a NAS (Diameter Client)
announces its QoS awareness and capabilities included into the DER announces its QoS awareness and capabilities included into the DER
message and as part of the access authentication procedure. Upon message and as part of the access authentication procedure. Upon
completion of the EAP exchange, the Diameter Server provides a pre- completion of the EAP exchange, the Diameter Server provides a pre-
provisioned QoS profile with the QoS-ObjectType in the QoSBlob-Group provisioned QoS profile with the QoS-Semantics in the QoS-Profile AVP
AVP set to "QoS-Authorized", to the NAS in the final DEA message. set to "QoS-Authorized", to the NAS in the final DEA message.
End Diameter Diameter End Diameter Diameter
Host Client server Host Client server
| | | | | |
| (initiate EAP) | | | (initiate EAP) | |
|<------------------------------>| | |<------------------------------>| |
| | Diameter-EAP-Request | | | Diameter-EAP-Request |
| | EAP-Payload(EAP Start) | | | EAP-Payload(EAP Start) |
| | QoS-Capability | | | QoS-Capability |
| |------------------------------->| | |------------------------------->|
skipping to change at page 14, line 43 skipping to change at page 9, line 43
| | EAP-Payload(EAP Success) | | | EAP-Payload(EAP Success) |
| | [EAP-Master-Session-Key] | | | [EAP-Master-Session-Key] |
| | (authorization AVPs) | | | (authorization AVPs) |
| | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) | | | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) |
| |<-------------------------------| | |<-------------------------------|
| | | | | |
| EAP Success | | | EAP Success | |
|<-------------------------------| | |<-------------------------------| |
| | | | | |
Figure 18: Example of a Diameter EAP enhanced with QoS Information Figure 11: Example of a Diameter EAP enhanced with QoS Information
6.2. Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information 5.2. Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information
Figure 19 shows a similar pre-provisioned QoS signaling as in Figure 12 shows a similar pre-provisioned QoS signaling as in
Figure 18 but using the NASREQ application instead of EAP Figure 11 but using the NASREQ application instead of EAP
application. application.
End Diameter End Diameter
Host NAS Server Host NAS Server
| | | | | |
| Start Network | | | Start Network | |
| Attachment | | | Attachment | |
|<---------------->| | |<---------------->| |
| | | | | |
| |AA-Request | | |AA-Request |
skipping to change at page 15, line 45 skipping to change at page 10, line 45
| | AA-Answer| | | AA-Answer|
| | Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS| | | Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|
| | (authorization AVPs)| | | (authorization AVPs)|
| |QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) | | |QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) |
| |<-----------------------------+ | |<-----------------------------+
| | | | | |
| Success | | | Success | |
|<-----------------+ | |<-----------------+ |
| | | | | |
Figure 19: Example of a Diameter NASREQ enhanced with QoS Information Figure 12: Example of a Diameter NASREQ enhanced with QoS Information
6.3. QoS Authorization 5.3. QoS Authorization
Figure 20 shows an example of authorization only QoS signaling as Figure 13 shows an example of authorization only QoS signaling as
part of the NASREQ message exchange. The NAS provides the Diameter part of the NASREQ message exchange. The NAS provides the Diameter
server with the "QoS-Desired" QoS-ObjectType AVP included in the QoS- server with the "QoS-Desired" QoS-Semantics AVP included in the QoS-
Resources AVP. The Diameter server then either authorizes the Resources AVP. The Diameter server then either authorizes the
indicated QoS or rejects the request and informs the NAS about the indicated QoS or rejects the request and informs the NAS about the
result. In this scenario the NAS does not need to include the QoS- result. In this scenario the NAS does not need to include the QoS-
Capability AVP in the AAR message as the QoS-Resources AVP implicitly Capability AVP in the AAR message as the QoS-Resources AVP implicitly
does the same and also the NAS is authorizing a specific QoS profile, does the same and also the NAS is authorizing a specific QoS profile,
not a pre-provisioned one. not a pre-provisioned one.
End Diameter End Diameter
Host NAS Server Host NAS Server
| | | | | |
skipping to change at page 16, line 33 skipping to change at page 11, line 33
| | AA-Answer| | | AA-Answer|
| | NASREQ-Payload(Success)| | | NASREQ-Payload(Success)|
| | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)| | | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)|
| |<-----------------------------+ | |<-----------------------------+
| Accept | | | Accept | |
|<-----------------+ | |<-----------------+ |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
Figure 20: Example of an Authorization-Only Message Flow Figure 13: Example of an Authorization-Only Message Flow
6.4. Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS 5.4. Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS
Figure 21 shows a message exchange for a Diameter server initiated Figure 14 shows a message exchange for a Diameter server initiated
QoS re-authorization procedure. The Diameter server sends the NAS a QoS re-authorization procedure. The Diameter server sends the NAS a
RAR message requesting re-authorization for an existing session and RAR message requesting re-authorization for an existing session and
the NAS acknowledges it with a RAA message. The NAS is aware of its the NAS acknowledges it with a RAA message. The NAS is aware of its
existing QoS profile and information for the ongoing session that the existing QoS profile and information for the ongoing session that the
Diameter server requested for re-authorization. Thus, the NAS must Diameter server requested for re-authorization. Thus, the NAS must
initiate re-authorization of the existing QoS profile. The re- initiate re-authorization of the existing QoS profile. The re-
authorization procedure is the same as in Figure 20. authorization procedure is the same as in Figure 13.
End Diameter End Diameter
Host NAS Server Host NAS Server
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
: : : : : :
: <<<Initial Messag Exchanges>>> : : <<<Initial Message Exchanges>>> :
: : : : : :
| | | | | |
| | RA-Request | | | RA-Request |
| |<-----------------------------+ | |<-----------------------------+
| | | | | |
| |RA-Answer | | |RA-Answer |
| |Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS | | |Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS |
| +----------------------------->| | +----------------------------->|
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
skipping to change at page 17, line 34 skipping to change at page 12, line 34
| |QoS-Resources(QoS-Desired) | | |QoS-Resources(QoS-Desired) |
| +----------------------------->| | +----------------------------->|
| | | | | |
| | AA-Answer| | | AA-Answer|
| | Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS| | | Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|
| | (authorization AVPs)| | | (authorization AVPs)|
| | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)| | | QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)|
| |<-----------------------------+ | |<-----------------------------+
| | | | | |
Figure 21: Example of a Server-initiated Re-Authorization Procedure Figure 14: Example of a Server-initiated Re-Authorization Procedure
6.5. Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information 5.5. Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information
In this case the User is charged as soon as the Service Element (CC In this case the User is charged as soon as the Service Element (CC
client) receives the service request. In this case the client uses client) receives the service request. In this case the client uses
the "QoS-Desired" QoS-ObjectType parameter in the QoS-Resources AVP the "QoS-Desired" QoS-Semantics parameter in the QoS-Resources AVP
that it sends to the Accounitng server. The server responds with a that it sends to the Accounitng server. The server responds with a
"QoS-Available" QoS-ObjectType parameter in the QoS-Resources AVP "QoS-Available" QoS-Semantics parameter in the QoS-Resources AVP
Service Element Service Element
End User (CC Client) B CC Server End User (CC Client) B CC Server
| | | | | | | |
|(1) Service Request | | | |(1) Service Request | | |
|-------------------->| | | |-------------------->| | |
| |(2) CCR (event, DIRECT_DEBITING,| | |(2) CCR (event, DIRECT_DEBITING,|
| | QoS-Resources[QoS-desired]) | | | QoS-Resources[QoS-desired]) |
| |-------------------------------->| | |-------------------------------->|
| |(3) CCA (Granted-Units, QoS- | | |(3) CCA (Granted-Units, QoS- |
| | Resources[QoS-Authorized]) | | | Resources[QoS-Authorized]) |
| |<--------------------------------| | |<--------------------------------|
|(4) Service Delivery | | | |(4) Service Delivery | | |
|<--------------------| | | |<--------------------| | |
|(5) Begin service | | | |(5) Begin service | | |
|<------------------------------------>| | |<------------------------------------>| |
| | | | | | | |
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
Figure 22: Example for a One-Time Diameter Credit Control Charging Figure 15: Example for a One-Time Diameter Credit Control Charging
Event Event
7. AVP Occurrence Tables 6. Acknowledgments
7.1. DER and DEA Commands AVP Table
The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
defined in this document that may be present in the DER and DEA
Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4072].
+---------------+
| Command-Code |
|-------+-------+
Attribute Name | DER | DEA |
-------------------------------+-------+-------+
QoS-Capability | 0-1 | 0 |
QoS-Resources | 0+ | 0+ |
+-------+-------+
Figure 23: DER and DEA Commands AVP table
7.2. CCR and CCA Commands AVP Table
The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
defined in this document that may be present in the CCR and CCA
Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4006].
+---------------+
| Command-Code |
|-------+-------+
Attribute Name | CCR | CCA |
-------------------------------+-------+-------+
QoS-Capability | 0-1 | 0 |
QoS-Resources | 0+ | 0+ |
+-------+-------+
Figure 24: CCR and CCA Commands AVP table
7.3. AAR and AAA Commands AVP Table
The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
defined in this document that may be present in the AAR and AAA
Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4005].
+---------------+
| Command-Code |
|-------+-------+
Attribute Name | AAR | AAA |
-------------------------------+-------+-------+
QoS-Capability | 0-1 | 0 |
QoS-Resources | 0+ | 0+ |
+-------+-------+
Figure 25: AAR and AAA Commands AVP table
8. Acknowledgments
We would like to thank Victor Fajardo, Tseno Tsenov, Robert Hancock, We would like to thank Victor Fajardo, Tseno Tsenov, Robert Hancock,
Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Frank Alfano, Avi Lior, Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Frank Alfano, Avi Lior,
Tolga Asveren, Mike Montemurro, Glen Zorn, Avri Doria, Dong Sun, Tina Tolga Asveren, Mike Montemurro, Glen Zorn, Avri Doria, Dong Sun, Tina
Tsou, Pete McCann, Georgios Karagiannis and Elwyn Davies for their Tsou, Pete McCann, Georgios Karagiannis and Elwyn Davies for their
comments. comments.
9. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This specification requests IANA to assignment of new AVPs from the This specification requests IANA to assignment of new AVPs from the
AVP Code namespace defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588]. Section 4 lists AVP Code namespace defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588]. Section 3 lists
the newly defined AVPs. the newly defined AVPs.
IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the QoS-ObjectType. The IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the QoS-Semantics. The
following values are allocated by this specification. following values are allocated by this specification.
(0): QoS-Desired (0): QoS-Desired
(1): QoS-Available (1): QoS-Available
(2): QoS-Reserved (2): QoS-Reserved
(3): Minimum-QoS (3): Minimum-QoS
(4): QoS-Authorized (4): QoS-Authorized
A specification is required to add a new value to the registry. A A specification is required to add a new value to the registry. A
standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
skipping to change at page 20, line 26 skipping to change at page 14, line 18
following values are allocated by this specification. following values are allocated by this specification.
Value | Name Value | Name
------+------------------------------------------------------------ ------+------------------------------------------------------------
0 | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING 0 | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING
A specification is required to add a new value to the registry. A A specification is required to add a new value to the registry. A
standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
existing values. existing values.
IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the QoS-Flow-Direction. 8. Security Considerations
The following values are allocated by this specification.
Value | Name
------+------------------------------------------------------------
0 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_BOTH
1 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_DL
2 | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_UL
A specification is required to add a new value to the registry. A
standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
existing values.
10. Security Considerations
This document describes the extension of Diameter for conveying This document describes the extension of Diameter for conveying
Quality of Service information. The security considerations of the Quality of Service information. The security considerations of the
Diameter protocol itself have been discussed in RFC 3588 [RFC3588]. Diameter protocol itself have been discussed in RFC 3588 [RFC3588].
Use of the AVPs defined in this document MUST take into consideration Use of the AVPs defined in this document MUST take into consideration
the security issues and requirements of the Diameter Base protocol. the security issues and requirements of the Diameter Base protocol.
11. References 9. References
11.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters] [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]
Korhonen, J. and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service Korhonen, J. and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service
Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework", Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework",
draft-ietf-dime-qos-parameters-00 (work in progress), draft-ietf-dime-qos-parameters-01 (work in progress),
June 2007. September 2007.
[I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules] [I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules]
Congdon, P., "RADIUS Attributes for Filtering and Congdon, P., "RADIUS Attributes for Filtering and
Redirection", draft-ietf-radext-filter-rules-03 (work in Redirection", draft-ietf-radext-filter-rules-03 (work in
progress), July 2007. progress), July 2007.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
[RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. [RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003. Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.
[RFC4005] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, [RFC4005] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton,
"Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, "Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005,
August 2005. August 2005.
[RFC4006] Hakala, H., Mattila, L., Koskinen, J-P., Stura, M., and J. 9.2. Informative References
Loughney, "Diameter Credit-Control Application", RFC 4006,
August 2005.
[RFC4072] Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
August 2005.
11.2. Informative References [I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos]
Zorn, G., "Diameter Quality of Service Application",
draft-ietf-dime-diameter-qos-01 (work in progress),
July 2007.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jouni Korhonen (editor) Jouni Korhonen (editor)
TeliaSonera TeliaSonera
Teollisuuskatu 13 Teollisuuskatu 13
Sonera FIN-00051 Sonera FIN-00051
Finland Finland
Email: jouni.korhonen@teliasonera.com Email: jouni.korhonen@teliasonera.com
skipping to change at page 23, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 36
Germany Germany
Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com
URI: http://www.tschofenig.com URI: http://www.tschofenig.com
Mayutan Arumaithurai Mayutan Arumaithurai
University of Goettingen University of Goettingen
Email: mayutan.arumaithurai@gmail.com Email: mayutan.arumaithurai@gmail.com
Mark Jones
Bridgewater Systems
303 Terry Fox Drive
Ottawa, Ontario K2K 3J1
Canada
Email: mark.jones@bridgewatersystems.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
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