Diameter Maintenance and                                J. Korhonen, Ed.
Extensions (DIME)                                            TeliaSonera
Internet-Draft                                             H. Tschofenig
Intended status: Standards Track                  Nokia Siemens Networks
Expires: January 10, April 1, 2008                                   M. Arumaithurai
                                                University of Goettingen
                                                            July 9,
                                                      September 29, 2007

               Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter and RADIUS
                 draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-01.txt
                 draft-ietf-dime-qos-attributes-02.txt

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

Abstract

   This document extends the QoSFilterRule AVP functionality of the
   Diameter Base protocol and other Diameter applications with respect to their the functionality of the QoS-Filter-Rule
   AVP defined in RFC 4005.  The ability to convey Quality of Service information.  The AVPs defined in this
   document are also
   information is made available for Remote to the Diameter Network Access Server
   Application, the Diameter Credit Control Application and the Diameter
   Extensible Authentication Dial In User Protocol (EAP) Application.  Future
   Diameter applications can easily integrate Quality of Service (RADIUS). support
   in addition to packet filtering.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support . . . . . .  3
     3.1.  Command Codes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     3.2.  Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.3.  Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.4.  Credit-Control-Request (CCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.5.  Credit-Control-Answer (CCA)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.6.  AA-Request (AAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.7.  AA-Answer (AAA)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Diameter QoS Defined AVPs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.1.  QoS-ID  QoS-Capability AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.2.  QoS-Flow-State  QoS-Profile AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.3.  QSPEC  QoS-Resources AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.4.  Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP . . . .  9
     4.4.  QoS-Resources AVP . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.5.  QoSBlob-Group AVP  . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.5.  QoS-Parameter AVP . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.6.  QoS-ID AVP . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.6.  Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11
     4.7.  QoS-Capability AVP  QoS-ObjectType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . 11
     4.8.  QSPEC-Type  QoSBlob AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.  Examples
     4.9.  QoS-Flow-State AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.10. QoS-Flow-Direction AVP . . . . . . . 11
     5.1.  Diameter EAP with . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Semantics of QoS Information Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     5.2.  QoS Authorization . . . . . 12
   6.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     5.3.  Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.4.
     6.1.  Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of EAP with QoS Information  . . . . 14
     5.5. . . . . . . . . 13
     6.2.  Diameter Credit-Control NASREQ with QoS Information . . . . . . . 15
     5.6.  Diameter Server Initiated Credit Re-authorization . . . . 16
     5.7. 14
     6.3.  QoS and Credit-Control as Part of Authentication and Authorization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     6.4.  Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS  . . . . 16
     6.5.  Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information . . . . . . . 17
   6.
   7.  AVP Occurrence Tables  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.1. 18
     7.1.  DER and DEA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.2. 18
     7.2.  CCR and CCA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     6.3. 18
     7.3.  AAR and AAA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   7.  Diameter RADIUS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   8.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 19
   9.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 19
   10. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 21
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 23

1.  Introduction

   This document defines a number of Diameter Quality of Service (QoS)
   related AVPs that can be used with the Diameter Base protocol, and
   the Diameter Credit Control, Control Application, the Diameter EAP Extensible
   Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application and the Diameter NASREQ
   applications Network
   Access Server Application to convey Quality of Service information.
   The Extended-
   QoS-Filter-Rule Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP thereby replaces the QoSFilterRule,
   defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588], and the QoS-Filter-Rule, defined in
   RFC 4005 [RFC4005].

   The AVPs defined in this document are also available for Remote
   Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS).

2.  Terminology

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support

3.1.  Command Codes

   This document re-uses the Diameter Base protocol [RFC3588], and Diameter Credit-Control
   Credit Control [RFC4006], Diameter NASREQ [RFC4072] [RFC4005] and Diameter EAP [RFC4005]
   [RFC4072] application commands.  The following commands are re-used
   to carry QoS related AVPs:

   Command-Name             Abbrev.   Code     Reference

   Diameter-EAP-Request      DER       268      RFC 4072
   Diameter-EAP-Answer       DEA       268      RFC 4072

   Credit-Control-Request    CCR       272      RFC 4006
   Credit-Control-Answer     CCA       272      RFC 4006

   AA-Request                AAR       265      RFC 4005
   AA-Answer                 AAA       265      RFC 4005

                          Figure 1: Command Codes

   When the Re-Auth-Request (RAR), Re-Auth-Answer (RAA), Session-
   Termination-Request (STR), Session-Termination-Answer (STA), Abort-
   Session-Request (ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (ASA), Accounting-Request
   (ACR), and Accounting-Answer (ACA) commands are used together with
   this specification they follow the rules in Diameter NASREQ
   [RFC4005], Diameter EAP [RFC4072], Credit-Control Credit Control [RFC4006] and
   Diameter Base Protocol [RFC3588].  The accounting commands use the
   Application Identifier value of the respective application.

3.2.  Diameter-EAP-Request (DER)

   The Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) command [RFC4072], indicated by the
   Command-Code field set to 268 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
   Flags field, may be sent by the NAS to the Diameter server providing
   network access authentication and authorization services.  At the
   same time as the network access authentication and authorization, the
   NAS MAY request the Diameter server to authorize provisioning of QoS
   resources.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4072] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 2 shows the DER message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <Diameter-EAP-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, REQ, PXY >
                                < Session-Id >
                                { Auth-Application-Id }
                                { Origin-Host }
                                { Origin-Realm }
                                { Destination-Realm }
                                { Auth-Request-Type }

                                [ Destination-Host ]
                                [ User-Name ]

                                [ QoS-Capability ]
                              * [ QoS-Resources ]

                                ...
                              * [ AVP ]

                  Figure 2: Diameter EAP Request Command

3.3.  Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA)

   The Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) message defined in [RFC4072], indicated
   by the Command- Code field set to 268 and 'R' bit cleared in the
   Command Flags field is sent in response to the Diameter-EAP-Request
   message (DER).  If the QoS service is successfully authorized and the
   Diameter server was able to fulfill the QoS Authorization request (if
   needed) then the response MAY include the QoS-Resources AVPs.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4072] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 3 shows the DEA message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <Diameter-EAP-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, PXY >
                               < Session-Id >
                               { Auth-Application-Id }
                               { Auth-Request-Type }
                               { Result-Code }
                               { Origin-Host }
                               { Origin-Realm }

                             * [ QoS-Resources ]

                               [ Session-Timeout ]
                               [ User-Name ]
                               ...
                             * [ AVP ]

                   Figure 3: Diameter EAP Answer Command

3.4.  Credit-Control-Request (CCR)

   The Credit-Control-Request (CCR) command [RFC4006], indicated by the
   Command-Code field set to 272 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
   Flags field, may be sent by the NAS to the Diameter-QoS server to
   request QoS credit authorization for a given QoS provisioning
   request.  In that case the CCR command MAY also carry the QoS-
   Resources AVPs.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4006] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 4 shows the CCR message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <Credit-Control-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, REQ, PXY >
                                  < Session-Id >
                                  { Auth-Application-Id }
                                  { Origin-Host }
                                  { Origin-Realm }
                                  { Destination-Realm }
                                  { Auth-Request-Type }
                                  { Service-Context-Id }
                                  { CC-Request-Type }
                                  { CC-Request-Number }
                                  [ Destination-Host ]
                                  [ User-Name ]

                                  [ QoS-Capability ]
                                * [ QoS-Resources ]

                                  ...
                                * [ AVP ]

                 Figure 4: Credit Control Request Command

3.5.  Credit-Control-Answer (CCA)

   The Credit-Control-Answer (CCA) command [RFC4006], indicated by the
   Command-Code field set to 272 and the 'R' bit set in the Command
   Flags field is sent in response to the CC-Request (CCR) message to
   acknowledge a CC-Request command.  If the Diameter QoS server was
   able to fulfill the QoS request (if needed) then the response MAY
   include the QoS-Resources AVPs.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4006] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 5 shows the CCA message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <Credit-Control-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, PXY >
                                 < Session-Id >
                                 { Result-Code }
                                 { Origin-Host }
                                 { Origin-Realm }
                                 { Auth-Application-Id }
                                 { CC-Request-Type }
                                 { CC-Request-Number }
                                 [ User-Name ]
                                 [ CC-Session-Failover ]
                                 [ CC-Sub-Session-Id ]
                                 [ Acct-Multi-Session-Id ]
                                 [ Origin-State-Id ]
                                 [ Event-Timestamp ]

                               * [ QoS-Resources ]

                                 ...
                               * [ AVP ]

                  Figure 5: Credit Control Answer Command

3.6.  AA-Request (AAR)

   The AA-Request (AAR) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set
   to 265 and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, may be sent by the
   NAS to the Diameter server providing network access configuration
   services.  At the same time as the network access authentication and
   authorization, the NAS MAY request the Diameter server to authorize
   provisioning of QoS resources.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4005] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 6 shows the AAR message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <AA-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, REQ, PXY >
                      < Session-Id >
                      { Auth-Application-Id }
                      { Origin-Host }
                      { Origin-Realm }
                      { Destination-Realm }
                      { Auth-Request-Type }

                      [ QoS-Capability ]
                    * [ QoS-Resources ]

                      [ Destination-Host ]
                      ...
                    * [ AVP ]

                       Figure 6: AA Request Command

3.7.  AA-Answer (AAA)

   The AA-Answer (AAA) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set
   to 265 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is sent in
   response to the AA-Request (AAR) message for confirmation of the
   result of QoS provisioning.  If the QoS service is successfully
   authorized and the Diameter server was able to fulfill the QoS
   provisioning request (if needed) then the response MAY include the
   QoS-Resources AVPs.

   The message format is the same as defined in [RFC4005] with an
   addition of Diameter QoS specific AVPs.  Figure 7 shows the AAA message used
   with the Diameter QoS specific AVPs:

     <AA-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, PXY >
                     < Session-Id >
                     { Auth-Application-Id }
                     { Auth-Request-Type }
                     { Result-Code }
                     { Origin-Host }
                     { Origin-Realm }

                   * [ QoS-Resources ]

                     [ User-Name ]
                     [ Session-Timeout ]
                     ...
                   * [ AVP ]
                        Figure 7: AA Answer Command

4.  Diameter QoS Defined AVPs

   The following table lists the Diameter AVPs used by this document,
   their AVP code values, types, possible flag values, and whether the
   AVP may be encrypted.

                                                    +------------------+
                                                    |  AVP Flag Rules  |
  +-------------------------------------------------|----+---+----+----+
  |                          AVP  Section           |MUST|MAY|SHLD|MUST|
  | Attribute Name           Code Defined Data Type |    |   | NOT| NOT|
  +-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+
  |QoS-Flow-State
  |QoS-Capability            TBD    4.2  Enumerated    4.1  Grouped    |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QSPEC
  |QoS-Profile               TBD    4.3  OctetSTring|    4.2  Unsigned32 |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-ID
  |QoS-Resources             TBD    4.1  Unsigned32    4.3  Grouped    |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule  TBD    4.6    4.4  Grouped    |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-Resources
  |QoSBlob-Group             TBD    4.4    4.5  Grouped    |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-Parameter
  |QoS-ID                    TBD    4.5  Grouped    4.6  Unsigned32 |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-Capability
  |QoS-ObjectType            TBD    4.7  Grouped  Enumerated |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QSPEC-Type
  |QoSBlob                   TBD    4.8  Unsigned32  OctetString|    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-Flow-State            TBD    4.9  Enumerated |    |M,P|    | V  |
  |QoS-Flow-Direction        TBD    4.10 Enumerated |    |M,P|    | V  |
  +-------------------------------------------------+----+---+----+----+

4.1.  QoS-ID  QoS-Capability AVP

   The QoS-ID QoS-Capability AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned32 Grouped and references contains
   a list of supported Quality of Service profiles (and therefore the QSPEC.
   support of respective AVPs).

   QoS-Capability ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
                             1* { QoS-Profile }
                              * [ AVP ]

4.2.  QoS-Flow-State  QoS-Profile AVP

   The QoS-Flow-State QoS-Profile AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated.  It
   gives an indication as to how the flow MUST be treated.  The
   Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule already provides an indicate whether a flow
   is permitted or denied.  This optional AVP provides additional
   information about Unsigned64 and contains
   the treatment.  Currently vendor and a single specifier field.  The 64-bit value in the QoS-
   Profile AVP is
   defined; further values are available via IANA registration. structured as shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0  Pending: 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Vendor                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           Specifier                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Vendor Field:

      32 bits of IANA SMI Network Management Private Enterprise Code.
      The filter rules are not installed but kept pending.
      Subsequent signaling Vendor-ID 0x00000000 is necessary reserved for IANA registered QoS
      profiles.

   Specifier Field:

      32-bit unsigned integer, representing the defined profile value.

   An initial QoS profile is defined with vendor field set to active them. 0x00000000
   and the specifier field set to 0, as described in
   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].  The registry for the QoS profiles is
   created with the same document.

4.3.  QSPEC  QoS-Resources AVP

   The QSPEC QoS-Resources AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString and contains
   Quality of Service parameters.  These parameters are defined in a
   separate document, see [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].

4.4.  QoS-Resources AVP

   The QoS-Resources AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped Grouped and includes
   description of the resources that have been authorized or requested.
   More than one QoS-Resources AVP MAY be included in a single message. Quality of Service resources.

   QoS-Resources ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
                  1*
                  0* [ Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ]
                  1*
                  0* [ QoS-Parameter QoSBlob-Group ]
                     [ QoS-Flow-State ]
                   * [ AVP ]

4.5.  QoS-Parameter AVP

   The QoS-Parameter AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and ties the
   QoS-ID AVP together to the QSPEC AVP.  All parameters followed by the
   QSPEC-Type AVP refer to the same QoS model/profile.

   QoS-Parameter ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
                     { QoS-ID }
                     { QSPEC-Type }
                  1* [ QSPEC ]
                   * [ AVP ]

4.6.

4.4.  Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP

   TheExtended-QoS-Filter-Rule AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped.
   The QoS filter rule associated with the QoS-ID re-uses the RADIUS
   NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP [I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules].  This AVP ties a
   specific filter to a QoS-ID that in turn refers to a specific QoS-
   Parameter.
   QoSBlob-Group.  At least either one of the NAS-Traffic-Rule or the
   QoS-Flow-Direction AVPs SHOULD be included.

   Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
                                { QoS-ID }
                                {
                                [ NAS-Traffic-Rule } ]
                                [ QoS-Flow-Direction ]
                              * [ AVP ]

4.7.  QoS-Capability

4.5.  QoSBlob-Group AVP

   The QoS-Capability QoSBlob-Group AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Grouped and contains
   a list of supported QSPEC-Types and respective AVPs.

   The NAS SHOULD include this AVP from ties the NAS
   QoS-ID AVP together to the Diameter server
   to indicate QoSBlob AVP.  All parameters followed by
   the support for this specification and for QoSBlob-Type AVP refer to the specific same QoS models.

   QoS-Capability model/profile.

   QoSBlob-Group ::= < AVP Header: XXX >
                             1*
                     { QSPEC-Type QoS-ID }
                     { QoS-ObjectType }
                     { QoS-Profile }
                  0* [ QoSBlob ]
                   * [ AVP ]

4.8.  QSPEC-Type

   It is possible to have predefined QoS profiles that contains very
   specific QoS values and refer to it only using a specifically
   assigned QoS-Profile AVP value.  In this case including QoSBlob AVP
   is not needed.

4.6.  QoS-ID AVP

   The QSPEC-Type QoS-ID AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned32 and contains references
   the supported QoS model or QoS profile. QoSBlob.

4.7.  QoS-ObjectType

   The value QoS-ObjectType AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of 0 refers to type Enumerated and
   provides the
   QoS parameters described in [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].  The
   values are taken from semantic for the registry defined in [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec].

5.  Examples

   This section shows a number of signaling flows where QoS negotiation
   and authorization is part content of the conventional NASREQ, EAP or Credit-
   Control applications message exchanges. QoSBlob AVP.

   This document defines the following values:

    (0): QoS-Desired
    (1): QoS-Available
    (2): QoS-Reserved
    (3): Minimum-QoS
    (4): QoS-Authorized

4.8.  QoSBlob AVP

   The QoSBlob AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type OctetString and contains
   Quality of Service parameters.  These signaling flows parameters are
   meant defined in a
   separate document, see [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].

4.9.  QoS-Flow-State AVP

   The QoS-Flow-State AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated.  It
   gives an indication as to how the flow has to be examples only.

5.1.  Diameter EAP with QoS Information

   Figure 8 shows treated.  The
   Extended-QoS-Filter-Rule already provides an indicate whether a simple signaling flow where
   is permitted or denied.  This optional AVP provides additional
   information about the treatment.  Currently, a NAS (Diameter Client)
   announces its QoS awareness single value is
   defined; further values are available via IANA registration.

     Value | Name and capabilities included into the DER
   message Semantic
     ------+------------------------------------------------------------
       0   | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING - The QoS reservation is kept
           | pending. The QoS resources are not installed and as part subsequent
           | QoS signaling is necessary to active them.

4.10.  QoS-Flow-Direction AVP

   The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of the access authentication procedure.  Upon
   completion type Enumerated.  It
   gives an indication of the EAP negotiation, direction the Diameter Server provides a
   pre-provisioned provided QoS profile information
   should be applied to.  The QoS information can be applied to the NAS downlink
   flows or to uplink flows.  The QoS-Flow-Direction AVP may be used in
   conjunction with the final DEA message.

   End                            Diameter                       Diameter
   Host                            Client                         server
    |                                | NAS-Traffic-Rule AVP.  In a case conflicting
   definitions between the QoS-Flow-Direction and the NAS-Traffic-Rule,
   the QoS-Flow-Direction has precedence meaning the filter rules are
   applied only to the flows going to the direction indicated by the
   QoS-Flow-Direction AVP.  In the absence of the QoS-Flow-Direction the
   default treatment is to both directions.  Currently, three values are
   defined; further values are available via IANA registration.

     Value | Name and Semantic
     ------+------------------------------------------------------------
       0   |        (initiate EAP)          |                                |
    |<------------------------------>|                                |
    |                                | Diameter-EAP-Request           |
    |                                | EAP-Payload(EAP Start)         |
    |                                | QoS-Capability                 |
    |                                |------------------------------->|
    |                                |                                |
    |                                |            Diameter-EAP-Answer |
    |                           Result-Code=DIAMETER_MULTI_ROUND_AUTH |
    |                                |    EAP-Payload(EAP Request #1) |
    |                                |<-------------------------------|
    |          EAP Request(Identity) |                                |
    |<-------------------------------|                                |
    :                                :                                :
    :                      <<<more message exchanges>>>               :
    :                                :                                :
    |                                |                                |
    | EAP Response #N                |                                |
    |------------------------------->|                                |
    |                                | Diameter-EAP-Request           |
    |                                | EAP-Payload(EAP Response #N)   |
    |                                |------------------------------->|
    |                                |                                |
    |                                |            Diameter-EAP-Answer |
    |                                |   Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS |
    |                                |       EAP-Payload(EAP Success) |
    |                                |       [EAP-Master-Session-Key] |
    |                                |           (authorization AVPs) |
    |                                |                  QoS-Resources |
    |                                |<-------------------------------|
    |                                |                                |
    |                    EAP Success |                                |
    |<-------------------------------| QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_BOTH - The QoS information in applied to
           | both downlink and uplink flows. This is also the default.
       1   | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_DL - The QoS information in applied to
           | downlink flows only.
       2   |

     Figure 8: Example of a Diameter EAP enhanced with QoS Information

5.2. QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_UL - The QoS Authorization

   Figure 9 shows an example information in applied to
           | uplink flows only.

5.  Semantics of authorization only QoS signaling as part
   of the NASREQ message exchange. Parameters

   The NAS provides the Diameter Server
   with the QoS profile it wishes to use parameters carried in the AAR message. QoS-Resources AVP may appear in
   different messages.  The
   Diameter Server then either authorizes semantic of the proposed QoS profile or
   reject the authorization, and then informs parameters depend on the NAS about
   information provided in the
   authorization result Object Type defined in
   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters].  The Object Type currently lists 5
   values, namely QoS-Desired (0), QoS-Available (1), QoS-Reserved (2),
   Minimum-QoS (3), and QoS-Authorized (4).

   The semantics of the different Object Types are as follows:

  Object Type    Direction   Semantic
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  QoS-Desired     C->S       Please authorize the AAA message.  In indicated QoS
  QoS-Desired     C<-S       NA
  QoS-Available   C->S       Adminission Control at router indicates
                             that this scenario QoS is available. (note 1)
  QoS-Available   C<-S       Indicated QoS is available. (note 2)
  QoS-Reserved    C->S       Used for reporting during accounting.
  QoS-Reserved    C<-S       NA
  Minimum-QoS     C->S       Indicates that the NAS
   does client is not need to include the QoS-Capability AVP interested
                             interested in the AAR message as
   the QoS-Resources AVP implicitly does the same and also the NAS is authorizing a specific QoS profile, that is
                             lower than Min. QoS
  Minimum-QoS     C<-S       The client must not a pre-provisioned one.

       End                                            Diameter
       Host               NAS                          Server
        |                  |                              |
        |                  |                              |
        | provide QoS Request     |                              |
        +----------------->|                              |
        |                  |                              |
        |                  |AA-Request                    |
        |                  |Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_ONLY
        |                  |NASREQ-Payload                |
        |                  |QoS-Resources                 |
        |                  +----------------------------->|
        |                  |                              |
        |                  |                     AA-Answer|
        |                  |       NASREQ-Payload(Success)|
        |                  |                 QoS-Resources|
        |                  |<-----------------------------+
        |  Accept          |                              |
        |<-----------------+                              |
        |                  |                              |
        |                  |                              |
        |                  |                              |

          Figure 9: Example of an Authorization-Only Message Flow

5.3.  Diameter NASREQ with guarantees
                             lower than Min. QoS Information

   Figure 10 shows a similar pre-provisioned
  QoS-Authorized  C->S       NA
  QoS-Authorized  C<-S       Indicated QoS signaling as authorized

  Legend:

    C: Diameter client
    S: Diameter server
    NA: Not applicable to this document;
        no semantic defined in
   Figure 8 but using this specification

  Notes:

   (1) QoS-Available is only useful in relationship with QoS-Desired
       (and optionally with Minimum-QoS).
   (2) QoS-Available is only useful when the NASREQ application instead AAA server performs
       admission control and knows about the resources in the network.

6.  Examples

   This section shows a number of EAP application.

      End                                             Diameter
      Host               NAS                            Server
       |                  |                              |
       |  Start Network   |                              |
       |  Attachment      |                              |
       |<---------------->|                              |
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |AA-Request                    |
       |                  |NASREQ-Payload                |
       |                  |QoS-Capability                |
       |                  +----------------------------->|
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |                     AA-Answer|
       |            Result-Code=DIAMETER_MULTI_ROUND_AUTH|
       |                NASREQ-Payload(NASREQ Request #1)|
       |                  |<-----------------------------+
       |                  |                              |
       | Request          |                              |
       |<-----------------+                              |
       |                  |                              |
       :                  :                              :
       :          <<<more message exchanges>>>           :
       :                  :                              :
       | Response #N      |                              |
       +----------------->|                              |
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |AA-Request                    |
       |                  |NASREQ-Payload ( Response #N )|
       |                  +----------------------------->|
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |                     AA-Answer|
       |                  |  Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|
       |                  |          (authorization AVPs)|
       |                  |                QoS-Resources |
       |                  |<-----------------------------+
       |                  |                              |
       | Success          |                              |
       |<-----------------+                              |
       |                  |                              |

   Figure 10: Example signaling flows where QoS negotiation
   and authorization is part of a the conventional NASREQ, EAP or Credit
   Control applications message exchanges.

6.1.  Diameter NASREQ enhanced EAP with QoS Information

5.4.  Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS

   Figure 11 18 shows a message exchange for simple signaling flow where a Diameter Server initiated NAS (Diameter Client)
   announces its QoS profile re-authorization procedure.  The Diameter Server sends awareness and capabilities included into the NAS a RAR DER
   message requesting re-authorization for an existing
   session and as part of the NAS acknowledges it with a RAA message.  The NAS that
   is aware access authentication procedure.  Upon
   completion of its existing QoS profile and information for the ongoing
   session that EAP exchange, the Diameter Server requested for re-authorization.
   Thus provides a pre-
   provisioned QoS profile with the NAS must initiate re-authorization of QoS-ObjectType in the existing QoS
   profile.  The re-authorization procedure is QoSBlob-Group
   AVP set to "QoS-Authorized", to the same as NAS in Figure 9. the final DEA message.

   End                            Diameter                      Diameter
   Host               NAS                            Server
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |                              |
       :                  :                              :
       :          <<<Initial Messag Exchanges>>>         :
       :                  :                              :
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |                   RA-Request                            Client                         server
    |                                |                  |<-----------------------------+                                |
    |        (initiate EAP)          |                                |                  |RA-Answer
    |<------------------------------>|                                |
    |                  |Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS                                | Diameter-EAP-Request           |                  +----------------------------->|
    |                                | EAP-Payload(EAP Start)         |
    |                                | QoS-Capability                 |
    |                  |AA-Request                                |------------------------------->|
    |                                |                  |NASREQ-Payload                                |
    |                  |Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_ONLY                                |                  |QoS-Capability            Diameter-EAP-Answer |
    |                  +----------------------------->|                           Result-Code=DIAMETER_MULTI_ROUND_AUTH |
    |                                |    EAP-Payload(EAP Request #1) |
    |                     AA-Answer|                                |<-------------------------------|
    |          EAP Request(Identity) |  Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|                                |
    |<-------------------------------|                                |          (authorization AVPs)|
    :                                :                                :
    :                      <<<more message exchanges>>>               :
    :                                :                                :
    |                                |                QoS-Resources                                |
    |                  |<-----------------------------+ EAP Response #N                |                                |
    |------------------------------->|                                |

    Figure 11: Example of a Server-initiated Re-Authorization Procedure

5.5.  Diameter Credit-Control with QoS Information

   In this case the authorization and authentication take place at the
   beginning and then when a new service request comes in the accounting
   is done as per the required QoS.  It's a 3GPP scenario.

                                              Diameter
     End User        Service Element           Server         CC Server
                       (CC Client)
    | Registration                                | AA request/answer(accounting,cc or both)|
        |<----------------->|<------------------>| Diameter-EAP-Request           |
    |        :                                | EAP-Payload(EAP Response #N)   |
    |                                |------------------------------->|
    |        :                                |                                |
    |                                | Service Request            Diameter-EAP-Answer |
    |                                |
        |------------------>|   Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS |
    |                                |       EAP-Payload(EAP Success) | CCR(Initial,Credit-Control AVPs,
    |                                |       [EAP-Master-Session-Key] |     QoS-capability)
    |                                |                  +|---------------------------------------->|           (authorization AVPs) |         CC stream||
    |  CCA(Granted-Units)|                                |                  ||  QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) |  QoS-Resources
    |                                |<-------------------------------|
    |                  +|<----------------------------------------|                                | Service Delivery                                |
    |                    EAP Success |
        |<----------------->| ACR(start,Accounting AVPs)                                |
    |<-------------------------------|                                |         :         |------------------->|+
    |                                |         :                                |                ACA || Accounting stream

    Figure 18: Example of a Diameter EAP enhanced with QoS Information

6.2.  Diameter NASREQ with QoS Information

   Figure 19 shows a similar pre-provisioned QoS signaling as in
   Figure 18 but using the NASREQ application instead of EAP
   application.

      End                                             Diameter
      Host               NAS                            Server
       |                  |                   |<-------------------|+                              |
       |         :  Start Network   |                              |
       |  Attachment      |         :                              |
       |<---------------->|                              |
       |                  |                              | CCR(Update,Used-Units)
       |                  |AA-Request                    |                   |---------------------------------------->|
       |                  |NASREQ-Payload                |
       |  CCA(Granted-Units)|                  |QoS-Capability                |
       |                  +----------------------------->|
       |  QoS-Resources                  |                              |                   |<----------------------------------------|
       |         :                  |                     AA-Answer|
       |            Result-Code=DIAMETER_MULTI_ROUND_AUTH|
       |                NASREQ-Payload(NASREQ Request #1)|
       |         :                  |<-----------------------------+
       |                  |                              |
       | End of Service Request          |                              |
       |<-----------------+                              |
        |------------------>| CCR(Termination, Used-Units)
       |                  |                   |---------------------------------------->|                              |
       :                  :                              :
       :          <<<more message exchanges>>>           :
       :                  :                              :
       | Response #N      |               CCA                              |
       +----------------->|                              |                   |<----------------------------------------|
       |                  | ACR(stop)                              |
       |                  |AA-Request                    |                   |------------------->|
       |                  |NASREQ-Payload ( Response #N )|
       |                  +----------------------------->|
       |                ACA                  |                              |
       |                   |<-------------------|                  |

         Figure 12: Example with first interrogation after user's
                       authorization/authentication

5.6.  Diameter Server Initiated Credit Re-authorization

   This example shows a Diameter Credit Control interaction whereby the
   server initiates a re-authorization exchange.

                     Service Element         Diameter
     End User         (CC Client)             Server         CC Server                     AA-Answer|
       |                  |  Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|
       |                  |          (authorization AVPs)|
       |                  |QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized) |
       |                  |<-----------------------------+
       |
        :                   :                   :                 :
        :          <<<<<< Initial Message Exchanges >>>>>>        :
        :                   :                   :                 :                  |                              |
       | Success          |                              |
       |<-----------------+                              |                      Re-Auth-Request|
       |                  | Auth-Application-ID = CREDIT_CONTROL|                              |                   |Re-Auth-Request-Type = AUTHORIZE_ONLY|

   Figure 19: Example of a Diameter NASREQ enhanced with QoS Information

6.3.  QoS Authorization

   Figure 20 shows an example of authorization only QoS signaling as
   part of the NASREQ message exchange.  The NAS provides the Diameter
   server with the "QoS-Desired" QoS-ObjectType AVP included in the QoS-
   Resources AVP.  The Diameter server then either authorizes the
   indicated QoS or rejects the request and informs the NAS about the
   result.  In this scenario the NAS does not need to include the QoS-
   Capability AVP in the AAR message as the QoS-Resources AVP implicitly
   does the same and also the NAS is authorizing a specific QoS profile,
   not a pre-provisioned one.

       End                                            Diameter
       Host               NAS                          Server
        |                  |                           Session-ID|                              |                   |<------------------------------------+
        |                  |                              |
        |  QoS Request     |                              | Re-Auth-Answer
        +----------------->|                              |
        |                  |                              | Session-ID
        |                  |AA-Request                    |
        |                  |Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_ONLY
        | Result-Code = DIAMETER_LIMITED_SUCCESS                  |NASREQ-Payload                |                   +------------------------------------>|
        |                  |QoS-Resources(QoS-Desired)    |
        |                  +----------------------------->|
        |                  |                              | CCR
        |                  |                     AA-Answer|
        | CC-Request-Type = UPDATE_REQUEST                  |       NASREQ-Payload(Success)|
        |                  | Used-Units QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)|
        |                  |<-----------------------------+
        |  Accept          |                   |-------------------+---------------->|                              |
        |<-----------------+                              |                   CCA(Granted-Units)|
        |                  |       Result-Code = DIAMETER_SUCCESS|                              |
        |                        QoS-Resources|                  |                   |<------------------+-----------------|                              |
        |                  |                              |

         Figure 13: Server-Initiated Credit Re-Authorization

5.7. 20: Example of an Authorization-Only Message Flow

6.4.  Diameter Server Initiated Re-authorization of QoS

   Figure 21 shows a message exchange for a Diameter server initiated
   QoS re-authorization procedure.  The Diameter server sends the NAS a
   RAR message requesting re-authorization for an existing session and Credit-Control as Part
   the NAS acknowledges it with a RAA message.  The NAS is aware of Authentication its
   existing QoS profile and Authorization

   In this example, information for the Credit control is performed along with ongoing session that the
   Authentication/Authorization message.  This
   Diameter server requested for re-authorization.  Thus, the NAS must
   initiate re-authorization of the existing QoS profile.  The re-
   authorization procedure is usually the case same as in
   NAS scenario.

                   Service Element          Diameter Figure 20.

      End User          (CC Client)             server            CC                                             Diameter
      Host               NAS                            Server
       |               (e.g. NAS)               |                    |
      |                   |                    |                    |
      | Service Request   | AA Request (CC AVPs)                    |
      |                   | Credit-Control=CREDIT_AUTHORIZATION     |
      |                   | QoS-Resources      |                    |
      |------------------>|------------------->|                    |
      |                   |                    | CCR(Initial, CC AVPs)
      |                   |                    | QoS-Resources      |
      |                   |                    |------------------->|
      |                   |                    | CCA(Granted-Units) |
      |                   |                    | QoS-Resources      |
      |                   |                    |<-------------------|
      |                   | AA Answer(Granted-Units)                |
      |                   | QoS-Resources                  |                              |
       | Service Delivery  |<-------------------|                  |
      |<----------------->|                              |
       :                  :                              :
       :          <<<Initial Messag Exchanges>>>         :
       :                  :                              :
       |                  |                              | ACR(start,Accounting AVPs)
       |                  |                   |------------------->|+                   RA-Request |
       |                  |<-----------------------------+
       |                ACA || Accounting stream                  |                              |                   |<-------------------|+
       |                  |RA-Answer                     |
       |                  |Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS  |
       |                  +----------------------------->|
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |                              |
       |                  |AA-Request                    |
       |                  |NASREQ-Payload                |
       |                  |Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_ONLY
       |                  |QoS-Resources(QoS-Desired)    |
       | CCR(Update,Used-Units)                  +----------------------------->|
       |                  |                              | QoS-Resources
       | CCR(Update,Used-Units)                  |                   |------------------->| QoS-Resources                     AA-Answer|
       |                  |  Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS|
       |                    |------------------->|                  |          (authorization AVPs)|
       |                  | CCA(Granted-Units) QoS-Resources(QoS-Authorized)|
       |                  |<-----------------------------+
       |                  |                              |

    Figure 21: Example of a Server-initiated Re-Authorization Procedure

6.5.  Diameter Credit Control with QoS Information

   In this case the User is charged as soon as the Service Element (CC
   client) receives the service request.  In this case the client uses
   the "QoS-Desired" QoS-ObjectType parameter in the QoS-Resources      |
      |                   | CCA(Granted-Units) |<-------------------|
      |                   | AVP
   that it sends to the Accounitng server.  The server responds with a
   "QoS-Available" QoS-ObjectType parameter in the QoS-Resources      |                    |
      |                   |<-------------------|                    |
      |                   |                    |                    |
      | AVP
                        Service Element
     End User            (CC Client)           B           CC Server
        |                     |                |                | End of
        |(1) Service Request  |                |                |
      |------------------>| CCR(Termination,Used-Units)
        |-------------------->|                |                |                   |------------------->| CCR(Term.,Used-Units)
        |                     |(2)  CCR (event, DIRECT_DEBITING,|
        |                     |                    |------------------->|     QoS-Resources[QoS-desired]) |
        |                     |-------------------------------->|
        |                     |(3)  CCA (Granted-Units, QoS-    |
        |                     |                CCA |<-------------------|     Resources[QoS-Authorized])  |                   |<-------------------|
        |                     |<--------------------------------|
        |(4) Service Delivery |                | ACR(stop)                |
        |<--------------------|                |                |                   |------------------->|
        |(5) Begin service    |                |                |
        |<------------------------------------>|                |                ACA
        |                     |                |                   |<-------------------|                |
        .                     .                .                .
        .                     .                .                .

    Figure 14: 22: Example with use of the authorization messages for the
                first a One-Time Diameter Credit Control interrogation

6. Charging
                                   Event

7.  AVP Occurrence Tables

6.1.

7.1.  DER and DEA Commands AVP Table

   The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
   defined in this document that may be present in the DER and DEA
   Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4072].

                                        +---------------+
                                        |  Command-Code |
                                        |-------+-------+
         Attribute Name                 |  DER  |  DEA  |
         -------------------------------+-------+-------+
         QoS-Capability                 |  0-1  |   0   |
         QoS-Resources                  |   0+  |   0+  |
                                        +-------+-------+

                 Figure 15: 23: DER and DEA Commands AVP table

6.2.

7.2.  CCR and CCA Commands AVP Table

   The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
   defined in this document that may be present in the CCR and CCA
   Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4006].

                                        +---------------+
                                        |  Command-Code |
                                        |-------+-------+
         Attribute Name                 |  CCR  |  CCA  |
         -------------------------------+-------+-------+
         QoS-Capability                 |  0-1  |   0   |
         QoS-Resources                  |   0+  |   0+  |
                                        +-------+-------+

                 Figure 16: 24: CCR and CCA Commands AVP table

6.3.

7.3.  AAR and AAA Commands AVP Table

   The following table lists the Quality of Service specific AVPs
   defined in this document that may be present in the AAR and AAA
   Commands, as defined in this document and in [RFC4005].

                                        +---------------+
                                        |  Command-Code |
                                        |-------+-------+
         Attribute Name                 |  AAR  |  AAA  |
         -------------------------------+-------+-------+
         QoS-Capability                 |  0-1  |   0   |
         QoS-Resources                  |   0+  |   0+  |
                                        +-------+-------+

                 Figure 17: 25: AAR and AAA Commands AVP table

7.  Diameter RADIUS Interoperability

   [Editor's Note: Text will be provided in a future version of this
   document.]

8.  Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Victor Fajardo Fajardo, Tseno Tsenov, Robert Hancock,
   Jukka Manner, Cornelia Kappler, Xiaoming Fu, Frank Alfano, Avi Lior,
   Tolga Asveren, Mike Montemurro, Glen Zorn, Avri Doria, Dong Sun, Tina
   Tsou, Pete McCann, Georgios Karagiannis and Elwyn Davies for his their
   comments.

9.  IANA Considerations

   Diameter reserves the AVP Codes 0 - 255 for RADIUS functions that are
   implemented in Diameter.  AVPs new to Diameter have code values of
   256 and greater.

   This specification assigns the values TBD-1 requests IANA to TBD-2 assignment of new AVPs from the
   AVP Code namespace defined in RFC 3588 [RFC3588].  See  Section 4 for lists
   the newly defined AVPs.

   This

   IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the QoS-ObjectType.  The
   following values are allocated by this specification.

               (0): QoS-Desired
               (1): QoS-Available
               (2): QoS-Reserved
               (3): Minimum-QoS
               (4): QoS-Authorized

   A specification also specifies is required to add a new value to the use of AVPs in registry.  A
   standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
   existing values.

   IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the 0 - 255
   range, which are defined in 'RADIUS Types', see
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/radius-types.  These QoS-Flow-State.  The
   following values are
   assigned allocated by this specification.

   Value | Name
   ------+------------------------------------------------------------
     0   | QOS_FLOW_STATE_PENDING

   A specification is required to add a new value to the policy in Section 6 of RFC 2865 [RFC2865] and registry.  A
   standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
   existing values.

   IANA is requested to allocate a registry for the QoS-Flow-Direction.
   The following values are
   amended allocated by RFC 3575 [RFC3575]. this specification.

   Value | Name
   ------+------------------------------------------------------------
     0   | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_BOTH
     1   | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_DL
     2   | QOS_FLOW_DIRECTION_UL

   A specification is required to add a new value to the registry.  A
   standards track document is required to depreciate, delete, or modify
   existing values.

10.  Security Considerations

   This document describes the extension of Diameter for conveying
   Quality of Service information.  The security considerations of the
   Diameter protocol itself have been discussed in RFC 3588 [RFC3588].
   Use of the AVPs defined in this document MUST take into consideration
   the security issues and requirements of the Diameter Base protocol.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-dime-qos-parameters]
              Korhonen, J. and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service
              Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework",
              draft-ietf-dime-qos-parameters-00 (work in progress),
              June 2007.

   [I-D.ietf-radext-filter-rules]
              Congdon, P., "RADIUS Attributes for Filtering and
              Redirection", draft-ietf-radext-filter-rules-03 (work in
              progress), July 2007.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3575]  Aboba, B., "IANA Considerations

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for RADIUS (Remote
              Authentication Dial In User Service)", Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 3575,
              July 2003. 2234, November 1997.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [RFC4005]  Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton,
              "Diameter Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005,
              August 2005.

   [RFC4006]  Hakala, H., Mattila, L., Koskinen, J-P., Stura, M., and J.
              Loughney, "Diameter Credit-Control Application", RFC 4006,
              August 2005.

11.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-nsis-qspec]
              Ash, J., "QoS NSLP QSPEC Template",
              draft-ietf-nsis-qspec-17 (work in progress), July 2007.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, June 2000.

   [RFC4072]  Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
              August 2005.

11.2.  Informative References

Authors' Addresses

   Jouni Korhonen (editor)
   TeliaSonera
   Teollisuuskatu 13
   Sonera  FIN-00051
   Finland

   Email: jouni.korhonen@teliasonera.com
   Hannes Tschofenig
   Nokia Siemens Networks
   Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
   Munich, Bavaria  81739
   Germany

   Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com
   URI:   http://www.tschofenig.com

   Mayutan Arumaithurai
   University of Goettingen

   Email: mayutan.arumaithurai@gmail.com

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