draft-ietf-dime-4over6-provisioning-04.txt   draft-ietf-dime-4over6-provisioning-05.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force C. Zhou Internet Engineering Task Force C. Zhou
Internet-Draft Huawei Technologies Internet-Draft Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Standards Track T. Taylor Intended status: Standards Track T. Taylor
Expires: January 21, 2016 PT Taylor Consulting Expires: February 7, 2016 PT Taylor Consulting
Q. Sun Q. Sun
China Telecom China Telecom
M. Boucadair M. Boucadair
France Telecom France Telecom
July 20, 2015 August 6, 2015
Attribute-Value Pairs For Provisioning Customer Equipment Supporting Attribute-Value Pairs For Provisioning Customer Equipment Supporting
IPv4-Over-IPv6 Transitional Solutions IPv4-Over-IPv6 Transitional Solutions
draft-ietf-dime-4over6-provisioning-04 draft-ietf-dime-4over6-provisioning-05
Abstract Abstract
During the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, customer equipment may have During the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, customer equipment may have
to support one of the various transition methods that have been to support one of the various transition methods that have been
defined for carrying IPv4 packets over IPv6. This document defined for carrying IPv4 packets over IPv6. This document
enumerates the information that needs to be provisioned on a customer enumerates the information that needs to be provisioned on a customer
edge router to support a list of transition techniques based on edge router to support a list of transition techniques based on
tunneling IPv4 in IPv6, with a view to defining reusable components tunneling IPv4 in IPv6, with a view to defining reusable components
for a reasonable transition path between these techniques. To the for a reasonable transition path between these techniques. To the
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on January 21, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on February 7, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Description of the Parameters Required By Each Transition 2. Description of the Parameters Required By Each Transition
Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Parameters For Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Parameters For Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3. Port Set Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3. Port Set Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4. Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) . 6 2.4. Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) . 6
2.5. Parameters For Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5. Parameters For Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6. Summary and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.6. Summary and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Attribute-Value Pair Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Attribute-Value Pair Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1. IP-Prefix-Length AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. IP-Prefix-Length AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Border-Router-Name AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Border-Router-Name AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3. 64-Multicast-Attributes AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3. 64-Multicast-Attributes AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.1. ASM-mPrefix64 AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3.1. ASM-mPrefix64 AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.2. SSM-mPrefix64 AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3.2. SSM-mPrefix64 AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.3. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP As uPrefix64 . . . . . . . 11 3.3.3. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP As uPrefix64 . . . . . . . 10
3.4. Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4. Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4.1. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix As the IPv6 Binding Prefix . . 11 3.4.1. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix As the IPv6 Binding Prefix . . 11
3.4.2. Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4.2. Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5. Port-Set-Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5. Port-Set-Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6. Lw4o6-Binding AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.6. Lw4o6-Binding AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.6.1. Lw4o6-External-IPv4-Addr AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.6.1. Lw4o6-External-IPv4-Addr AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.7. MAP-E-Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.7. MAP-E-Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.8. MAP-Mesh-Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.8. MAP-Mesh-Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.9. MAP-Mapping-Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.9. MAP-Mapping-Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.9.1. Rule-IPv4-Addr-Or-Prefix AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.9.1. Rule-IPv4-Addr-Or-Prefix AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.9.2. Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.9.2. Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.9.3. EA-Field-Length AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.9.3. EA-Field-Length AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. Attribute Value Pair Flag Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4. Attribute Value Pair Flag Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.1. Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1. Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.2. Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2. Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
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Each technique requires the provisioning of some subscriber-specific Each technique requires the provisioning of some subscriber-specific
information on the customer edge device. The provisioning may be by information on the customer edge device. The provisioning may be by
DHCPv6 [RFC3315] or by some other method. This document is DHCPv6 [RFC3315] or by some other method. This document is
indifferent to the specific provisioning technique used, but assumes indifferent to the specific provisioning technique used, but assumes
a deployment in which that information is managed by AAA a deployment in which that information is managed by AAA
(Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting) servers. It further (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting) servers. It further
assumes that this information is delivered to intermediate network assumes that this information is delivered to intermediate network
nodes for onward provisioning using the Diameter protocol [RFC6733]. nodes for onward provisioning using the Diameter protocol [RFC6733].
As described below, in the particular case where the Lightweight As described below, in the particular case where the Lightweight
4over6 (lw4o6) [I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6] transition method has 4over6 (lw4o6) [RFC7596] transition method has been deployed, per-
been deployed, per-subscriber-site information almost identical to subscriber-site information almost identical to that passed to the
that passed to the subscriber site [I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp] also subscriber site [RFC7598] also needs to be delivered to the border
needs to be delivered to the border router serving that site. The router serving that site. The Diameter protocol may be used for this
Diameter protocol may be used for this purpose too. purpose too.
This document analyzes the information required to configure the This document analyzes the information required to configure the
customer edge equipment for the following set of transition methods: customer edge equipment for the following set of transition methods:
o Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) [RFC6333], o Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) [RFC6333],
o Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) [I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6], and o Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) [RFC7596], and
o Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) o Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) [RFC7597].
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map].
[I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast] specifies a generic solution for [I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast] specifies a generic solution for
delivery of IPv4 multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6 delivery of IPv4 multicast services to IPv4 clients over an IPv6
multicast network. The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind multicast network. The solution was developed with DS-Lite in mind
but it is however not limited to DS-Lite. As such, it applies also but it is however not limited to DS-Lite. As such, it applies also
for lw4o6 and MAP-E. This document analyzes the information required for lw4o6 and MAP-E. This document analyzes the information required
to configure the customer edge equipment for the support of multicast to configure the customer edge equipment for the support of multicast
in the context of DS-Lite, MAP-E, and Lightweight 4over6 in in the context of DS-Lite, MAP-E, and Lightweight 4over6 in
particular. particular.
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subscriber wants to use. The approach taken in this document is to subscriber wants to use. The approach taken in this document is to
specify Grouped AVPs specific to lw4o6 and MAP-E. The operator can specify Grouped AVPs specific to lw4o6 and MAP-E. The operator can
control which of these two transition methods a given subscriber uses control which of these two transition methods a given subscriber uses
by ensuring that AAA passes only the Grouped AVP relevant to that by ensuring that AAA passes only the Grouped AVP relevant to that
method. A Grouped AVP is unnecessary for Dual-Stack Lite, since AAA method. A Grouped AVP is unnecessary for Dual-Stack Lite, since AAA
has only to provide the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the DS- has only to provide the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of the DS-
Lite Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) (see Section 2.1). Lite Address Family Transition Router (AFTR) (see Section 2.1).
Hence when no Grouped AVP is provided either for lw4o6 or MAP-E and Hence when no Grouped AVP is provided either for lw4o6 or MAP-E and
only the AFTR's FQDN is present, this indicates that the subscriber only the AFTR's FQDN is present, this indicates that the subscriber
equipment will use the Dual-Stack Lite transition method. equipment will use the Dual-Stack Lite transition method.
Provisioning of multicast is an orthogonal activity, since it is Provisioning of multicast is an orthogonal activity, since it is
independent of the transition method. independent of the transition method.
2.1. Parameters For Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite) 2.1. Parameters For Dual-Stack Lite (DS-Lite)
DS-Lite is documented in [RFC6333]. The Basic Bridging BroadBand DS-Lite is documented in [RFC6333]. The Basic Bridging BroadBand
(B4) element at the customer premises needs to discover the IPv6 (B4) element at the customer premises needs to discover the IPv6
address of the AFTR (border router). For the reasons discussed in address of the AFTR (border router). For the reasons discussed in
Section 3.2, the AAA server provision the B4 element with the AFTR's Section 3.2, the AAA server provisions the B4 element with the AFTR's
Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) that is passed to a B4's IP Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) that is passed to a B4's IP
resolution library. The AFTR's FQDN is contained in the Border- resolution library. The AFTR's FQDN is contained in the Border-
Router-Name AVP (see Section 3.2). Router-Name AVP (see Section 3.2).
The B4 element could also be configured with the IPv4 address of the The B4 element could also be configured with the IPv4 address of the
B4 interface facing the tunnel, with valid values from 192.0.0.2 to B4 interface facing the tunnel, with valid values from 192.0.0.2 to
192.0.0.7 and the default value of 192.0.0.2 in the absence of 192.0.0.7 and the default value of 192.0.0.2 in the absence of
provisioning. Provisioning such information through AAA is provisioning. Provisioning such information through AAA is
problematic because it is most likely used in a case where multiple problematic because it is most likely used in a case where multiple
B4 instances occupy the same device. This document therefore assumes B4 instances occupy the same device. This document therefore assumes
that the B4 interface address is determined by other means than AAA that the B4 interface address is determined by other means than AAA
(implementation-dependent or static assignment). (implementation-dependent or static assignment).
2.2. Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) 2.2. Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6)
Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) is documented in Lightweight 4over6 (lw4o6) is documented in [RFC7596]. Lw4o6
[I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6]. Lw4o6 requires four items to be requires four items to be provisioned to the customer equipment:
provisioned to the customer equipment:
o IPv6 address of the border router. o IPv6 address of the border router.
o IPv6 prefix used by the CE to construct the tunnel source address. o IPv6 prefix used by the CE to construct the tunnel source address.
In the terminology of [I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6], this is the In the terminology of [RFC7596], this is the IPv6 Binding Prefix.
IPv6 Binding Prefix.
o an IPv4 address to be used on the external side of the CE; and o an IPv4 address to be used on the external side of the CE; and
o if the IPv4 address is shared, a specification of the port set the o if the IPv4 address is shared, a specification of the port set the
subscriber site is allowed to use. Please see the description in subscriber site is allowed to use. Please see the description in
Section 2.3. For lw4o6, all three of the parameters 'a', 'k', and Section 2.3. For lw4o6, all three of the parameters 'a', 'k', and
PSID described in that section are required. The default value of PSID described in that section are required. The default value of
the offset parameter 'a' is 0. the offset parameter 'a' is 0.
As discussed in Section 4 of [I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6], it is As discussed in Section 4 of [RFC7596], it is necessary to
necessary to synchronize this configuration with corresponding per- synchronize this configuration with corresponding per-subscriber
subscriber configuration at the border router. The border router configuration at the border router. The border router information
information consists of the same public IPv4 address and port set consists of the same public IPv4 address and port set parameters that
parameters that are passed to the CE, bound together with the full are passed to the CE, bound together with the full /128 IPv6 address
/128 IPv6 address (not just the Binding Prefix) configured as the (not just the Binding Prefix) configured as the tunnel source address
tunnel source address at the CE. at the CE.
2.3. Port Set Specification 2.3. Port Set Specification
When an external IPv4 address is shared, lw4o6 and MAP-E restrict the When an external IPv4 address is shared, lw4o6 and MAP-E restrict the
CE to use of a subset of all available ports on the external side. CE to use of a subset of all available ports on the external side.
Both transition methods use the algorithm defined in Appendix B of Both transition methods use the algorithm defined in Appendix B of
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map] to derive the values of the port numbers in [RFC7597] to derive the values of the port numbers in the port set.
the port set. This algorithm features three parameters, describing This algorithm features three parameters, describing the positioning
the positioning and value of the Port Set Identifier (PSID) within and value of the Port Set Identifier (PSID) within each port number
each port number of the generated set: of the generated set:
o an offset 'a' from the beginning of the port number to the first o an offset 'a' from the beginning of the port number to the first
bit of the PSID; bit of the PSID;
o the length 'k' of the PSID within the port number, in bits; and o the length 'k' of the PSID within the port number, in bits; and
o the value of the PSID itself. o the value of the PSID itself.
2.4. Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) 2.4. Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)
Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) is described Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E) is described
in [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. MAP-E requires the provisioning of the in [RFC7597]. MAP-E requires the provisioning of the following per-
following per-subscriber information at the customer edge device: subscriber information at the customer edge device:
o the IPv6 address of one or more border routers, or in MAP-E o the IPv6 address of one or more border routers, or in MAP-E
terminology, MAP-E border relays. terminology, MAP-E border relays.
o the unique End-user IPv6 prefix for the customer edge device. o the unique End-user IPv6 prefix for the customer edge device.
This may be provided by AAA or acquired by other means. This may be provided by AAA or acquired by other means.
o the Basic Mapping Rule for the customer edge device. This o the Basic Mapping Rule for the customer edge device. This
includes the following parameters: includes the following parameters:
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rather than in the mapping rule. rather than in the mapping rule.
* the number of EA bits included in the End-user IPv6 prefix; * the number of EA bits included in the End-user IPv6 prefix;
* port set parameters giving the set of ports the CE is allowed * port set parameters giving the set of ports the CE is allowed
to use when the IPv4 address is shared. Please see the to use when the IPv4 address is shared. Please see the
description of these parameters in Section 2.3. At a minimum, description of these parameters in Section 2.3. At a minimum,
the offset parameter 'a' is required. For MAP-E this has the the offset parameter 'a' is required. For MAP-E this has the
default value 6. The parameters 'k' and PSID are needed if default value 6. The parameters 'k' and PSID are needed if
they cannot be derived from the mapping rule information and they cannot be derived from the mapping rule information and
the EA bits (final case of Section 5.2 of the EA bits (final case of Section 5.2 of [RFC7597]).
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map]).
o whether the device is to operate in mesh or hub-and-spoke mode; o whether the device is to operate in mesh or hub-and-spoke mode;
o in mesh mode only, zero or more Forwarding Mapping Rules, o in mesh mode only, zero or more Forwarding Mapping Rules,
described by the same set of parameters as the Basic Mapping Rule; described by the same set of parameters as the Basic Mapping Rule;
As indicated in Section 5, bullet 1 of [I-D.ietf-softwire-map], a MAP As indicated in Section 5, bullet 1 of [RFC7597], a MAP CE can be
CE can be provisioned with multiple End-user IPv6 prefixes, each provisioned with multiple End-user IPv6 prefixes, each associated
associated with its own Basic Mapping Rule. This does not change the with its own Basic Mapping Rule. This does not change the basic
basic requirement for representation of the corresponding information requirement for representation of the corresponding information in
in the form of Diameter AVPs, but adds a potential requirement for the form of Diameter AVPs, but adds a potential requirement for
multiple instances of this information to be present in the Diameter multiple instances of this information to be present in the Diameter
message, differing in the value of the End-user IPv6 prefix (in message, differing in the value of the End-user IPv6 prefix (in
contrast to the Forward Mapping Rule instances). contrast to the Forward Mapping Rule instances).
The border router needs to be configured with the superset of the The border router needs to be configured with the superset of the
Mapping Rules passed to the customer sites it serves. Since this Mapping Rules passed to the customer sites it serves. Since this
requirement does not require direct coordination with CE requirement does not require direct coordination with CE
configuration in the way lw4o6 does, it is out of scope of the configuration in the way lw4o6 does, it is out of scope of the
present document. However, the AVPs defined here may be useful if a present document. However, the AVPs defined here may be useful if a
separate Diameter application is used to configure the border router. separate Diameter application is used to configure the border router.
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the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses of the multicast groups in the the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses of the multicast groups in the
Any-Source Multicast (ASM) mode. This is achieved by Any-Source Multicast (ASM) mode. This is achieved by
concatenating the ASM-mPrefix64 and a IPv4 multicast address; the concatenating the ASM-mPrefix64 and a IPv4 multicast address; the
IPv4 multicast address is inserted in the last 32 bits of the IPv4 multicast address is inserted in the last 32 bits of the
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address. IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address.
o SSM-mPrefix64: the IPv6 multicast prefix to be used to synthesize o SSM-mPrefix64: the IPv6 multicast prefix to be used to synthesize
the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses of the multicast groups in the the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses of the multicast groups in the
Source-Specific Multicast (SSM, [RFC4607]) mode. This is achieved Source-Specific Multicast (SSM, [RFC4607]) mode. This is achieved
by concatenating the SSM-mPrefix64 and a IPv4 multicast address; by concatenating the SSM-mPrefix64 and a IPv4 multicast address;
the Pv4 multicast address is inserted in the last 32 bits of the the IPv4 multicast address is inserted in the last 32 bits of the
IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address. IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address.
o uPrefix64: the IPv6 unicast prefix to be used in SSM mode for o uPrefix64: the IPv6 unicast prefix to be used in SSM mode for
constructing the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses representing the constructing the IPv4-embedded IPv6 addresses representing the
IPv4 multicast sources in the IPv6 domain. uPrefix64 may also be IPv4 multicast sources in the IPv6 domain. uPrefix64 may also be
used to extract the IPv4 address from the received multicast data used to extract the IPv4 address from the received multicast data
flows. The address mapping follows the guidelines documented in flows. The address mapping follows the guidelines documented in
[RFC6052]. [RFC6052].
2.6. Summary and Discussion 2.6. Summary and Discussion
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methods, and the corresponding AVPs to carry them can be reused: methods, and the corresponding AVPs to carry them can be reused:
o a representation of the IPv6 address of a border router; o a representation of the IPv6 address of a border router;
o A set of prefixes for delivery of multicast services to IPv4 o A set of prefixes for delivery of multicast services to IPv4
clients over an IPv6 multicast network. clients over an IPv6 multicast network.
[RFC6519] sets a precedent for representation of the IPv6 address of [RFC6519] sets a precedent for representation of the IPv6 address of
a border router as an FQDN. This can be dereferenced to one or more a border router as an FQDN. This can be dereferenced to one or more
IP addresses by the provisioning system before being passed to the IP addresses by the provisioning system before being passed to the
customer equipment, or left as an FQDN as it as in [RFC6334]. customer equipment, or left as an FQDN as it is in [RFC6334].
The remaining requirements are transition-method-specific: The remaining requirements are transition-method-specific:
o for lw4o6, a representation of a binding between (1) either the o for lw4o6, a representation of a binding between (1) either the
IPv6 Binding Prefix or a full /128 IPv6 address, (2) a public IPv4 IPv6 Binding Prefix or a full /128 IPv6 address, (2) a public IPv4
address, and (3) (if the IPv4 address is shared) a port set address, and (3) (if the IPv4 address is shared) a port set
identifier; identifier;
o for MAP-E, a representation of the unique End-user IPv6 prefix for o for MAP-E, a representation of the unique End-user IPv6 prefix for
the CE, if not provided by other means; the CE, if not provided by other means;
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64-Multicast-Attributes AVP MUST include the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP or the 64-Multicast-Attributes AVP MUST include the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP or the
SSM-mPrefix64 AVP, and it MAY include both. SSM-mPrefix64 AVP, and it MAY include both.
The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP MUST be present when the SSM-mPrefix64 The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP MUST be present when the SSM-mPrefix64
AVP is present. The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP MAY be present when AVP is present. The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP MAY be present when
the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP is present. the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP is present.
3.3.1. ASM-mPrefix64 AVP 3.3.1. ASM-mPrefix64 AVP
The ASM-mPrefix64 AVP (AVP Code TBD03) conveys the value of The ASM-mPrefix64 AVP (AVP Code TBD03) conveys the value of ASM-
ASM_mPrefix64 as mentioned in Section 2.5. The ASM-mPrefix64 AVP is mPrefix64 as mentioned in Section 2.5. The ASM-mPrefix64 AVP is of
of type Grouped, as shown in Figure 2. type Grouped, as shown in Figure 2.
ASM-mPrefix64 ::= < AVP Header: TBD03 > ASM-mPrefix64 ::= < AVP Header: TBD03 >
{ IP-Address } { IP-Address }
{ IP-Prefix-Length } { IP-Prefix-Length }
*[ AVP ] *[ AVP ]
Figure 2: ASM-mPrefix64 AVP Figure 2: ASM-mPrefix64 AVP
IP-Address (AVP code 518) is defined in [RFC5777] and is of type IP-Address (AVP code 518) is defined in [RFC5777] and is of type
Address. Within the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP, it provides the value of an Address. Within the ASM-mPrefix64 AVP, it provides the value of an
skipping to change at page 10, line 26 skipping to change at page 10, line 19
range. Unused bits in IP-Address beyond the actual prefix MUST be range. Unused bits in IP-Address beyond the actual prefix MUST be
set to zeroes by the sender and ignored by the receiver. set to zeroes by the sender and ignored by the receiver.
The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length
of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the ASM- of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the ASM-
mPrefix64 AVP, valid values of the IP-Prefix-Length AVP are from 24 mPrefix64 AVP, valid values of the IP-Prefix-Length AVP are from 24
to 96. to 96.
3.3.2. SSM-mPrefix64 AVP 3.3.2. SSM-mPrefix64 AVP
The SSM-mPrefix64 AVP (AVP Code TBD04) conveys the value of The SSM-mPrefix64 AVP (AVP Code TBD04) conveys the value of SSM-
SSM_mPrefix64 as mentioned in Section 2.5. The SSM-mPrefix64 AVP is mPrefix64 as mentioned in Section 2.5. The SSM-mPrefix64 AVP is of
of type Grouped, as shown in Figure 3. type Grouped, as shown in Figure 3.
SSM-mPrefix64 ::= < AVP Header: TBD04 > SSM-mPrefix64 ::= < AVP Header: TBD04 >
{ IP-Address } { IP-Address }
{ IP-Prefix-Length } { IP-Prefix-Length }
*[ AVP ] *[ AVP ]
Figure 3: SSM-mPrefix64 AVP Figure 3: SSM-mPrefix64 AVP
IP-Address (AVP code 518) provides the value of an IPv6 prefix. The IP-Address (AVP code 518) provides the value of an IPv6 prefix. The
AddressType field in IP-Address MUST have value 2 (IPv6). The AddressType field in IP-Address MUST have value 2 (IPv6). The
conveyed multicast IPv6 prefix MUST belong to the SSM range. Unused conveyed multicast IPv6 prefix MUST belong to the SSM range. Unused
bits in IP-Address beyond the actual prefix MUST be set to zeroes by bits in IP-Address beyond the actual prefix MUST be set to zeroes by
the sender and ignored by the receiver. the sender and ignored by the receiver.
The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length
of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. With regard to prefix of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP.
length, note that Section 6 of [RFC3306] requires that bits 33-95 of
an SSM address in the FF3x range be set to zero, meaning that the
prefix length for an SSM prefix is effectively 96. However,
Section 1 of [RFC4607] suggests that the lower limit of 32 bits be
preserved to allow potential future use of bits 33-95. Hence
applications SHOULD accept prefix lengths between 32 and 96
inclusive.
3.3.3. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP As uPrefix64 3.3.3. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP As uPrefix64
Within the 64-Multicast-Attributes AVP, the Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP Within the 64-Multicast-Attributes AVP, the Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP
(AVP Code 123) conveys the value of uPrefix64, a unicast IPv6 prefix, (AVP Code 123) conveys the value of uPrefix64, a unicast IPv6 prefix,
as mentioned in Section 2.5. The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP is as mentioned in Section 2.5. The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP is
defined in [RFC4818]. As specified by [RFC6052], the value in the defined in [RFC4818]. As specified by [RFC6052], the value in the
Prefix-Length field MUST be one of 32, 48, 56, 64 or 96. Prefix-Length field MUST be one of 32, 48, 56, 64 or 96.
3.4. Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr AVP 3.4. Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr AVP
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includes it) to provide flexibility in the transport of the tunnel includes it) to provide flexibility in the transport of the tunnel
source address from the provisioning system to AAA while also source address from the provisioning system to AAA while also
supporting the provision of a complete binding to the lw4o6 border supporting the provision of a complete binding to the lw4o6 border
router. router.
3.4.1. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix As the IPv6 Binding Prefix 3.4.1. Delegated-IPv6-Prefix As the IPv6 Binding Prefix
The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP (AVP code 123) is of type Octetstring, The Delegated-IPv6-Prefix AVP (AVP code 123) is of type Octetstring,
and is defined in [RFC4818]. Within the Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr and is defined in [RFC4818]. Within the Tunnel-Source-Pref-Or-Addr
AVP, it conveys the IPv6 Binding Prefix assigned to the CE. Valid AVP, it conveys the IPv6 Binding Prefix assigned to the CE. Valid
values in the Prefix-Length field are from 0 to 128 (full address), values in the Prefix-Length field are from 0 to 128 (full address).
although a more restricted range is obviously more reasonable.
3.4.2. Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP 3.4.2. Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP
The Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP (AVP code TBD06) is of type The Tunnel-Source-IPv6-Address AVP (AVP code TBD06) is of type
Address. It provides the address that the CE has assigned to its end Address. It provides the address that the CE has assigned to its end
of an lw4o6 tunnel. The AddressType field in this AVP MUST be set to of an lw4o6 tunnel. The AddressType field in this AVP MUST be set to
2 (IPv6). 2 (IPv6).
3.5. Port-Set-Identifier 3.5. Port-Set-Identifier
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identifier (PSID). Valid values are from 0 to (16 - a). A value identifier (PSID). Valid values are from 0 to (16 - a). A value
of 0 indicates that the PSID is not present (probable case for of 0 indicates that the PSID is not present (probable case for
MAP-E, see Section 2.4), and the PSIDValue field MUST be ignored. MAP-E, see Section 2.4), and the PSIDValue field MUST be ignored.
o The final two octets contain the PSIDValue field. They give the o The final two octets contain the PSIDValue field. They give the
value of the PSID itself, right-justified within the field. That value of the PSID itself, right-justified within the field. That
is, the value of the PSID occupies the 'k' lowest-order bits of is, the value of the PSID occupies the 'k' lowest-order bits of
the PSIDValue field. the PSIDValue field.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Offset | Length | PSID Value | | Offset | Length | PSID Value |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 5: Port Set Figure 5: Port Set
3.6. Lw4o6-Binding AVP 3.6. Lw4o6-Binding AVP
The Lw4o6-Binding AVP (AVP Code TBD08) is of type Grouped. It The Lw4o6-Binding AVP (AVP Code TBD08) is of type Grouped. It
contains the elements of configuration that constitute the binding contains the elements of configuration that constitute the binding
between an lw4o6 tunnel and IPv4 packets sent through that tunnel, as between an lw4o6 tunnel and IPv4 packets sent through that tunnel, as
described in Section 2.2. described in Section 2.2.
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Address. Within the Rule-IPv4-Addr-Or-Prefix AVP, it provides the Address. Within the Rule-IPv4-Addr-Or-Prefix AVP, it provides the
value of a unicast IPv4 address or prefix. The AddressType field in value of a unicast IPv4 address or prefix. The AddressType field in
IP-Address MUST have value 1 (IPv4). Unused bits in IP-Address IP-Address MUST have value 1 (IPv4). Unused bits in IP-Address
beyond the actual prefix MUST be set to zeroes by the sender and beyond the actual prefix MUST be set to zeroes by the sender and
ignored by the receiver. ignored by the receiver.
The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length The IP-Prefix-Length AVP (AVP code TBD00) provides the actual length
of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the Rule-IPv4- of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the Rule-IPv4-
Addr-Or-Prefix AVP, valid values of the IP-Prefix-Length AVP are from Addr-Or-Prefix AVP, valid values of the IP-Prefix-Length AVP are from
0 to 32 (full address), based on the different cases identified in 0 to 32 (full address), based on the different cases identified in
Section 5.2 of [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. Section 5.2 of [RFC7597].
3.9.2. Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP 3.9.2. Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP
The Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP (AVP Code TBD14) conveys the rule IPv6 The Rule-IPv6-Prefix AVP (AVP Code TBD14) conveys the rule IPv6
prefix and length as described in Section 2.4. The Rule-IPv6-Prefix prefix and length as described in Section 2.4. The Rule-IPv6-Prefix
AVP is of type Grouped, as shown in Figure 10. AVP is of type Grouped, as shown in Figure 10.
Rule-IPv6-Prefix ::= < AVP Header: TBD14 > Rule-IPv6-Prefix ::= < AVP Header: TBD14 >
{ IP-Address } { IP-Address }
{ IP-Prefix-Length } { IP-Prefix-Length }
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of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the Rule- of the prefix contained in the IP-Address AVP. Within the Rule-
IPv6-Prefix AVP, the minimum valid prefix length is 0. The maximum IPv6-Prefix AVP, the minimum valid prefix length is 0. The maximum
value is bounded by the length of the End-user IPv6 prefix associated value is bounded by the length of the End-user IPv6 prefix associated
with the mapping rule, if present in the form of the Delegated- with the mapping rule, if present in the form of the Delegated-
IPv6-Prefix AVP in the enclosing MAP-E-Attributes AVP. Otherwise the IPv6-Prefix AVP in the enclosing MAP-E-Attributes AVP. Otherwise the
maximum value is 128. maximum value is 128.
3.9.3. EA-Field-Length AVP 3.9.3. EA-Field-Length AVP
The EA-Field-Length AVP (AVP Code TBD15) is of type Unsigned32. The EA-Field-Length AVP (AVP Code TBD15) is of type Unsigned32.
Valid values range from 0 to 48. See Section 5.2 of Valid values range from 0 to 48. See Section 5.2 of [RFC7597] for a
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map] for a description of the use of this description of the use of this parameter in deriving IPv4 address and
parameter in deriving IPv4 address and port number configuration. port number configuration.
4. Attribute Value Pair Flag Rules 4. Attribute Value Pair Flag Rules
+---------+ +---------+
|AVP flag | |AVP flag |
|rules | |rules |
+----+----+ +----+----+
AVP Section | |MUST| AVP Section | |MUST|
Attribute Name Code Defined Value Type |MUST| NOT| Attribute Name Code Defined Value Type |MUST| NOT|
+-------------------------------------------------------+----+----+ +-------------------------------------------------------+----+----+
|IP-Prefix-Length TBD00 3.1 Unsigned32 | | V | |IP-Prefix-Length TBD00 3.1 Unsigned32 | | V |
skipping to change at page 18, line 48 skipping to change at page 18, line 48
man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks on the Diameter delivery path. The man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks on the Diameter delivery path. The
first threat is denial-of-service (DoS) through modification of the first threat is denial-of-service (DoS) through modification of the
AVP contents leading to misconfiguration (e.g., a subscriber may fail AVP contents leading to misconfiguration (e.g., a subscriber may fail
to access its connectivity service if an invalid IP address was to access its connectivity service if an invalid IP address was
configured, the subscriber's traffic can be intercepted by a configured, the subscriber's traffic can be intercepted by a
misbehaving node if a fake Border Node has been configured, etc.). misbehaving node if a fake Border Node has been configured, etc.).
The second one is related to privacy (see Section 6.2). The second one is related to privacy (see Section 6.2).
Diameter security is currently provided on a hop-by-hop basis (see Diameter security is currently provided on a hop-by-hop basis (see
Section 2.2 of [RFC6733]). The Diameter end-to-end security problem Section 2.2 of [RFC6733]). The Diameter end-to-end security problem
has not been solved, so MITM attacks on Diameter peers along the path has not been solved, so MITM attacks by Diameter peers along the path
are possible. The present document does not propose to solve that are possible. The present document does not propose to solve that
general problem, but simply warn that it exists. general problem, but simply warn that it exists.
Diameter-related security considerations are discussed in Section 13 Diameter-related security considerations are discussed in Section 13
of [RFC6733]. of [RFC6733].
6.2. Privacy 6.2. Privacy
The AVPs defined in this document reveal privacy-related information The AVPs defined in this document reveal privacy-related information
(e.g., subscriber addresses) that can be used for tracking proposes. (e.g., subscriber addresses) that can be used for tracking proposes.
All these AVPs are considered to be security-sensitive.
Considerations discussed in Section 13.3 of [RFC6733] MUST be Considerations discussed in Section 13.3 of [RFC6733] MUST be
followed. followed for Diameter messages containing these AVPs.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
Huawei Technologies funded Tom Taylor's work on earlier versions of Huawei Technologies funded Tom Taylor's work on earlier versions of
this document. this document.
Special thanks to Lionel Morand for the detailed review. Special thanks to Lionel Morand for the detailed review.
Many thanks to Russ Housley for the review and comments. Many thanks to Russ Housley, Tim Chown, Spencer Dawkins, and Ben
Campbell for the review and comments.
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-softwire-lw4over6]
Cui, Y., Qiong, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and
I. Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the DS-
Lite Architecture", draft-ietf-softwire-lw4over6-13 (work
in progress), November 2014.
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map]
Troan, O., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, "Mapping of Address and Port
with Encapsulation (MAP)", draft-ietf-softwire-map-13
(work in progress), March 2015.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.
[RFC1123] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application [RFC1123] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989. Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123,
DOI 10.17487/RFC1123, October 1989,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1123>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS [RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997. Specification", RFC 2181, DOI 10.17487/RFC2181, July 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2181>.
[RFC3306] Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.
[RFC4818] Salowey, J. and R. Droms, "RADIUS Delegated-IPv6-Prefix [RFC4818] Salowey, J. and R. Droms, "RADIUS Delegated-IPv6-Prefix
Attribute", RFC 4818, April 2007. Attribute", RFC 4818, DOI 10.17487/RFC4818, April 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4818>.
[RFC5777] Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., Arumaithurai, M., Jones, M., [RFC5777] Korhonen, J., Tschofenig, H., Arumaithurai, M., Jones, M.,
and A. Lior, "Traffic Classification and Quality of Ed., and A. Lior, "Traffic Classification and Quality of
Service (QoS) Attributes for Diameter", RFC 5777, February Service (QoS) Attributes for Diameter", RFC 5777,
2010. DOI 10.17487/RFC5777, February 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5777>.
[RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual- [RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual-
Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4
Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011. Exhaustion", RFC 6333, DOI 10.17487/RFC6333, August 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6333>.
[RFC6733] Fajardo, V., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn, [RFC6733] Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
"Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733, October 2012. Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6733>.
[RFC7596] Cui, Y., Sun, Q., Boucadair, M., Tsou, T., Lee, Y., and I.
Farrer, "Lightweight 4over6: An Extension to the Dual-
Stack Lite Architecture", RFC 7596, DOI 10.17487/RFC7596,
July 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7596>.
[RFC7597] Troan, O., Ed., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S.,
Murakami, T., and T. Taylor, Ed., "Mapping of Address and
Port with Encapsulation (MAP-E)", RFC 7597,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7597, July 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7597>.
8.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast] [I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast]
Qin, J., Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., Lee, Y., and Q. Qin, J., Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., Lee, Y., and Q.
Wang, "Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients Wang, "Delivery of IPv4 Multicast Services to IPv4 Clients
over an IPv6 Multicast Network", draft-ietf-softwire- over an IPv6 Multicast Network", draft-ietf-softwire-
dslite-multicast-09 (work in progress), March 2015. dslite-multicast-09 (work in progress), March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-softwire-map-dhcp]
Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec,
W., Bao, C., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for
configuration of Softwire Address and Port Mapped
Clients", draft-ietf-softwire-map-dhcp-12 (work in
progress), March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option] [I-D.ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option]
Boucadair, M., Qin, J., Tsou, T., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Boucadair, M., Qin, J., Tsou, T., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6
Option for IPv4-Embedded Multicast and Unicast IPv6 Option for IPv4-Embedded Multicast and Unicast IPv6
Prefixes", draft-ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option-08 Prefixes", draft-ietf-softwire-multicast-prefix-option-08
(work in progress), March 2015. (work in progress), March 2015.
[RFC3315] Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C., [RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003. for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.
[RFC4607] Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for [RFC4607] Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
IP", RFC 4607, August 2006. IP", RFC 4607, DOI 10.17487/RFC4607, August 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4607>.
[RFC6052] Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X. [RFC6052] Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052, Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
October 2010. DOI 10.17487/RFC6052, October 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6052>.
[RFC6334] Hankins, D. and T. Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host Configuration [RFC6334] Hankins, D. and T. Mrugalski, "Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite", Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) Option for Dual-Stack Lite",
RFC 6334, August 2011. RFC 6334, DOI 10.17487/RFC6334, August 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6334>.
[RFC6519] Maglione, R. and A. Durand, "RADIUS Extensions for Dual- [RFC6519] Maglione, R. and A. Durand, "RADIUS Extensions for Dual-
Stack Lite", RFC 6519, February 2012. Stack Lite", RFC 6519, DOI 10.17487/RFC6519, February
2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6519>.
[RFC7598] Mrugalski, T., Troan, O., Farrer, I., Perreault, S., Dec,
W., Bao, C., Yeh, L., and X. Deng, "DHCPv6 Options for
Configuration of Softwire Address and Port-Mapped
Clients", RFC 7598, DOI 10.17487/RFC7598, July 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7598>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Cathy Zhou Cathy Zhou
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
Bantian, Longgang District Bantian, Longgang District
Shenzhen 518129 Shenzhen 518129
P.R. China P.R. China
Email: cathy.zhou@huawei.com Email: cathy.zhou@huawei.com
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