draft-ietf-dime-nat-control-02.txt   draft-ietf-dime-nat-control-03.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force F. Brockners Internet Engineering Task Force F. Brockners
Internet-Draft S. Bhandari Internet-Draft S. Bhandari
Intended status: Standards Track Cisco Intended status: Standards Track Cisco
Expires: September 8, 2010 V. Singh Expires: January 13, 2011 V. Singh
Mavenir Systems Mavenir Systems
V. Fajardo V. Fajardo
Telcordia Technologies Telcordia Technologies
March 7, 2010 July 12, 2010
Diameter Network Address and Port Translation Control Application Diameter Network Address and Port Translation Control Application
draft-ietf-dime-nat-control-02 draft-ietf-dime-nat-control-03
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the framework, messages, and procedures for This document describes the framework, messages, and procedures for
the Diameter Network Address and Port Translation Control Application the Diameter Network address and port translation Control Application
(DNCA), allowing for per-endpoint control of large scale NAT/NAPT (DNCA). The DNCA allows per endpoint control of large scale Network
devices, which are put in place to cope with IPv4-address space Address Translators (NATs) and Network Address and Port Translators
completion. The DNCA allows external devices to configure and manage (NAPTs), which are added to cope with IPv4-address space completion.
a NAT device - expanding the existing Diameter-based AAA and policy The DNCA allows external devices to configure and manage a NAT device
control capabilities with a NAT/NAPT control component. These - expanding the existing Diameter-based AAA and policy control
external devices can be network elements in the data plane such as a capabilities with a NAT and NAPT control component. These external
Network Access Server (NAS), or can be more centralized control plane devices can be network elements in the data plane such as a Network
devices such as AAA-servers. DNCA establishes a context to commonly Access Server (NAS), or can be more centralized control plane devices
identify and manage endpoints on a gateway or server, and a large such as AAA-servers. DNCA establishes a context to commonly identify
scale NAPT/NAT device. This includes, for example, the control of and manage endpoints on a gateway or server, and a large scale NAT/
the total number of NAT-bindings allowed or the allocation of a NAPT device. This includes, for example, the control of the total
specific NAT-binding for a particular endpoint. In addition, it number of NAT bindings allowed or the allocation of a specific NAT
allows large scale NAT devices to provide information relevant to binding for a particular endpoint. In addition, it allows large
accounting purposes. scale NAT devices to provide information relevant to accounting
purposes.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Deployment Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Deployment Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Deployment Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Deployment Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2. Diameter NAPT Control Application Overview . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Diameter NAPT Control Application Overview . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. Deployment Scenarios For The Diameter NAPT Control 3.3. Deployment Scenarios For DNCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. DNCA Session Establishment and Management . . . . . . . . . . 11
4. Diameter NAT Control Application Session Establishment and
Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Parties Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. Parties Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Session Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2. Session Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Session Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.3. Session Re-Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.4. Session And Binding Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.4. Session and Binding Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.5. Session Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.5. Session Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6. DNCA Manager/Agent Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.6. DNCA Manager and Agent Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5. Use Of The Diameter Base Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5. Use Of The Diameter Base Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1. Securing Diameter Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.1. Securing Diameter Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2. Accounting Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.2. Accounting Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3. Use Of Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.3. Use Of Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.4. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.4. Routing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.5. Advertising Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.5. Advertising Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6. Diameter NAT Control Application Commands . . . . . . . . . . 20 6. DNCA Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.1. NAT-Control Request (NCR) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.1. NAT-Control Request (NCR) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2. NAT-Control Answer (NCA) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6.2. NAT-Control Answer (NCA) Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7. Diameter NAT Control Application AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7. DNCA AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.2. Additional Result-Code AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7.2. Additional Result-Code AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.2.1. Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7.2.1. Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.2.2. Transient Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.2.2. Transient Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.2.3. Permanent Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.2.3. Permanent Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.3. Reused NASREQ Diameter Application AVPs . . . . . . . . . 25 7.3. Reused NASREQ Diameter Application AVPs . . . . . . . . . 25
7.4. Reused from RFC 4675 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7.4. Reused from RFC 4675 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.5. Reused from Diameter QoS Application . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7.5. Reused from Diameter QoS Application . . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.6. Reused From ETSI ES 283 034, e4 Diameter Application . . . 26 7.6. Reused from ETSI ES 283 034, e4 Diameter Application . . . 26
7.7. Diameter NAT Control Application Defined AVPs . . . . . . 27 7.7. DNCA Defined AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.7.1. NC-Request-Type AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.7.1. NC-Request-Type AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.7.2. NAT-Control-Install AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.7.2. NAT-Control-Install AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.7.3. NAT-Control-Remove AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.7.3. NAT-Control-Remove AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.7.4. NAT-Control-Definition AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.7.4. NAT-Control-Definition AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.7.5. NAT-Internal-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.7.5. NAT-Internal-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7.7.6. NAT-External-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.7.6. NAT-External-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.7.7. Max-NAT-Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.7.7. Max-NAT-Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.7.8. NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.7.8. NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.7.9. Duplicate-Session-Id AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.7.9. Duplicate-Session-Id AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8. Accounting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. Accounting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8.1. NAT Control Accounting Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.1. NAT Control Accounting Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2. NAT Control Accounting AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.2. NAT Control Accounting AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2.1. NAT-Control-Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.2.1. NAT-Control-Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2.2. NAT-Control-Binding-Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.2.2. NAT-Control-Binding-Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2.3. Current-NAT-Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8.2.3. Current-NAT-Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9. AVP Occurrence Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9. AVP Occurrence Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9.1. DNCA AVP Table for NAT control initial and update 9.1. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Initial and Update
requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
9.2. DNCA AVP Table for Session Query request . . . . . . . . . 33 9.2. DNCA AVP Table for Session Query request . . . . . . . . . 33
9.3. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Terminate requests . . . . 33 9.3. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Terminate requests . . . . 33
9.4. DNCA AVP Table For Accounting Message . . . . . . . . . . 34 9.4. DNCA AVP Table for Accounting Message . . . . . . . . . . 34
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10.1. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10.1. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10.2. AVP Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.2. AVP Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.3. AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.3. AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.3.1. Result-Code AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.3.1. Result-Code AVP Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.4. Application IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.4. Application IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
13. Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an 13. Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an
RFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 RFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
skipping to change at page 5, line 11 skipping to change at page 5, line 11
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Internet service providers have started to deploy Network Address Internet service providers have started to deploy Network Address
Translators (NATs) and Network Address and Port Translators (NAPTs) Translators (NATs) and Network Address and Port Translators (NAPTs)
at the edge of their networks to deal with the depletion of available at the edge of their networks to deal with the depletion of available
public IPv4 addresses. This document defines a Diameter application public IPv4 addresses. This document defines a Diameter application
for providers deploying such NATs and NAPT devices. The use of a for providers deploying such NAT and NAPT devices. The use of a
Diameter application allows for simple integration into the existing Diameter application allows for simple integration into the existing
AAA environment of a provider. AAA environment of a provider.
The Diameter NAPT Control Application (DNCA) offers the following The Diameter Network address and port translation Control Application
capabilities: (DNCA) offers the following capabilities:
1. Limit/Define the number of NAPT/NAT-bindings made available to an 1. Limits or defines the number of NAPT/NAT bindings made available
individual subscriber or end point. to an individual subscriber or end point.
2. Support the allocation of specific NAPT/NAT-bindings. Two types 2. Supports the allocation of specific NAPT/NAT bindings. Two types
of specific bindings can be distinguished: of specific bindings can be distinguished:
* Allocation of a pre-defined NAT-binding. Both the internal as * Allocation of a pre-defined NAT binding: Both the internal and
well as the external IP-address/port pair are specified within external IP address and port pair are specified within the
the request. Some deployment cases, such as access to a web- request. In some deployment cases, such as access to a web-
server within a user's home network with IP-address and port, server within a user's home network with IP address and port,
benefit from statically configured bindings. benefit from statically configured bindings.
* Allocation of an external IP-address for a given internal IP- * Allocation of an external IP address for a given internal IP
address. The allocated external IP-address will be reported address: The allocated external IP address is reported back to
back to the requestor. In some deployment scenarios, the the requestor. In some deployment scenarios, the application
application requires immediate knowledge of the allocated requires immediate knowledge of the allocated binding for a
binding for a given internal IP-address but does not control given internal IP address but does not control the allocation
the allocation of the external IP-address (e.g. SIP-proxy of the external IP address; for example, SIP-proxy server
server deployments). deployments.
3. Define the external address-pool(s) to be used for allocating an 3. Defines the external address pool(s) to be used for allocating an
external IP-address. External address-pools can either be pre- external IP address: External address pools can either be pre-
assigned at the NAPT/NAT, or specified within a request. If pre- assigned at the NAPT/NAT device, or specified within a request.
assigned address-pools are used, a request needs to include a If pre-assigned address pools are used, a request needs to
reference to identify the pool. Otherwise, the request will include a reference to identify the pool. Otherwise, the request
contain a description of the IP- address pool(s) to be used (e.g. contains a description of the IP address pool(s) to be used; for
list of IP-subnets). example, list of IP-subnets.
4. Accounting/Reporting: Report established bindings for a 4. Generates reports and accounting records: Reports established
particular user. The collected information is used by accounting bindings for a particular user. The collected information is
systems, for statistical purposes, etc. used by accounting systems for statistical purposes.
5. Query functionality to retrieve details about bindings on demand. 5. Queries and retrieves details about bindings on demand: This
This feature complements the previously mentioned accounting feature complements the previously mentioned accounting
functionality mentioned above (see item 4). The query functionality(see item 4). The query functionality complements
functionality complements alternative information query alternative information query mechanisms, such as SNMP-based
mechanisms such as SNMP-based mechanisms, if available. mechanism, if available.
6. Common identification of a subscriber or endpoint on multiple 6. Identifies a subscriber or endpoint on multiple network devices
network devices such as the NAPT/NAT device, the AAA server, or (NAPT or NAT device, the AAA-server, or the Network Access Server
the Network Access Server (NAS). Endpoint identification is (NAS)): Endpoint identification is facilitated through a Global
facilitated through a Global Endpoint ID. Endpoints are Endpoint ID. Endpoints are identified through a single or a set
identified through a single or a set of classifiers such as IP of classifiers, such as IP address, VLAN identifier, or interface
address, VLAN identifier, or interface identifier which uniquely identifier which uniquely identify the traffic associated with a
identify the traffic associated with a particular global endpoint particular global endpoint
This document is structured as follows: Section 2 lists terminology, This document is structured as follows: Section 2 lists terminology,
while Section 3 provides an introduction to the Diameter NAPT Control while Section 3 provides an introduction to the DNCA and its overall
Application and its overall deployment framework. Sections 4 to 8 deployment framework. Sections 4 to 8 cover the DNCA specifics, with
cover the DNCA specifics, with Section 4 describing session Section 4 describing session management, Section 5 the use of the
management, Section 5 the use of the Diameter base protocol, Section Diameter base protocol, Section 6 new commands, Section 7 AVPs used,
6 new commands, Section 7 the respective AVPs used, and Section 8 and Section 8 accounting aspects. Section 9 presents an AVP
accounting aspects. Section 9 presents an AVP occurance table. IANA occurance table. IANA and security considerations are addressed in
and security considerations are addressed in Sections 10 and 11. Sections 10 and 11.
2. Conventions 2. Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Abbreviations are used in this document: Abbreviations used in this document:
AAA: Authentication, Authorization, Accounting AAA: Authentication, Authorization, Accounting
DNCA: Diameter NAT Control Application DNCA: Diameter Network address and port translation Control
Application
NAPT: Network Address and Port Translation NAPT: Network Address and Port Translation
NAT: Network Address Translation (NAT and NAPT are used in this NAT: Network Address Translation (NAT and NAPT are used in this
document interchangeably) document interchangeably)
NAT-Binding or Binding: Association of two IP-address/port pairs NAT Binding or Binding: Association of two IP address/port pairs
(with one IP-address typically being private and the other one (with one IP address typically being private and the other one
public) to facilitate NAT public) to facilitate NAT
NAS: Network Access Server NAS: Network Access Server
3. Deployment Framework 3. Deployment Framework
3.1. Deployment Scenario 3.1. Deployment Scenario
Figure 1 shows a typical network deployment for internet access. A Figure 1 shows a typical network deployment for Internet access. A
user's IPv4-host gains access to the internet though a Network Access user's IPv4 host gains access to the Internet though a NAS, which
Server (NAS) which facilitates the authentication of the endpoint and facilitates the authentication of the endpoint and configures the
configures the user's connection according to the authorization and user's connection according to the authorization and configuration
configuration data received from the AAA-server upon successful data received from the AAA-server upon successful authentication.
authentication. Public IPv4 addresses are used throughout the Public IPv4 addresses are used throughout the network.
network.
+---------+ +---------+
| | | |
| AAA | | AAA |
| | | |
+---------+ +---------+
| |
| |
| |
| |
+---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
skipping to change at page 7, line 39 skipping to change at page 7, line 38
+---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
<-------------------- Public IPv4 ----------------------> <-------------------- Public IPv4 ---------------------->
Figure 1: Typical network deployment for internet access Figure 1: Typical network deployment for internet access
Figure 2 depicts the deployment scenario when a service provider Figure 2 depicts the deployment scenario when a service provider
introduces a NAT device to increase the efficiency of the global IPv4 introduces a NAT device to increase the efficiency of the global IPv4
address pool utilization. The objective is to provide the customer address pool utilization. The objective is to provide the customer
with connectivity to the public IPv4 Internet. The NAT device with connectivity to the public IPv4 Internet. The NAT device
performs network address (and optionally protocol) translation, performs network address and port and optionally address family
depending on whether the access network uses private IPv4 addresses translation, depending on whether the access network uses private
or public IPv6 addresses, to public IPv4 addresses. If the NAT IPv4 addresses or public IPv6 addresses, to public IPv4 addresses.
device would be put in place without any endpoint awareness, the If the NAT device would be put in place without any endpoint
service offerings of the service provider would be hampered. awareness, the service offerings of the service provider could be
Provisioning static NAT-bindings for particular endpoints, using hampered. Provisioning static NAT bindings for particular endpoints,
different public IP-address pools for different set of endpoints using different public IP address pools for different sets of
(e.g. residential or business customers), as well as reporting on the endpoints; for example, residential or business customers, and
allocated bindings on a per-endpoint basis would be burdensome for a reporting allocated bindings on a per endpoint basis is burdensome
service provider if the NAT device would not be aware of endpoints for a service provider if the NAT device is not aware of endpoints
and allow for per-endpoint control and management which easily and allows per endpoint control and management, which easily
integrates with the already existing per-endpoint management integrates with the already existing per endpoint management
infrastructure of the service provider. infrastructure of the service provider.
+---------+ +---------+
| | | |
| AAA | | AAA |
| | | |
+---------+ +---------+
| |
| |
| |
skipping to change at page 8, line 26 skipping to change at page 8, line 26
| Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet | | Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
<-------- Private IPv4 -----------><--- Public IPv4 ---> <-------- Private IPv4 -----------><--- Public IPv4 --->
<-------- Public IPv6 -----------><--- Public IPv4 ---> <-------- Public IPv6 -----------><--- Public IPv4 --->
Figure 2: Access network deployment with LSN Figure 2: Access network deployment with LSN
3.2. Diameter NAPT Control Application Overview 3.2. Diameter NAPT Control Application Overview
The Diameter NAT Control Application runs between a Diameter NAT The DNCA runs between a DNCA Agent on the NAT device and the DNCA
Control Application Agent on the NAT and the Diameter NAT Control Manager. DNCA allows per endpoint control and management of NAT.
Application Manager. DNCA allows for per-endpoint control and Being based on Diameter, DNCA integrates well with the suite of
management of a NAT. Being based on Diameter, DNCA integrates well Diameter applications deployed for per endpoint authentication,
with the suite of Diameter applications deployed for per-endpoint authorization, accounting, and policy control in service provider
authentication, authorization, accounting, and policy control in networks.
service provider networks.
DNCA offers request and answer commands to control the allowed number DNCA offers:
of NAT-bindings per endpoint, to request the allocation of specific
bindings for an endpoint, to define the address pool to be used for
an endpoint, to provide per endpoint reporting on the allocated NAT-
bindings, as well as to provide for unique identification of an
endpoint on both NAT, AAA-server and NAS, thus simplifying the
correlation of accounting data streams.
DNCA allows for controlling the behavior of a NAT device on a per- o Request and answer commands to control the allowed number of NAT
endpoint basis during initial session establishment as well as at bindings per endpoint , to request the allocation of specific
later stages by providing an update procedure for already established bindings for an endpoint, to define the address pool to be used
sessions. Using DNCA, per-endpoint NAT-binding information can be for an endpoint.
o Provides per endpoint reporting of the allocated NAT bindings.
o Provides unique identification of an endpoint on NAT device, AAA-
server and NAS, to simplify correlation of accounting data
streams.
DNCA allows controlling the behavior of a NAT device on a per
endpoint basis during initial session establishment and at later
stages by providing an update procedure for already established
sessions. Using DNCA, per endpoint NAT binding information can be
retrieved either using accounting mechanisms or through an explicit retrieved either using accounting mechanisms or through an explicit
session query to the NAT. session query to the NAT device.
3.3. Deployment Scenarios For The Diameter NAPT Control Application 3.3. Deployment Scenarios For DNCA
Deployment dependent, the role of the Diameter NAT Control Manager The role of the Diameter NAT Control Manager can be fulfilled by
can be fulfilled by either the NAS or by an external server such as either the NAS or by an external server, such as AAA-server. The two
an AAA-server. The two deployment scenarios are outlined in Figure 3 deployment scenarios are outlined in Figure 3 ("integrated
("integrated deployment") and Figure 4 ("autonomous deployment"). deployment") and Figure 4 ("autonomous deployment").
Within the figures (M) denotes the network element which takes on the Within the figures (M) denotes the network element, which takes on
DNCA manager role. Similarly, (A) identifies the network element the DNCA Manager role. Similarly, (A) identifies the network
which performs the DNCA agent role. element, which performs the DNCA Agent role.
The integrated deployment approach hides the existence of the NAT The integrated deployment approach hides the existence of the NAT
device from external servers such as the AAA-server as much as device from external servers, such as the AAA-server as much as
possible. It is suited for environments where minimal changes to the possible. It is suited for environments where minimal changes to the
existing AAA deployment are desired. The NAS, taking the role of the existing AAA deployment are desired. As DNCA Manager the NAS,
DNCA manager, is in charge of initiating and managing the session to initiates and manages session with the NAT device, exchanges NAT
the NAT device, exchanging NAT specific configuration information as specific configuration information and handles reporting and
well as handling reporting and accounting information. The NAS accounting information. The NAS receives reporting and accounting
receives reporting and accounting information from NAT device. This information from NAT device. With this information, the NAS provides
way the NAS can provide for a single accounting record for the user, a single accounting record for the user. This reduces the usage of
offloading external accounting systems from correlating accounting an external accounting system for correlating the information
information received from multiple sources. received from multiple sources.
An example network attachment for an integrated NAT deployment could An example network attachment for an integrated NAT deployment can be
be described as follows: An endpoint connects to the network, with described as follows: An endpoint connects to the network, with the
the NAS being the point of attachment. After successful NAS being the point of attachment. After successful authentication,
authentication, NAS receives endpoint related authorization data from NAS receives endpoint related authorization data from the AAA-server.
the AAA-server. A portion of the authorization data applies to per- A portion of the authorization data applies to per endpoint
endpoint configuration on the NAS itself, another portion describes configuration on the NAS itself, another portion describes
authorization and configuration information for NAT control aimed at authorization and configuration information for NAT control aimed at
the NAT. NAS will initiate a DNCA session to the NAT and send the the NAT device. NAS will initiate a DNCA session to the NAT device
relevant authorization and configuration information for the and send the relevant authorization and configuration information for
particular endpoint to the NAT device. This could comprise e.g. the particular endpoint to the NAT device. This can comprise NAT
NAT-bindings which have to be pre-established for the endpoint, or bindings, which have to be pre-established for the endpoint, or
management related configuration, such as the maximum number of NAT- management related configuration, such as the maximum number of NAT
bindings allowed for the endpoint or accounting requirements. The bindings allowed for the endpoint or accounting requirements. The
NAT device will send its per-endpoint accounting information to the NAT device sends its per endpoint accounting information to the NAS,
NAS which aggregates the accounting information received form the NAT which aggregates the accounting information received form the NAT
with its local accounting information for the endpoint into a single device with its local accounting information for the endpoint into a
accounting stream towards the AAA-server. single accounting stream towards the AAA-server.
+---------+ +---------+
| | | |
| AAA | | AAA |
| | | |
+---------+ +---------+
| |
| |
| |
+--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
skipping to change at page 10, line 25 skipping to change at page 10, line 25
| Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet | | Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
<-------- Public IPv6 ----------><--- Public IPv4 ----> <-------- Public IPv6 ----------><--- Public IPv4 ---->
<-------- Private IPv4 ----------><--- Public IPv4 ----> <-------- Private IPv4 ----------><--- Public IPv4 ---->
Figure 3: LSN Control deployment: Integrated deployment Figure 3: LSN Control deployment: Integrated deployment
The autonomous deployment approach decouples user management on NAS The autonomous deployment approach decouples user management on NAS
and NAT device. The AAA system performing the role of the DNCA and NAT device. The AAA system performing the role of the DNCA
manager manages the connection to the NAT device, controls the per- Manager manages the connection to the NAT device, controls the per
endpoint configuration, and also receives accounting and reporting endpoint configuration, and also receives accounting and reporting
information from the NAT device. Different from the integrated information from the NAT device. Different from the integrated
deployment scenario, the autonomous deployment scenario does not deployment scenario, the autonomous deployment scenario does not
"hide" the existence of the NAT device from the AAA infrastructure. "hide" the existence of the NAT device from the AAA infrastructure.
Here two accounting streams are received by the AAA-server for one Here two accounting streams are received by the AAA-server for one
particular endpoint, one from the NAS, and one from the NAT device. particular endpoint, one from the NAS, and one from the NAT device.
+---------+ +---------+
| (M) | | (M) |
| AAA | | AAA |
| | | |
skipping to change at page 11, line 5 skipping to change at page 11, line 5
+--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
| IPv4 | | | | (A) | | IPv4 | | IPv4 | | | | (A) | | IPv4 |
| Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet | | Host |----| NAS |----| NAT |----| Internet |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+ +--------+ +---------+ +---------+ +----------+
<-------- Public IPv6 ----------><---- Public IPv4 ---> <-------- Public IPv6 ----------><---- Public IPv4 --->
<-------- Private IPv4 ----------><---- Public IPv4 ---> <-------- Private IPv4 ----------><---- Public IPv4 --->
Figure 4: LSN Control deployment: Autonomous deployment Figure 4: LSN Control deployment: Autonomous deployment
4. Diameter NAT Control Application Session Establishment and 4. DNCA Session Establishment and Management
Management
Note that this section forward references some of the commands and Note that this section forward references some of the commands and
AVPs defined for the DNCA. Please refer to Section 6 and Section 7 AVPs defined for the DNCA. Please refer to Section 6 and Section 7
for details. for details.
4.1. Parties Involved 4.1. Parties Involved
Authorization and control models supported by this application Authorization and control models supported by this application
include the following parties: include the following parties:
o Diameter NAT Control Application (DNCA) agent: The DNCA agent is o DNCA Agent: The DNCA Agent is part of the Large Scale NAT (LSN)
part of the Large scale NAT (NAT) device device
o Diameter NAT Control Application (DNCA) manager o DNCA Manager
The NAT control requesting entity is always the DNCA manager. The NAT control requesting entity is always the DNCA Manager. The
Sessions will always be initiated, updated, or terminated by the DNCA DNCA Manager always initiates, updates, or terminates the sessions.
manager. This mode of operation is sometimes also referred to as This mode of operation is sometimes also referred to as "push mode".
"push mode".
DNCA manager can be NAS or AAA Server. DNCA manager will initiate a The DNCA Manager can be NAS or AAA-server. The DNCA Manager
session with DNCA agent when it learns about the subscriber. DNCA initiates a session with the DNCA Agent when it learns about the
manager may learn about a subscriber when it receives authentication, subscriber. The DNCA Manager may learn about a subscriber when it
authorization or accounting request for that subscriber or by some receives authentication, authorization, or accounting request for
other means such as on the box configuration to identify subscriber that subscriber or by some other means, such as on the box
w.r.t IP packets. configuration to identify a subscriber with respect to his IP
packets.
4.2. Session Establishment 4.2. Session Establishment
The DNCA manager establishes a session to the DNCA agent to control The DNCA Manager establishes a session with the DNCA Agent to control
the behavior of the NAT device. During session establishment, the the behavior of the NAT device. During session establishment, the
DNCA manager will pass along configuration information to the DNCA DNCA Manager passes along configuration information to the DNCA
agent. Session configuration information could for example comprise Agent. The session configuration information comprises the maximum
the maximum number of bindings allowed for the endpoint associated number of bindings allowed for the endpoint associated with this
with this session, a set of pre-defined NAT-bindings to be session, a set of pre-defined NAT bindings to be established for this
established for this endpoint, or a description of the address pool, endpoint, or a description of the address pool, external addresses to
external addresses should be allocated from. be allocated from.
The DNCA manager initiates the Diameter NAT Control session to the The DNCA Manager initiates the Diameter NAT Control session to the
DNCA agent. The DNCA manager generates a NAT-Control Request (NCR) DNCA Agent. The DNCA Manager generates a NAT-Control Request (NCR)
message to the DNCA agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to message to the DNCA Agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to
INITIAL_REQUEST. On receipt of the NCR the DNCA agent will setup a INITIAL_REQUEST. On receipt of NCR the DNCA Agent sets up a new
new session for the endpoint associated with the endpoint session for the endpoint associated with the endpoint classifier(s)
classifier(s) contained in the NCR. The DNCA agent notifies the DNCA contained in the NCR. The DNCA Agent notifies the DNCA Manager about
manager about successful session setup using a NAT-Control Answer successful session setup using a NAT-Control Answer (NCA) message
(NCA) message with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 5 with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 5 shows the
shows the protocol interaction between the DNCA manager and the DNCA protocol interaction between the DNCA Manager and the DNCA Agent.
agent.
The initial NAT-Control-Request can contain configuration information The initial NAT-Control-Request may contain configuration information
for the session which specifies the behavior of the NAT for the for the session, which specifies the behavior of the NAT device for
session. Configuration information which can be included comprises: the session. The configuration information, which may be included,
comprises:
o A list of NAT-bindings which should be pre-allocated for the o A list of NAT bindings, which should be pre-allocated for the
session (e.g. in case a subscriber requires a fixed external IP- session; for example, in case a subscriber requires a fixed
address/port pair for one of his applications). external IP- address/port pair for one of the applications.
o The maximum number of NAT bindings allowed for an endpoint. o The maximum number of NAT bindings allowed for an endpoint.
o A description of the external address pool(s) to be used for the o A description of the external address pool(s) to be used for the
session. session.
o A reference to a predefined binding rule on DNCA agent that will o A reference to a predefined binding rule on the DNCA Agent, which
be applied to the session. Such a predefined binding rule on DNCA is applied to the session. Such a predefined binding rule on the
agent may contain, for example, the name of the IP-address pool DNCA Agent may contain, for example, the name of the IP address
that external IP-addresses should be allocated from, maximum pool that external IP addresses should be allocated from, maximum
number of bindings permitted for the endpoint etc. number of bindings permitted for the endpoint etc.
In certain cases, the DNCA agent may not be able to perform the tasks In certain cases, the DNCA Agent may not be able to perform the tasks
requested within the NCR. These include the following: requested within the NCR. These include the following:
o If a DNCA agent receives a NCR from a DNCA manager with NC- o If a DNCA Agent receives a NCR from a DNCA Manager with NC-
Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST that identifies an already Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST that identifies an already
existing session (i.e. DNCA manager and endpoint identifier match existing session; that is, DNCA Manager and endpoint identifier
an already existing session), the DNCA agent will return NCA with match an already existing session, the DNCA Agent returns NCA with
Result-Code set to SESSION_EXISTS, and provides Session-Id of the Result-Code set to SESSION_EXISTS, and provides the Session-Id of
existing session in Duplicate-Session-Id AVP. the existing session in Duplicate-Session-Id AVP.
o If a DNCA agent receives an NCR from a DNCA manager with NC- o If a DNCA Agent receives an NCR from a DNCA Manager with NC-
Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST that matches more than one Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST that matches more than one
of the already existing sessions (i.e. DNCA manager and endpoint of the already existing sessions; that is, DNCA Manager and
identifier match already existing sessions), the DNCA agent will endpoint identifier match already existing sessions, the DNCA
return a NCA with Result-Code set to Insufficient-Classifiers. In Agent returns a NCA with Result-Code set to Insufficient-
case a DNCA manager receives a NCA that reports Insufficient- Classifiers. In case a DNCA Manager receives NCA that reports
Classifiers, it may choose to retry establishing a new session Insufficient-Classifiers, it may choose to retry establishing a
using additional/more specific classifiers. new session using additional or more specific classifiers.
o If the NCR contains a binding rule not defined on the NAT, the o If the NCR contains a binding rule not defined on the NAT device,
DNCA agent will return a NCA with Result-Code AVP set to the DNCA Agent returns NCA with Result-Code AVP set to
UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE. UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE.
o In case the DNCA agent is unable to establish all of the bindings o In case the DNCA Agent is unable to establish all of the bindings
requested in the NCR, it will return a NCA with Result-Code set to requested in the NCR, it will return a NCA with Result-Code set to
BINDING_FAILURE. The DNCA agent (i.e. NAT) treats a NCR as an BINDING_FAILURE. The DNCA Agent, that is NAT device, treats a NCR
atomic operation; hence none of the requested bindings will be as an atomic operation; hence none of the requested bindings will
established by NAT. Either all requested actions within a NCR are be established by the NAT device. Either all requested actions
completed successfully, or the entire request fails. within a NCR are completed successfully, or the entire request
fails.
o If DNCA agent does not have sufficient resources to process a o If DNCA Agent does not have sufficient resources to process a
request, it will return NCA with Result-Code set to request, it returns NCA with Result-Code set to RESOURCE_FAILURE.
RESOURCE_FAILURE.
o In case Max-NAT-Binding and Nat-Control-Definition are included in o In case Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control-Definition are included in
the NCR along with a reference to a binding rule (i.e. a the NCR along with a reference to a binding rule; that is, a
predefined template on NAT) and the values in Max-NAT-Binding and predefined template on NAT device, and the values in Max-NAT-
NAT-Control-Definition contradict those specified in the pre- Binding and NAT-Control-Definition contradict those specified in
defined binding rule, Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control-Definition the pre-defined binding rule, Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control-
override the values specified in the binding rule. Definition override the values specified in the binding rule.
DNCA Manager DNCA Agent DNCA Manager DNCA Agent
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
Trigger | Trigger |
| | | |
| NCR | | NCR |
|------------------------------------------>| |------------------------------------------>|
| (INITIAL_REQUEST, endpoint classifier, | | (INITIAL_REQUEST, endpoint classifier, |
skipping to change at page 13, line 44 skipping to change at page 13, line 42
| NCA | | NCA |
|<------------------------------------------| |<------------------------------------------|
| (result code) | | (result code) |
| | | |
| | | |
Figure 5: Initial NAT Control request and session establishment Figure 5: Initial NAT Control request and session establishment
4.3. Session Re-Authorization 4.3. Session Re-Authorization
Session re-authorization is performed if the DNCA manager desires to Session re-authorization is performed if the DNCA Manager desires to
change the behavior of the NAT for an existing session. Re- change the behavior of the NAT device for an existing session. Re-
authorization could be used, for example, to change the number of authorization could be used, for example, to change the number of
allowed bindings for a particular session, or establish or remove a allowed bindings for a particular session, or establish or remove a
pre-defined binding. pre-defined binding.
The DNCA manager generates a NAT-Control Request (NCR) message to the The DNCA Manager generates a NC message to the DNCA Agent with NC-
DNCA agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to UPDATE_REQUEST upon Request-Type AVP set to UPDATE_REQUEST upon receiving a trigger
receiving a trigger signal. In case the session is updated signal. In case the session is updated successfully, the DNCA Agent
successfully, the DNCA agent notifies the DNCA manager about notifies the DNCA Manager about successful session update using a
successful session update using a NAT-Control Answer (NCA) message NAT-Control Answer (NCA) message with Result-Code set to
with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 6 shows the DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 6 shows the protocol interaction between
protocol interaction between the DNCA manager and the DNCA agent. the DNCA Manager and the DNCA Agent.
In certain cases, the DNCA agent may not be able to perform the tasks In certain cases, the DNCA Agent may not be able to perfborm the
requested within the NCR. These include the following: tasks requested within the NCR. These include the following:
o If DNCA agent receives a NCR update/query request for non-existent o If DNCA Agent receives a NCR update or query request for a non-
session it will set error code in answer, to existent session, it sets Result-Code in the answer to
DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID. DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID.
o If the NCR contains a binding rule not defined on the NAT, the o If the NCR contains a binding rule not defined on the NAT device,
DNCA agent will return a NCA with Result-Code AVP set to the DNCA Agent returns NCA with Result-Code AVP set to
UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE. UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE.
o If the DNCA agent cannot establish the requested binding because o If the DNCA Agent cannot establish the requested binding because
the maximum number of allowed bindings has been reached for the the maximum number of allowed bindings has been reached for the
Endpoint Classifier, it will return NCA with Result-Code AVP set Endpoint Classifier, it returns NCA with Result-Code AVP set to
to MAXIMUM_BINDINGS_REACHED_FOR_ENDPOINT. MAXIMUM_BINDINGS_REACHED_FOR_ENDPOINT.
o In case the DNCA agent cannot establish some or all of the o If the DNCA Agent cannot establish some or all of the bindings
bindings requested in a NCR, but has not yet reached the maximum requested in a NCR, but has not yet reached the maximum number of
number of allowed bindings for the subscriber, it will return a allowed bindings for the subscriber, it returns a NCA with Result-
NCA with Result-Code set to BINDING_FAILURE. The DNCA agent (i.e. Code set to BINDING_FAILURE. The DNCA Agent (i.e., NAT device)
NAT) treats a NCR as an atomic operation; hence none of the treats a NCR as an atomic operation. Hence none of the requested
requested bindings will be established by NAT. Either all bindings will be established by NAT device. Either all requested
requested actions within a NCR are completed successfully, or the actions within a NCR are either successful or failed completely..
entire request fails.
o If DNCA agent does not have sufficient resources to process a o If DNCA Agent does not have sufficient resources to process a
request, it will return a NCA with Result-Code set to request, it returns NCA with Result-Code set to RESOURCE_FAILURE.
RESOURCE_FAILURE.
o If a NCR redefines the maximum number of NAT bindings allowed for o If a NCR redefines the maximum number of NAT bindings allowed for
the endpoint, the new value will override any previously defined the endpoint, the new value will override any previously defined
limit on NAT-bindings. It depends on the implementation of the limit on NAT bindings. It depends on the implementation of the
NAT how NAT would cope with a case where the new value is lower NAT device on how the NAT device copes with a case where the new
than the actual number of allocated bindings. Typically the NAT value is lower than the actual number of allocated bindings.
would refrain from enforcing the new limit immediately (i.e. Typically the NAT device refrains from enforcing the new limit
actively remove bindings) but rather disallow the establishment of immediately; that is, actively remove bindings, but rather
new bindings until the current number of bindings is lower than disallow the establishment of new bindings until the current
the newly established maximum number of allowed bindings. number of bindings is lower than the newly established maximum
number of allowed bindings.
o If a NCR specifies a new binding rule, predefined on the DNCA o If a NCR specifies a new binding rule, predefined on the DNCA
agent, the binding rule will override any previously defined rules Agent, the binding rule overrides any previously defined rules for
for the session. the session.
o In case Max-NAT-Binding and Nat-Control-Definition AVPs are o If Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control-Definition AVPs are included in
included in the NCR along with a reference to a binding rule (i.e. the NCR along with a reference to a binding rule (a predefined
a predefined template on NAT) and the values in Max-NAT-Binding template on NAT device) and the values in Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-
and Nat-Control-Definition AVPs contradict those specified in the Control-Definition AVPs contradict those specified in the pre-
pre-defined binding rule, Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control- defined binding rule, Max-NAT-Binding and NAT-Control-Definition
Definition AVPs override the values specified in the binding rule. AVPs override the values specified in the binding rule.
DNCA Manager DNCA Agent DNCA Manager DNCA Agent
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
Change of session | Change of session |
attributes | attributes |
| | | |
| NCR | | NCR |
|------------------------------------------>| |------------------------------------------>|
skipping to change at page 15, line 36 skipping to change at page 15, line 33
| | | |
| | | |
| NCA | | NCA |
|<------------------------------------------| |<------------------------------------------|
| (result code) | | (result code) |
| | | |
| | | |
Figure 6: NAT Control request for session update Figure 6: NAT Control request for session update
4.4. Session And Binding Query 4.4. Session and Binding Query
Session query can be used by the DNCA manager to either retrieve Session query can be used by the DNCA Manager to either retrieve
information on the current bindings for a particular session at the information on the current bindings for a particular session at the
NAT or discover the session identifier for a particular external IP- NAT device or discover the session identifier for a particular
address/port pair. external IP address/port pair.
The DNCA manager initiates a session query by sending a NAT-Control The DNCA Manager initiates a session query by sending a NCR message
Request (NCR) message to the DNCA agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to the DNCA Agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to QUERY_REQUEST.
to QUERY_REQUEST. Figure 7 shows the protocol interaction between Figure 7 shows the protocol interaction between the DNCA Manager and
the DNCA manager and the DNCA agent. the DNCA Agent.
Two types of query requests exist. The first type of query request Two types of query requests exist. The first type of query request
uses the session ID as input parameter to the query. It is to allow uses the session ID as input parameter to the query. It is to allow
the DNCA manager retrieve the current set of bindings for a specific the DNCA Manager retrieve the current set of bindings for a specific
session. The second type of query request is used in to retrieve the session. The second type of query request is used to retrieve the
session identifiers, along with the associated bindings, matching a session identifiers, along with the associated bindings, matching a
criteria. This enables the DNCA manager to find out which sessions criteria. This enables the DNCA Manager to find the sessions, which
utilize a specific external IP address. utilize a specific external IP address.
1. Request a list of currently allocated NAT-bindings for a 1. Request a list of currently allocated NAT bindings for a
particular session: The DNCA agent will, on receipt of the NCR, particular session: The DNCA Agent on receiving NCR, looks up
lookup the session information for the session id contained in session information for the session ID contained in the NCR, and
the NCR, and will report all currently active NAT-bindings for reports all currently active NAT bindings for the session using
the session using a NAT-Control Answer (NCA) message with Result- NCA message with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. In this
Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. In this case the NCR MUST NOT case the NCR MUST NOT contain a NAT-Control-Definition AVP. Each
contain a NAT-Control-Definition AVP. Each NAT-Binding will be NAT binding is reported in a NAT-Control-Definition AVP. In case
reported in a NAT-Control-Definition AVP. In case the session id the session ID is unknown, the DNCA Agent returns NCA with
is unknown to the DNCA agent a DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID error Result-Code set to DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID.
is returned.
2. Retrieve session ids and internal IP-address/port pairs for one 2. Retrieve session IDs and internal IP address/port pairs for one
or multiple external IP-address/port pairs: If the DNCA manager or multiple external IP address/port pairs: If the DNCA Manager
wishes to retrieve the session id(s) for one or multiple external wishes to retrieve the session ID(s) for one or multiple external
IP-address/port pairs, it MUST include the external IP-address/ IP address/port pairs, it MUST include the external IP address/
port pair(s) as part of the NAT-Control-Definition AVP of the port pair(s) as part of the NAT-Control-Definition AVP of the
NCR. The session id used within the NCR is not meaningful for NCR. The session ID used within the NCR is not meaningful for
this type of a query. The DNCA agent will report the NAT- this type of a query. The DNCA Agent reports the NAT bindings
bindings and associated session ids corresponding to the external and associated session IDs corresponding to the external IP
IP-address/port pairs in a NAT-Control Answer (NCA) message with address/port pairs in a NCA message with Result-Code set to
Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS and the same session id as DIAMETER_SUCCESS with the same session ID, which is used in NCR.
the one used in the NCR. In case an external IP-address/port In case an external IP address/port pair has no associated
pair has no associated existing NAT-binding, the NAT-Control- existing NAT binding, the NAT-Control-Definition AVP contained in
Definition AVP contained in the reply just contains the NAT- the reply just contains the NAT-External-Address AVP.
External-Address AVP.
DNCA Manager DNCA Agent DNCA Manager DNCA Agent
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
DNCA Session Established | DNCA Session Established |
| | | |
| NCR | | NCR |
|------------------------------------------>| |------------------------------------------>|
| (QUERY_REQUEST) | | (QUERY_REQUEST) |
skipping to change at page 17, line 30 skipping to change at page 17, line 7
| NCA | | NCA |
|<------------------------------------------| |<------------------------------------------|
| (result code) | | (result code) |
| | | |
| | | |
Figure 7: Session Query Figure 7: Session Query
4.5. Session Termination 4.5. Session Termination
The DNCA manager generates a NAT-Control Request (NCR) message to the The DNCA Manager generates a NAT-Control Request (NCR) message to the
DNCA agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to TERMINATE_REQUEST upon DNCA Agent with NC-Request-Type AVP set to TERMINATE_REQUEST upon
receiving a trigger signal. The DNCA agent sends accounting stop receiving a trigger signal. The DNCA Agent sends accounting stop
record reporting all the bindings and notifies the DNCA manager about record reporting all the bindings and notifies the DNCA Manager about
successful session termination using a NAT-Control Answer (NCA) successful session termination using a NAT-Control Answer (NCA)
message with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 8 shows the message with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_SUCCESS. Figure 8 shows the
protocol interaction between the DNCA manager and the DNCA agent. protocol interaction between the DNCA Manager and the DNCA Agent.
If a DNCA agent receives a NCR from a DNCA manager with NC-Request- If a DNCA Agent receives a NCR from a DNCA Manager with NC-Request-
Type AVP set to TERMINATE_REQUEST and fails to find a matching Type AVP set to TERMINATE_REQUEST and fails to find a matching
session, the DNCA agent returns DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID error. session, the DNCA Agent returns NCA with Result-Code set to
DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID.
DNCA Manager DNCA Agent DNCA Manager DNCA Agent
| | | |
| | | |
Trigger | Trigger |
| | | |
| NCR | | NCR |
|------------------------------------------->| |------------------------------------------->|
| (TERMINATE_REQUEST, session id) | | (TERMINATE_REQUEST, session id) |
| | | |
| | | |
skipping to change at page 18, line 35 skipping to change at page 18, line 5
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| NCA | | NCA |
|<-------------------------------------------| |<-------------------------------------------|
| (result code) | | (result code) |
| | | |
Figure 8: Terminate NAT Control session Figure 8: Terminate NAT Control session
4.6. DNCA Manager/Agent Failures 4.6. DNCA Manager and Agent Failures
This document does not cover details in case DNCA manager and DNCA This document does not cover details in case DNCA Manager and DNCA
agent go out of sync, which could happen for example due to DNCA Agent are out of sync. This happens when the DNCA Manager or DNCA
manager or DNCA agent restart, (temporary) loss of network Agent restart, (temporary) loss of network connectivity etc. The
connectivity etc. DNCA application will rely on DNCA Manager and DNCA relies on DNCA Manager and DNCA Agent to have builtin redundancy
DNCA Agent to have builtin redundancy support to recover state in support to recover state in case of failure.
case of failure.
Example failure cases include the following: Example failure cases include the following:
o The DNCA manager loses session state (e.g. due to a restart). In o The DNCA Manager loses session state (e.g. due to a restart). In
this case, this case,
* the DNCA agent may receive a NCR with NC-Request-Type AVP set * The DNCA Agent may receive a NCR with NC-Request-Type AVP set
to INITIAL_REQUEST that matches an existing session of DNCA to INITIAL_REQUEST that matches an existing session of DNCA
agent. The DNCA agent will return an error that contains Agent. The DNCA Agent returns an error that contains
Duplicate-Session-Id AVP to report Session-Id of existing Duplicate-Session-Id AVP to report the Session-ID of existing
session. The DNCA manager may then send an explicit session. The DNCA Manager may send an explicit
TERMINATE_REQUEST for the older session that was lost. TERMINATE_REQUEST for the older session, which was lost.
* the DNCA manager may receive accounting records for a session * The DNCA Manager may receive accounting records for a session
that does not exist. The DNCA manager will send an accounting that does not exist. The DNCA Manager sends an accounting
answer with error-code set to DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID. On answer with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID. On
receipt of which the DNCA agent clears the session and removes receiving this, the DNCA Agent clears the session and removes
the associated session state. the associated session state.
o The DNCA agent loses session state. In such a case, the DNCA o The DNCA Agent loses session state. In such a case, the DNCA
agent could receive a NCR with NC-Request-Type AVP set to Agent may receive a NCR with NC-Request-Type AVP set to
UPDATE_REQUEST for a non-existent session. The DNCA agent will UPDATE_REQUEST for a non-existent session. The DNCA Agent returns
return NCA with error code set to DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID. NCA with Result-Code set to DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_SESSION_ID.
State recovery procedures of the DNCA agent will be covered in a
future version of this document.
o The DNCA manager is unreachable (as e.g. detected by Diameter o The DNCA Manager is unreachable, for example detected by Diameter
watchdog) or down and accounting requests from the DNCA agent fail watchdog, or down and accounting request from the DNCA Agent fails
to get a response. The mechanism to ensure that a DNCA manager no to get a response. The mechanism to ensure that a DNCA Manager no
longer has associated state for a session being cleared at the longer has associated state for a session being cleared by a DNCA
DNCA agent is beyond the scope of this document. Agent is beyond the scope of this document.
o The DNCA agent is unreachable or down and NCR requests fail to get o The DNCA Agent is unreachable or down and NCR requests fail to get
a response. Handling of this case depends on the actual service a response. Handling of this case depends on the actual service
offering of the service provider. The service provider could, for offering of the service provider. The service provider can choose
example, choose to terminate the access session to the endpoint. to terminate the access session to the endpoint.
5. Use Of The Diameter Base Protocol 5. Use Of The Diameter Base Protocol
The Diameter Base Protocol defined by [RFC3588] shall apply, with the The Diameter Base Protocol defined by [RFC3588] applies with the
clarifications listed in the present specification. clarifications listed in the present specification.
5.1. Securing Diameter Messages 5.1. Securing Diameter Messages
For secure transport of Diameter messages, IPSec MAY be used. For secure transport of Diameter messages, IPSec MAY be used.
The DNCA agent MAY verify the identity of the DNCA Manager during the The DNCA Agent MAY verify the identity of the DNCA Manager during the
Capabilities Exchange Request procedure. Capabilities Exchange Request procedure.
The DNCA agent MAY verify if the DNCA Manager that issues a NCR The DNCA Agent MAY verify if the DNCA Manager that issues a NCR
command is allowed to do so, based on: command is allowed and it is based on:
o The Identity of the DNCA Manager o The identity of the DNCA Manager
o The type of NCR Command
o The Type of NCR Command
o The content of the NCR Command o The content of the NCR Command
o Any combination of the above o Any combination of the above
5.2. Accounting Functionality 5.2. Accounting Functionality
Accounting functionality (Accounting Session State Machine, related Accounting functionality (accounting session state machine, related
command codes and AVPs) is defined in Section 8 below. command codes and AVPs) is defined in Section 8 below.
5.3. Use Of Sessions 5.3. Use Of Sessions
Each DNCA session MUST have a globally unique Session-Id as defined Each DNCA session MUST have a globally unique Session-ID as defined
in [RFC3588], which MUST NOT be changed during the lifetime of a DNCA in [RFC3588], which MUST NOT be changed during the lifetime of a DNCA
session. The Diameter Session-Id serves as the global endpoint session. The Diameter Session-ID serves as the global endpoint
identifier. The DNCA agent and DNCA manager maintain state identifier. The DNCA Agent and DNCA Manager maintain state
associated with the Session-Id. This globally unique Session-Id is associated with the Session-ID. This globally unique Session-ID is
used for updating, accounting for and terminating the session. DNCA used for updating, accounting, and terminating the session. The DNCA
session MUST NOT have more than one outstanding request at any given session MUST NOT have more than one outstanding request at any given
instant. The DNCA agent sends an Abort-Session-Request as defined in instant. The DNCA Agent sends an Abort-Session-Request as defined in
[RFC3588] if it is unable to maintain sessions due to resource [RFC3588] if it is unable to maintain sessions due to resource
limitation. limitation.
5.4. Routing Considerations 5.4. Routing Considerations
It is assumed that the DNCA manager knows the DiameterIdentity of the It is assumed that the DNCA Manager knows the DiameterIdentity of the
DNCA agent for a given endpoint. Both the Destination-Realm and DNCA Agent for a given endpoint. Both the Destination-Realm and
Destination-Host AVPs are present in the Request from the DNCA Destination-Host AVPs are present in the request from the DNCA
manager to the DNCA agent. Manager to the DNCA Agent.
5.5. Advertising Application Support 5.5. Advertising Application Support
Diameter applications conforming to this specification MUST advertise Diameter applications conforming to this specification MUST advertise
support by including the value of TBD in: support by including the value of TBD in:
o Auth-Application-Id and Acct-Application-Id of Capabilities- o Auth-Application-Id and Acct-Application-Id of Capabilities-
Exchange-Request (CER) Exchange-Request (CER)
o Auth-Application-Id of NC-request (NCR), NC-Answer (NCA), Abort- o Auth-Application-Id of NC-request (NCR), NC-Answer (NCA), Abort-
Session-Request(ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (AAA) messages Session-Request(ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (AAA) messages
o Acct-Application-Id in Accounting-Request (ACR) and Accounting- o Acct-Application-Id in Accounting-Request (ACR) and Accounting-
Answer (AAA) messages. Answer (AAA) messages.
6. Diameter NAT Control Application Commands 6. DNCA Commands
The following commands are used to establish, maintain and clear NAT The following commands are used to establish, maintain and clear NAT
bindings. bindings.
6.1. NAT-Control Request (NCR) Command 6.1. NAT-Control Request (NCR) Command
The NAT-Control Request (NCR) command, indicated by the command field The NAT-Control Request (NCR) command, indicated by the command field
set to TBD and the "R" bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent set to TBD and the "R" bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent
from the DNCA manager to the DNCA agent in order to install NAT from the DNCA Manager to the DNCA Agent in order to install NAT
bindings. bindings.
User-Name, Logical-Access-Id, Physical-Access-ID, Framed-IP-Address, User-Name, Logical-Access-Id, Physical-Access-ID, Framed-IP-Address,
Framed-IPv6-Prefix , Framed-Interface-Id, EGRESS-VLANID, NAS-Port-ID, Framed-IPv6-Prefix , Framed-Interface-Id, EGRESS-VLANID, NAS-Port-ID,
Address-Realm, Calling-Station-ID AVPs serve as identifiers for the Address-Realm, Calling-Station-ID AVPs serve as identifiers for the
subscriber. subscriber.
Message Format: Message Format:
< NC-Request > ::= < Diameter Header: TBD, REQ, PXY> < NC-Request > ::= < Diameter Header: TBD, REQ, PXY>
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Destination-Host } { Destination-Host }
{ NC-Request-Type } { NC-Request-Type }
[ Origin-State-Id ] [ Origin-State-Id ]
skipping to change at page 21, line 49 skipping to change at page 21, line 36
[ Address-Realm ] [ Address-Realm ]
[ Calling-Station-ID ] [ Calling-Station-ID ]
* [ Proxy-Info ] * [ Proxy-Info ]
* [ Route-Record ] * [ Route-Record ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
6.2. NAT-Control Answer (NCA) Command 6.2. NAT-Control Answer (NCA) Command
The NAT-Control-Answer (NCA) command, indicated by the Command-Code The NAT-Control-Answer (NCA) command, indicated by the Command-Code
field set to TBD and the "R" bit cleared in the Command Flags field, field set to TBD and the "R" bit cleared in the Command Flags field,
is sent by the DNCA agent in response to NAT-Control-Request command. is sent by the DNCA Agent in response to NAT-Control-Request command.
Message Format: Message Format:
<NC-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: TBD, PXY > <NC-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: TBD, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ NC-Request-Type } { NC-Request-Type }
[ Result-Code ] [ Result-Code ]
* [ NAT-Control-Definition ] * [ NAT-Control-Definition ]
skipping to change at page 22, line 28 skipping to change at page 22, line 28
[ Duplicate-Session-ID ] [ Duplicate-Session-ID ]
* [ Redirect-Host] * [ Redirect-Host]
[ Redirect-Host-Usage ] [ Redirect-Host-Usage ]
[ Redirect-Max-Cache-Time ] [ Redirect-Max-Cache-Time ]
* [ Proxy-Info ] * [ Proxy-Info ]
* [ Route-Record ] * [ Route-Record ]
* [ Failed-AVP ] * [ Failed-AVP ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
7. Diameter NAT Control Application AVPs 7. DNCA AVPs
7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs 7.1. Reused Base Protocol AVPs
AVPs reused from Diameter Base Protocol [RFC3588] are listed below. AVPs reused from Diameter Base Protocol [RFC3588] are listed below.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+
| AVP | | | May | | AVP | | | May |
| Attribute Name Code Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt | | Attribute Name Code Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt |
skipping to change at page 24, line 16 skipping to change at page 24, line 16
Result-Code AVP values that fall within the transient failures Result-Code AVP values that fall within the transient failures
category are those used to inform a peer that the request could not category are those used to inform a peer that the request could not
be satisfied at the time that it was received. The request may be be satisfied at the time that it was received. The request may be
able to be satisfied in the future. able to be satisfied in the future.
The following new values of the Result-Code AVP are defined: The following new values of the Result-Code AVP are defined:
RESOURCE_FAILURE (TBD) RESOURCE_FAILURE (TBD)
The DNCA agent indicates that the binding could not be The DNCA Agent indicates that the binding could not be
installed or a new session could not be created due to resource installed or a new session could not be created due to resource
shortage. shortage.
7.2.3. Permanent Failures 7.2.3. Permanent Failures
Result-Code AVP values that fall within the permanent failures The Result-Code AVP values, which fall within the permanent failures
category are used to inform the peer that the request failed, and category are used to inform the peer that the request failed, and
should not be attempted again. The request may be able to be should not be attempted again. The request may be able to be
satisfied in the future. satisfied in the future.
The following new values of the Result-Code AVP are defined: The following new values of the Result-Code AVP are defined:
UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE_NAME (TBD) UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE_NAME (TBD)
The DNCA agent indicates that the binding could not be The DNCA Agent indicates that the binding could not be
installed or a new session could not be created due to resource installed or a new session could not be created due to resource
shortage. shortage.
BINDING_FAILURE (TBD) BINDING_FAILURE (TBD)
The DNCA indicates that the requested binding(s) could not be The DNCA indicates that the requested binding(s) could not be
installed. installed.
MAXIMUM_BINDINGS_REACHED_FOR_ENDPOINT (TBD) MAXIMUM_BINDINGS_REACHED_FOR_ENDPOINT (TBD)
The DNCA agent denies the request because the maximum number of The DNCA Agent denies the request because the maximum number of
allowed bindings has been reached for the specified Endpoint allowed bindings has been reached for the specified Endpoint
Classifier. Classifier.
SESSION_EXISTS (TBD) SESSION_EXISTS (TBD)
The DNCA agent denies request to initialize a new session, if The DNCA Agent denies request to initialize a new session, if
it already has a DNCA session that uses the same set of it already has a DNCA session that uses the same set of
classifiers as indicated by DNCA manager in the new session classifiers as indicated by DNCA Manager in the new session
init request. initializationrequest.
INSUFFICIENT_CLASSIFIERS (TBD) INSUFFICIENT_CLASSIFIERS (TBD)
The DNCA agent defines request to initialize a new session, if The DNCA Agent defines request to initialize a new session, if
the classifiers in the request match more than one of the the classifiers in the request match more than one of the
existing sessions on DNCA agent. existing sessions on DNCA Agent.
7.3. Reused NASREQ Diameter Application AVPs 7.3. Reused NASREQ Diameter Application AVPs
The following AVPs are reused from Diameter Network Access Server The following AVPs are reused from Diameter Network Access Server
Application [RFC4005]. Application [RFC4005].
+---------------------+ +---------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+------------------+------+------------|----+-----+----+-----|----+ +------------------+------+------------|----+-----+----+-----|----+
| | AVP | | | |SHLD| MUST| | | | AVP | | | |SHLD| MUST| |
| Attribute Name | Code | Value Type|MUST| MAY | NOT| NOT|Encr| | Attribute Name | Code | Value Type|MUST| MAY | NOT| NOT|Encr|
skipping to change at page 26, line 28 skipping to change at page 26, line 28
|Direction TBD Enumerated | M | P | Y | |Direction TBD Enumerated | M | P | Y |
+-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+
|M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be | |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be |
| supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the | | supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the |
| message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. | | message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. |
|P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. | |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 12: Reused QoS-attributes Figure 12: Reused QoS-attributes
7.6. Reused From ETSI ES 283 034, e4 Diameter Application 7.6. Reused from ETSI ES 283 034, e4 Diameter Application
The following AVPs are reused from the Diameter e4 Application The following AVPs are reused from the Diameter e4 Application
[ETSIES283034]. [ETSIES283034].
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+
| AVP | | | May | | AVP | | | May |
| Attribute Name Code Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt | | Attribute Name Code Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt |
+-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+
|Address-Realm 301 OctetString | M,V | | Y | |Address-Realm 301 OctetString | M,V | | Y |
|Logical-Access-Id 302 OctetString | V | M | Y | |Logical-Access-Id 302 OctetString | V | M | Y |
|Physical-Access-ID 313 UTF8String | V | M | Y | |Physical-Access-ID 313 UTF8String | V | M | Y |
+-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+
|M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be | |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be |
| supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the | | supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the |
| message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. | | message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. |
|P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. | |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. |
|V - Indicates whether the optional Vendor-ID field is present | |V - Indicates whether the optional Vendor-ID field is present |
| in the AVP header. Vendor-Id header of all AVPs in | | in the AVP header. Vendor-Id header of all AVPs in |
| this table will be set to ETSI (13019) | | this table will be set to ETSI (13019). |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 13: Reused AVPs from Diameter e4 application Figure 13: Reused AVPs from Diameter e4 application
7.7. Diameter NAT Control Application Defined AVPs 7.7. DNCA Defined AVPs
The following table describes the new Diameter AVPs used in the The following table describes the new Diameter AVPs used in this
present document, their AVP Code values, types, possible flag values document.
and whether the AVP may or not be encrypted.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------|-----+---+---------+
| AVP Section | | | May | | AVP Section | | | May |
| Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt | | Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST |MAY| encrypt |
+-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+
|NC-Request-Type TBD 7.7.1 Enumerated | M | P | Y | |NC-Request-Type TBD 7.7.1 Enumerated | M | P | Y |
|NAT-Control-Install TBD 7.7.2 Grouped | M | P | Y | |NAT-Control-Install TBD 7.7.2 Grouped | M | P | Y |
|NAT-Control-Remove TBD 7.7.3 Grouped | M | P | Y | |NAT-Control-Remove TBD 7.7.3 Grouped | M | P | Y |
|NAT-Control-Definition TBD 7.7.4 Grouped | M | P | Y | |NAT-Control-Definition TBD 7.7.4 Grouped | M | P | Y |
skipping to change at page 27, line 37 skipping to change at page 27, line 36
|NAT-Control-Record TBD 8.2.1 Grouped | M | P | Y | |NAT-Control-Record TBD 8.2.1 Grouped | M | P | Y |
|NAT-Control- TBD 8.2.2 Enumerated | M | P | Y | |NAT-Control- TBD 8.2.2 Enumerated | M | P | Y |
| Binding-Status | | | | | Binding-Status | | | |
|Current-NAT-Bindings TBD 8.2.3 Unsigned32 | M | P | Y | |Current-NAT-Bindings TBD 8.2.3 Unsigned32 | M | P | Y |
+-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+ +-----------------------------------------------+-----+---+---------+
|M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be | |M - Mandatory bit. An AVP with "M" bit set and its value MUST be |
| supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the | | supported and recognized by a Diameter entity in order the |
| message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. | | message, which carries this AVP, to be accepted. |
|P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. | |P - Indicates the need for encryption for end-to-end security. |
|V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the optional | |V - Vendor specific bit that indicates whether the optional |
| Vendor-ID field is present in the AVP header | | Vendor-ID field is present in the AVP header. |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 14: New Diameter AVPs Figure 14: New Diameter AVPs
7.7.1. NC-Request-Type AVP 7.7.1. NC-Request-Type AVP
The NC-Request-Type AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated and The NC-Request-Type AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Enumerated and
contains the reason for sending the NAT-Control-Request command. It contains the reason for sending the NAT-Control-Request command. It
shall be present in all NAT-Control-Request messages. shall be present in all NAT-Control-Request messages.
The following values are defined: The following values are defined:
INITIAL_REQUEST (1) INITIAL_REQUEST (1)
An Initial Request is used to install binding at the DNCA agent
An Initial Request is used to install binding at the DNCA Agent
on a successful access session setup. on a successful access session setup.
UPDATE_REQUEST (2) UPDATE_REQUEST (2)
An Update Request is used to update bindings previously An Update Request is used to update bindings previously
installed on a given access session, to add new binding on a installed on a given access session, to add new binding on a
given access session, or to remove one or several binding(s) given access session, or to remove one or several binding(s)
activated on a given access session. activated on a given access session.
TERMINATION_REQUEST (3) TERMINATION_REQUEST (3)
Termination Request is used to deactivate and remove all Termination Request is used to deactivate and remove all
bindings previously activated on a given access session. bindings previously activated on a given access session.
QUERY_REQUEST (4) QUERY_REQUEST (4)
Query Request is used to query the DNCA agent about the Query Request is used to query the DNCA Agent about the
currently installed bindings for an endpoint classifier. currently installed bindings for an endpoint classifier.
7.7.2. NAT-Control-Install AVP 7.7.2. NAT-Control-Install AVP
The NAT-Control AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and it is used The NAT-Control AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and it is used
to activate or install NAT bindings. It also contains Max-NAT- to activate or install NAT bindings. It also contains Max-NAT-
Bindings that defines maximum number of NAT bindings to be allowed Bindings that defines maximum number of NAT bindings to be allowed
for a subscriber and NAT-Control-Binding-Rule that references for a subscriber and NAT-Control-Binding-Rule that references
predefined policy template on DNCA agent that may contain static predefined policy template on DNCA Agent that may contain static
bindings, maximum number of bindings to be allowed, address pool from bindings, maximum number of bindings to be allowed, address pool from
which external binding address should be allocated. which external binding address should be allocated.
AVP format: AVP format:
NAT-Control-Install ::= < AVP Header: TBD > NAT-Control-Install ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
* [ NAT-Control-Definition ] * [ NAT-Control-Definition ]
[ NAT-Control-Binding-Rule ] [ NAT-Control-Binding-Rule ]
[ Max-NAT-Bindings] [ Max-NAT-Bindings]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
skipping to change at page 29, line 11 skipping to change at page 29, line 11
* [ NAT-Control-Definition ] * [ NAT-Control-Definition ]
[ NAT-Control-Binding-Rule ] [ NAT-Control-Binding-Rule ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
7.7.4. NAT-Control-Definition AVP 7.7.4. NAT-Control-Definition AVP
The NAT-Control-Definition AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and The NAT-Control-Definition AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and
it describes a binding. it describes a binding.
The NAT-Control-Definition AVP uniquely identifies the binding The NAT-Control-Definition AVP uniquely identifies the binding
between the DNCA agent and the DNCA manager. between the DNCA Agent and the DNCA Manager.
If both the NAT-Internal-Address and NAT-External-Address AVP(s) are If both the NAT-Internal-Address and NAT-External-Address AVP(s) are
supplied, it is a pre-defined binding. supplied, it is a pre-defined binding.
The Protocol AVP describes the transport protocol for which the The Protocol AVP describes the transport protocol for the binding.
binding is created. Exactly zero or one Protocol AVP may be The NAT-Control-Definition AVP can contain either zero or one
contained within NAT-Control-Definition AVP. If the Protocol AVP is Protocol AVP. If the Protocol AVP is omitted and if both internal
omitted and if both internal and external address are specified then and external address are specified then the binding reserves the
the binding reserves the addresses for all transport protocols. addresses for all transport protocols.
The Direction AVP is of type Enumerated and specifies in which The Direction AVP is of type Enumerated. It specifies the direction
direction to apply the binding. The values of the enumeration for the binding. The values of the enumeration applicable in this
applicable in this context are: "IN","OUT". If Direction AVP is OUT context are: "IN","OUT". If Direction AVP is OUT or absent, NAT-
or absent NAT-Internal-Address refers to the address of the Internal-Address refers to the address of the subscriber device that
subscriber device that needs to be translated. If Direction AVP is needs to be translated. If Direction AVP is "IN", NAT-Internal-
"IN" NAT-Internal-Address is the destination address that has to be Address is the destination address that has to be translated.
translated.
AVP format: AVP format:
NAT-Control-Definition ::= < AVP Header: TBD > NAT-Control-Definition ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
{ NAT-Internal-Address } { NAT-Internal-Address }
[ Protocol ] [ Protocol ]
[ Direction ] [ Direction ]
[ NAT-External-Address ] [ NAT-External-Address ]
[ Session-Id ] [ Session-Id ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
7.7.5. NAT-Internal-Address AVP 7.7.5. NAT-Internal-Address AVP
The NAT-Internal-Address AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and The NAT-Internal-Address AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped. It
it describes the internal IP address and port for a binding. Framed- describes the internal IP address and port for a binding. Framed-
IPV6-Prefix and Framed-IP-Address AVPs are mutually exclusive. IPV6-Prefix and Framed-IP-Address AVPs are mutually exclusive.
AVP format: AVP format:
NAT-Internal-Address ::= < AVP Header: TBD > NAT-Internal-Address ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
[ Framed-IP-Address ] [ Framed-IP-Address ]
[ Framed-IPv6-Prefix ] [ Framed-IPv6-Prefix ]
[ Port] [ Port]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
7.7.6. NAT-External-Address AVP 7.7.6. NAT-External-Address AVP
skipping to change at page 30, line 21 skipping to change at page 30, line 21
AVP format: AVP format:
NAT-External-Address ::= < AVP Header: TBD > NAT-External-Address ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
[ Framed-IP-Address ] [ Framed-IP-Address ]
[ IP-Address-Mask ] [ IP-Address-Mask ]
[ Port ] [ Port ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
7.7.7. Max-NAT-Bindings 7.7.7. Max-NAT-Bindings
The Max-NAT-Bindings AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Unsigned32, and it The Max-NAT-Bindings AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Unsigned32. It
indicates the maximum number of NAT bindings allowed. indicates the maximum number of NAT bindings allowed.
7.7.8. NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP 7.7.8. NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP
The NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type is of type The NAT-Control-Binding-Rule AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type
OctetString, and it defines a name for a policy template that will be OctetString. It defines a name for a policy template that will be
predefined at NAT. Details on the contents and structure of the predefined at NAT. Details on the contents and structure of the
template as well as how it would be configured are outside the scope template and configuration are outside the scope of this document.
of this document. The policy to which this AVP refers to may contain The policy to which this AVP refers to may contain NAT bindings,
NAT Bindings, address pool for external address allocation of NAT address pool for external address allocation of NAT binding, and
binding, maximum allowed NAT bindings etc. maximum allowed NAT bindings.
7.7.9. Duplicate-Session-Id AVP 7.7.9. Duplicate-Session-Id AVP
The Duplicate-Session-Id AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of is of type The Duplicate-Session-Id AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type UTF8String.
UTF8String. It is used to report error and contains the Session-Id It is used to report error and contains the Session-Id of an existing
of an existing session. session.
8. Accounting Commands 8. Accounting Commands
The Diameter NAT Control Application reuses session based accounting The DNCA reuses session based accounting as defined in Diameter Base
as defined in Diameter Base Protocol [RFC3588] to report the bindings Protocol,[RFC3588] to report the bindings per endpoint. This
used per endpoint. This reporting is achieved by sending Diameter reporting is achieved by sending Diameter Accounting Requests (ACR)
Accounting Requests (ACR) [Start, Interim and Stop] from the DNCA [Start, Interim and Stop] from the DNCA Agent to DNCA Manager.
agent to DNCA manager.
The DNCA agent sends an ACR Start on receiving an NCR with NC- The DNCA Agent sends an ACR Start on receiving an NCR with NC-
Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST received for a session, or on Request-Type AVP set to INITIAL_REQUEST for a session or on creation
creation of the first binding for a session requested in an earlier of the first binding for a session requested in an earlier NCR. The
NCR. The DNCA may send ACR Interim updates, if required, either due DNCA may send ACR Interim updates, if required, either due to a
to a change in bindings resulting from an NCR with NC-Request-Type change in bindings resulting from a NCR with NC-Request-Type AVP set
AVP set to UPDATE_REQUEST, or periodically as specified in Acct- to UPDATE_REQUEST, or periodically as specified in Acct-Interim-
Interim-Interval by DNCA Manager or when it creates/tears down Interval by the DNCA Manager, or when it creates or tears down
bindings. An ACR Stop is sent by the DNCA agent on receiving an NCR bindings. An ACR Stop is sent by the DNCA Agent on receiving an NCR
with NC-Request-Type AVP set to TERMINATION_REQUEST. with NC-Request-Type AVP set to TERMINATION_REQUEST.
The function of correlating the multiple bindings used by an endpoint The function of correlating the multiple bindings used by an endpoint
at any given time is relegated to the post processor. at any given time is relegated to the post processor.
The DNCA agent may trigger an interim accounting record when maximum The DNCA Agent may trigger an interim accounting record when maximum
number of bindings, if received in NCR, is reached. number of bindings, if received in NCR, is reached.
8.1. NAT Control Accounting Messages 8.1. NAT Control Accounting Messages
The ACR and ACA messages are reused as defined in Diameter Base The ACR and ACA messages are reused as defined in Diameter Base
Protocol [RFC3588] for exchanging endpoint NAT binding details Protocol [RFC3588] for exchanging endpoint NAT binding details
between the DNCA agent and the CDF. DNCA Application ID is used in between the DNCA Agent and DNCA Manager. The DNCA Application ID is
the accounting commands. ACR will contain one or more optional NAT- used in the accounting commands. ACR contains one or more optional
Control-Record AVP to report the bindings. The DNCA agent indicates NAT-Control-Record AVP to report the bindings. The DNCA Agent
the number of the currently allocated NAT bindings to the DNCA indicates the number of allocated NAT bindings to the DNCA Manager
manager using the Current-NAT-Bindings AVP. This number needs to using the Current-NAT-Bindings AVP. This number needs to match the
match the number of bindings identified as active within the NAT- number of bindings identified as active within the NAT-Control-Record
Control-Record AVP. AVP.
8.2. NAT Control Accounting AVPs 8.2. NAT Control Accounting AVPs
In addition to AVPs for ACR specified in [RFC3588], the DNCA agent In addition to AVPs for ACR specified in [RFC3588], the DNCA Agent
must add the NAT-Control-Record AVP. must add the NAT-Control-Record AVP.
8.2.1. NAT-Control-Record 8.2.1. NAT-Control-Record
The NAT-Control-Record AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped, and it The NAT-Control-Record AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Grouped. It
describes a binding and its status. Event-Timestamp indicates the describes a binding and its status. If NAT-Control-Binding-Status is
time at which binding was created if NAT-Control-Binding-Status is set to Created, Event-Timestamp indicates the binding creation time.
set to Created, or time at which the binding was removed if NAT- If NAT-Control-Binding-Status is set to Removed, Event-Timestamp
Control-Binding-Status is set to removed. If the NAT-Control- indicates the binding removal time. If NAT-Control-Binding-Status is
Binding-Status is active Event-Timestamp need not be present, if active, Event-Timestamp need not be present; if a value is present,
present it indicates that binding is active at the mentioned time. it indicates that binding is active at the given time.
NAT-Control-Record ::= < AVP Header: TBD > NAT-Control-Record ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
{ NAT-Control-Definition } { NAT-Control-Definition }
{ NAT-Control-Binding-Status } { NAT-Control-Binding-Status }
[ Event-Timestamp ] [ Event-Timestamp ]
8.2.2. NAT-Control-Binding-Status 8.2.2. NAT-Control-Binding-Status
The NAT-Control-Binding-Status AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type The NAT-Control-Binding-Status AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type
enumerated and it describes whether the binding being reported was enumerated. It indicates the status of the binding - created,
created or removed or simply indicates that it is active. removed, or active.
The following values are defined: The following values are defined:
Created (1) Created (1)
Indicates that NAT binding is created. NAT binding is created.
Active (2) Active (2)
Indicates that NAT binding is active. NAT binding is active.
Removed (3) Removed (3)
Indicates that the NAT binding was removed. NAT binding was removed.
8.2.3. Current-NAT-Bindings 8.2.3. Current-NAT-Bindings
The Current-NAT-Bindings AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Unsigned32, The Current-NAT-Bindings AVP (AVP code TBD) is of type Unsigned32.
and it indicates number of NAT bindings active on NAT. It indicates number of NAT bindings active on NAT device.
9. AVP Occurrence Table 9. AVP Occurrence Table
The following sections presents the AVPs defined in this document and The following sections presents the AVPs defined in this document and
specifies in which Diameter messages they MAY be present. Note that specifies the Diameter messages in which, they MAY be present. Note:
AVPs that can only be present within a Grouped AVP are not AVPs that can only be present within a Grouped AVP are not
represented in this table. represented in this table.
The table uses the following symbols: The table uses the following symbols:
0 The AVP MUST NOT be present in the message. 0 The AVP MUST NOT be present in the message.
0+ Zero or more instances of the AVP MAY be present in the 0+ Zero or more instances of the AVP MAY be present in the
message. message.
0-1 Zero or one instance of the AVP MAY be present in the 0-1 Zero or one instance of the AVP MAY be present in the
message. It is considered an error if there is more message. It is considered an error if there is more
than one instance of the AVP. than one instance of the AVP.
1 One instance of the AVP MUST be present in the message. 1 One instance of the AVP MUST be present in the message.
1+ At least one instance of the AVP MUST be present in the 1+ At least one instance of the AVP MUST be present in the
message. message.
9.1. DNCA AVP Table for NAT control initial and update requests 9.1. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Initial and Update Requests
The following table presents which NAT control application specific The following table lists the DNCA specific AVPs that have to be
AVPs are to be present in NCR/NCA with NC-Request-Type set to present in NCR and NCA with NC-Request-Type set to INITIAL_REQUEST or
INITIAL_REQUEST or UPDATE_REQUEST. UPDATE_REQUEST.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Command Code | | Command Code |
+-----------------------------------+-------------------+ +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
| Attribute Name NCR NCA | | Attribute Name NCR NCA |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
|NC-Request-Type 1 1 | |NC-Request-Type 1 1 |
|NAT-Control-Install 0-1 0 | |NAT-Control-Install 0-1 0 |
|NAT-Control-Remove 0-1 0 | |NAT-Control-Remove 0-1 0 |
|NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Record 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Record 0 0 |
|Current-NAT-Bindings 0 0 | |Current-NAT-Bindings 0 0 |
|Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0-1 | |Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0-1 |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
9.2. DNCA AVP Table for Session Query request 9.2. DNCA AVP Table for Session Query request
The following table presents which NAT control application specific The following table lists the DNCA specific AVPs that have to be
AVPs are to be present in NCR/NCA with NC-Request-Type set to present in NCR and NCA with NC-Request-Type set to QUERY_REQUEST.
QUERY_REQUEST.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Command Code | | Command Code |
+-----------------------------------+-------------------+ +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
| Attribute Name NCR NCA | | Attribute Name NCR NCA |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
|NC-Request-Type 1 1 | |NC-Request-Type 1 1 |
|NAT-Control-Install 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Install 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Definition 0 0+ | |NAT-Control-Definition 0 0+ |
|NAT-Control-Record 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Record 0 0 |
|Current-NAT-Bindings 0 1 | |Current-NAT-Bindings 0 1 |
|Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0 | |Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0 |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
9.3. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Terminate requests 9.3. DNCA AVP Table for NAT Control Terminate requests
The following table presents which NAT control application specific The following table lists the DNCA specific AVPs that have to be
AVPs are to be present in NCR/NCA with NC-Request-Type set to present in NCR and NCA with NC-Request-Type set to
TERMINATION_REQUEST. TERMINATION_REQUEST.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Command Code | | Command Code |
+-----------------------------------+-------------------+ +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
| Attribute Name NCR NCA | | Attribute Name NCR NCA |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
|NC-Request-Type 1 1 | |NC-Request-Type 1 1 |
|NAT-Control-Install 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Install 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Record 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Record 0 0 |
|Current-NAT-Bindings 0 0 | |Current-NAT-Bindings 0 0 |
|Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0 | |Duplicate-Session-Id 0 0 |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
9.4. DNCA AVP Table For Accounting Message 9.4. DNCA AVP Table for Accounting Message
Following table presents which NAT control application specific AVPs The following table lists the DNCA specific AVPs, which may or may
May or May Not be present in ACR/ACA messages. not be present in ACR and ACA messages.
+-------------------+ +-------------------+
| Command Code | | Command Code |
+-----------------------------------+-------------------+ +-----------------------------------+-------------------+
| Attribute Name ACR ACA | | Attribute Name ACR ACA |
+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-------------------------------------------------------+
|NC-Request-Type 0 0 | |NC-Request-Type 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Install 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Install 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Remove 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 | |NAT-Control-Definition 0 0 |
|NAT-Control-Record 0+ 0 | |NAT-Control-Record 0+ 0 |
skipping to change at page 35, line 45 skipping to change at page 35, line 45
| to be assigned | Current-NAT-Bindings | Section 8.2.3 | | to be assigned | Current-NAT-Bindings | Section 8.2.3 |
+----------------+----------------------------+---------------+ +----------------+----------------------------+---------------+
Table 2: AVP codes Table 2: AVP codes
10.3. AVP Values 10.3. AVP Values
10.3.1. Result-Code AVP Values 10.3.1. Result-Code AVP Values
Section 7.2 defines several new values for the Result-Code AVP for Section 7.2 defines several new values for the Result-Code AVP for
transient failures and permanent failures. IANA is requested to transient and permanent failures. IANA is requested to allocate the
allocate the corresponding values from the ranges for transient corresponding values from the ranges for transient (4xxx) and
(4xxx) and permantent (5xxx) failures. permantent (5xxx) failures.
+-----------+---------------------------------------+---------------+ +-----------+---------------------------------------+---------------+
| Code | Name | Reference | | Code | Name | Reference |
| Value | | | | Value | | |
+-----------+---------------------------------------+---------------+ +-----------+---------------------------------------+---------------+
| to be | RESOURCE_FAILURE | Section 7.2.2 | | to be | RESOURCE_FAILURE | Section 7.2.2 |
| assigned | | | | assigned | | |
| (4xxx) | | | | (4xxx) | | |
| to be | UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE_NAME | Section 7.2.3 | | to be | UNKNOWN_BINDING_RULE_NAME | Section 7.2.3 |
| assigned | | | | assigned | | |
skipping to change at page 36, line 48 skipping to change at page 36, line 48
+----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+ +----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+
| ID Value | Name | Reference | | ID Value | Name | Reference |
+----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+ +----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+
| to be assigned | Diameter NAT Control Application | Section 4 | | to be assigned | Diameter NAT Control Application | Section 4 |
+----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+ +----------------+----------------------------------+-----------+
Table 4: Diameter Application ID values Table 4: Diameter Application ID values
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
Similar to what the Diameter QoS application (see Similar to the impact of Diameter QoS application (see
[I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos]) does for authorization of QoS [I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos]) on authorization of QoS reservations,
reservations, this document describes procedures for authorizing this document describes procedures for authorizing NAT related
network address translation related attributes and parameters by an attributes and parameters by an entity, which is non-local to the
entity which is non-local to the device performing network address device performing NAT. The security considerations for the Diameter
translation. The security considerations for the Diameter QoS QoS application (see [I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos] section 11) apply
application (see [I-D.ietf-dime-diameter-qos] section 11) apply in a in a similar way to the DNCA. Securing the information exchange
similar way to the DNCA. Securing the information exchange between between the authorizing entity (the DNCA Manager) and the NAT device
the authorizing entity (the DNCA manager) as well as the NAT device
requires bilateral authentication of the involved parties, requires bilateral authentication of the involved parties,
authorization of the involved parties to perform the required authorization of the involved parties to perform the required
procedures and functions, as well as procedures to ensure integrity procedures and functions, and procedures to ensure integrity and
and confidentiality of the information exchange. DNCA makes use of confidentiality of the information exchange. The DNCA makes use of
the capabilities offered by Diameter as well as the underlying the capabilities offered by Diameter and the underlying transport
transport protocols to deliver on these requirements (see Section 5.1 protocols to deliver these requirements (see Section 5.1 ).
).
It is assumed that the DNCA agent and DNCA manager are in the same It is assumed that the DNCA Agent and DNCA Manager are in the same
domain and have a mutual trust set up. Authorization between the domain and have a mutual trust set up. Authorization between the
DNCA agent and DNCA manager is beyond the scope of this document. DNCA Agent and DNCA Manager is beyond the scope of this document.
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Jouni Korhonen, Avi Lior, Chris Metz, The authors would like to thank Ramya Balakrishna, Jouni Korhonen,
Hannes Tschofenig, Greg Weber, and Glen Zorn for their input on this Avi Lior, Chris Metz, Hannes Tschofenig, Greg Weber, and Glen Zorn
document. for their input on this document.
13. Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an RFC) 13. Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an RFC)
Changes from -00 to -01 Changes from -00 to -01
a. new values for Result-Code AVP used - instead of Experimental- a. new values for Result-Code AVP used - instead of Experimental-
Result AVP Result AVP
b. added support for transport specific binding (UDP/TCP) b. added support for transport specific binding (UDP/TCP)
skipping to change at page 38, line 4 skipping to change at page 37, line 46
d. clarified the use of the two different types of query-requests d. clarified the use of the two different types of query-requests
Changes from -01 to -02 Changes from -01 to -02
a. Reference to pull mode removed, session initiation event a. Reference to pull mode removed, session initiation event
clarified in section 4.1 clarified in section 4.1
b. added Redirect-* AVPs in NCA command b. added Redirect-* AVPs in NCA command
c. Removed reference to Called-Station-Id AVP in NCR command c. Removed reference to Called-Station-Id AVP in NCR command
d. Editorial changes (shorted intro section
d. Editorial changes
e. added support for bindings providing AFT (NAT64) e. added support for bindings providing AFT (NAT64)
Changes from -02 to -03
a. Editorial changes
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[ETSIES283034] [ETSIES283034]
ETSI, "Telecommunications and Internet Converged Services ETSI, "Telecommunications and Internet Converged Services
and Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN),Network and Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN),Network
Attachment Sub-System (NASS),e4 interface based on the Attachment Sub-System (NASS),e4 interface based on the
Diameter protocol.", September 2008. Diameter protocol.", September 2008.
skipping to change at page 39, line 18 skipping to change at page 39, line 20
August 2005. August 2005.
[RFC5624] Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., and E. Davies, "Quality of [RFC5624] Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., and E. Davies, "Quality of
Service Parameters for Usage with Diameter", RFC 5624, Service Parameters for Usage with Diameter", RFC 5624,
August 2009. August 2009.
[TS32299] "3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical [TS32299] "3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Service and System Aspects; Specification Group Service and System Aspects;
Telecommunication management; Charging management; Telecommunication management; Charging management;
"Diameter charging applications", 3GPP TS 32.299 Version "Diameter charging applications", 3GPP TS 32.299 Version
6.3.0.2", 2008. 9.4.0", 2008.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Frank Brockners Frank Brockners
Cisco Cisco
Hansaallee 249, 3rd Floor Hansaallee 249, 3rd Floor
DUESSELDORF, NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN 40549 DUESSELDORF, NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN 40549
Germany Germany
Email: fbrockne@cisco.com Email: fbrockne@cisco.com
 End of changes. 168 change blocks. 
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