BFD Working Group                                               W. Cheng
Internet-Draft                                                   R. Wang
Updates: 5880 (if approved)                                 China Mobile
Intended status: Standards Track                                  X. Min
Expires: May 6, December 24, 2021                                     ZTE Corp.
                                                               R. Rahman
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                              Individual
                                                           R. Boddireddy
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                        November 2, 2020
                                                           June 22, 2021

                     Unaffiliated BFD Echo Function
                  draft-ietf-bfd-unaffiliated-echo-01
                  draft-ietf-bfd-unaffiliated-echo-02

Abstract

   Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a fault detection
   protocol that can quickly determine a communication failure between
   two forwarding engines.  This document proposes a use of the BFD Echo
   function where the local system supports BFD but the neighboring
   system does not support BFD.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 6, December 24, 2021.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Updates to RFC 5880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Unaffiliated BFD Echo Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Unaffilicated  Unaffiliated BFD Echo Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . .   7 .   8
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8   9
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9  10

1.  Introduction

   To minimize the impact of device/link faults on services and improve
   network availability, a network device must be able to quickly detect
   faults in communication with adjacent devices.  Measures can then be
   taken to promptly rectify the faults to ensure service continuity.

   BFD [RFC5880] is a low-overhead, short-duration method to detect
   faults on the communication path between adjacent forwarding engines.
   The faults can be on interface, interfaces, data link, link(s), and even the
   forwarding
   engine. engines.  It is a single, unified mechanism to monitor any
   media and protocol layers in real time.

   BFD defines an Asynchronous mode to satisfy various deployment
   scenarios, and
   scenarios.  It also supports an Echo function to reduce the device
   requirement for BFD.  When the Echo function is activated, the local
   system sends BFD Echo packets and the remote system loops back the
   received Echo packets through the forwarding path.  If several
   consecutive BFD Echo packets are not received by the local system,
   then the BFD session is declared to be Down.

   When using BFD Echo function, there are two typical scenarios as
   below:

   o  Full BFD protocol capability with affiliated Echo function: this This
      scenario requires both the local device and the neighboring device
      to support the full BFD protocol.

   o Only  BFD Echo Echo-Only function without full BFD protocol capability:
      this This
      scenario requires only the local device to support sending and
      demultiplexing BFD Control packets.

   The two typical scenarios are both reasonable and useful, and the latter scenario is referred to as Unaffiliated BFD Echo function
   in this document.

   Section 6.2.2 of [BBF-TR-146] describes one use case of the
   Unaffiliated BFD Echo function, and at least one more use case is
   known in the field BFD deployment. to be deployed.

   This document describes the use of the Unaffiliated BFD Echo function
   over IPv4 and IPv6 for single IP hop.

1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Updates to RFC 5880

   The Unaffiliated BFD Echo function described in this document reuses
   the BFD Echo function as described in [RFC5880] and [RFC5881], but
   does not require BFD asynchronous Asynchronous mode.  When using the Unaffiliated
   BFD Echo function, only the local system has the BFD protocol
   enabled,
   enabled; the remote system just loops back the received BFD Echo
   packets as regular data packets.

   With that said, this

   This document updates [RFC5880] with respect to its descriptions on
   the BFD Echo function as follows.

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 4th paragraph of Section 3.2: 3.2 of [RFC5880] is updated as below:

      OLD TEXT

      An adjunct to both modes is the Echo function.  When the Echo
      function is active, a stream of BFD Echo packets is transmitted in
      such a way as

      NEW TEXT

      An adjunct or complement to have the other system loop them back through its
      forwarding path.  If a number of packets of the echoed data stream
      are not received, the session both modes is declared to be down.  The the Echo
      function may be used with either Asynchronous or Demand mode. function.

      OLD TEXT

      Since the Echo function is handling the task of detection, the
      rate of periodic transmission of Control packets may be reduced
      (in the case of Asynchronous mode) or eliminated completely (in
      the case of Demand mode).

   * This paragraph is now updated to:

      An adjunct or complement to both modes is the Echo function.  When
      the Echo function is active, a stream of BFD Echo packets is
      transmitted in such a way as to have the other system loop them
      back through its forwarding path.  If a number of packets of the
      echoed data stream are not received, the session is declared to be
      down.  The Echo function may be used with either Asynchronous or
      Demand mode.

      NEW TEXT

      Since the Echo function is handling the task of detection, the
      rate of periodic transmission of Control packets may be reduced
      (in the case of Asynchronous mode) or eliminated completely (in
      the case of Demand mode).  The Echo function may also be used
      independently, with neither Asynchronous nor Demand mode.

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 3rd and 9th paragraphs of Section 6.1: 6.1 of [RFC5880] are updated
      as below:

      OLD TEXT

      Once the BFD session is Up, a system can choose to start the Echo
      function if it desires and the other system signals that it will
      allow it.  The rate of transmission of Control packets

      NEW TEXT

      When a system is
      typically kept low when running with Asynchronous mode, once the Echo function is active.

      If the session goes Down, the transmission of Echo packets (if
      any) ceases, and the transmission of Control packets goes back to
      the slow rate.

   * The two paragraphs are now updated to:

      When a system is running with Asynchronous mode, once the BFD
      session BFD
      session is Up, it can choose to start the Echo function if it
      desires and the other system signals that it will allow it.  The
      rate

      OLD TEXT

      If the session goes Down, the transmission of Echo packets (if
      any) ceases, and the transmission of Control packets is typically kept low when goes back to
      the Echo function is active. slow rate.

      NEW TEXT

      In Asynchronous mode, if the session goes Down, the transmission
      of Echo packets (if any) ceases, and the transmission of Control
      packets goes back to the slow rate.

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 2nd paragraph of Section 6.4: 6.4 of [RFC5880] is updated as below:

      OLD TEXT
      When a system is using the Echo function, it is advantageous to
      choose a sedate reception rate for Control packets, since liveness
      detection is being handled by the Echo packets.  This can be
      controlled by manipulating the Required Min RX Interval field (see
      section 6.8.3).

   * This paragraph is now updated to:

      NEW TEXT

      When a system is using the Echo function with Asynchronous mode,
      it is advantageous to choose a sedate reception rate for Control
      packets, since liveness detection is being handled by the Echo
      packets.  This can be controlled by manipulating the Required Min
      RX Interval field (see section 6.8.3).

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 2nd paragraph of Section 6.8: 6.8 of [RFC5880] is updated as below:

      OLD TEXT

      When a system is said to have "the Echo function active" it means
      that the system is sending BFD Echo packets, implying that the
      session is Up and the other system has signaled its willingness to
      loop back Echo packets.

   * This paragraph is now updated to:

      NEW TEXT

      When a system in Asynchronous or Demand mode is said to have "the
      Echo function active" it means that the system is sending BFD Echo
      packets, implying that the session is Up and the other system has
      signaled its willingness to loop back Echo packets.

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 7th paragraph of Section 6.8.3: 6.8.3 of [RFC5880] is updated as
      below:

      OLD TEXT

      When the Echo function is active, a system SHOULD set
      bfd.RequiredMinRxInterval to a value of not less than one second
      (1,000,000 microseconds).  This is intended to keep received BFD
      Control traffic at a negligible level, since the actual detection
      function is being performed using BFD Echo packets.

   * This paragraph is now updated to:

      NEW TEXT

      When the Echo function is active with Asynchronous mode, a system
      SHOULD set bfd.RequiredMinRxInterval to a value of not less than
      one second (1,000,000 microseconds).  This is intended to keep
      received BFD Control traffic at a negligible level, since the
      actual detection function is being performed using BFD Echo
      packets.

   o [RFC5880] states in the  The 1st and 2nd paragraphs of Section 6.8.9: 6.8.9 of [RFC5880] are
      updated as below:

      OLD TEXT
      BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be transmitted when bfd.SessionState is
      not Up.  BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be transmitted unless the last
      BFD Control packet received from the remote system contains a
      nonzero value in Required Min Echo RX Interval.

      BFD Echo packets MAY be transmitted when bfd.SessionState is Up.
      The interval between transmitted BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be less
      than the value advertised by the remote system in Required Min
      Echo RX Interval, except as follows:

         A 25% jitter MAY be applied to the rate of transmission, such
         that the actual interval MAY be between 75% and 100% of the
         advertised value.  A single BFD Echo packet MAY be transmitted
         between normally scheduled Echo transmission intervals.

   * The two paragraphs are now updated to:

      NEW TEXT

      When a system is using the Echo function with either Asynchronous
      or Demand mode, BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be transmitted when
      bfd.SessionState is not Up, and BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be
      transmitted unless the last BFD Control packet received from the
      remote system contains a nonzero value in Required Min Echo RX
      Interval.

      When a system is using the Echo function with either Asynchronous
      or Demand mode, BFD

      OLD TEXT

      BFD Echo packets MAY be transmitted when bfd.SessionState is Up, and the Up.
      The interval between transmitted BFD Echo packets MUST NOT be less
      than the value advertised by the remote system in Required Min
      Echo RX Interval, except as follows:

         A 25% jitter MAY be applied to the rate of transmission, such
         that Interval...

      NEW TEXT

      When a system is using the actual interval Echo function with either Asynchronous
      or Demand mode, BFD Echo packets MAY be between 75% transmitted when
      bfd.SessionState is Up, and 100% of the
         advertised value.  A single interval between transmitted BFD
      Echo packet MAY packets MUST NOT be transmitted
         between normally scheduled less than the value advertised by the
      remote system in Required Min Echo transmission intervals. RX Interval...

3.  Unaffiliated BFD Echo Procedures

   As shown in Figure 1, device A supports BFD, whereas device B does
   not support BFD.  Device A would send BFD Echo packets, and after
   receiving the BFD Echo packets sent from device A, the one-hop-away
   BFD peer device B immediately loops them back by normal IP
   forwarding, this allows device A to rapidly detect a connectivity
   loss to device B.  Note that device B would not intercept any
   received BFD Echo packet or parse any BFD protocol field within the
   BFD Echo packet.

   To rapidly detect any IP forwarding faults between device A and
   device B, a BFD Echo session MUST be created at device A, and the BFD
   Echo session is RECOMMENDED to follow the BFD state machine defined
   in Section 6.2 of [RFC5880], except that the received state is not
   sent but echoed from the remote system. system, and AdminDown state is ruled
   out because AdminDown effectively means removal of BFD Echo session.
   In this case, although BFD Echo packets are transmitted with
   destination UDP port 3785 as defined in [RFC5881], the BFD Echo
   packets sent by device A are BFD Control packets too, the looped BFD
   Echo packets back from device B would drive BFD state change at
   device A, substituting the BFD Control packets sent from the BFD
   peer.  Also note that when device A receives looped BFD Control
   packets, the validation procedures of [RFC5880] are used.

   Once a BFD Echo session is created at device A, it starts sending BFD
   Echo packets, which SHOULD include a BFD Echo session demultiplexing
   field, such as BFD Your Discriminator "Your Discriminator" defined in [RFC5880] (BFD My
   Discriminator "My
   Discriminator" can be set to 0 to avoid confusion), except that
   device A can use IP source address or UDP source port to demultiplex
   BFD Echo session, or there is only one BFD Echo session running at
   device A.  Device A would send BFD Echo packets with IP destination
   address destined for itself, such as the IP address of interface 1 of
   device A.  All BFD Echo packets for the session MUST be sent with a
   Time to Live (TTL) or Hop Limit value of 255.

   "Desired Min TX Interval" and "Required Min RX Interval" defined in
   [RFC5880] may be populated with one second within the BFD Echo
   packet, which however has no real application and would be ignored by
   the receiver.

   Considering the BFD peer wouldn't advertise Required "Required Min Echo RX
   Interval
   Interval" as defined in [RFC5880], the transmit transmission interval for
   sending BFD Echo packets MUST be provisioned at device A, how to make
   sure the BFD peer is willing and able to loop back BFD Echo packets
   sent with the provisioned transmit transmission interval is outside the scope
   of this document.  Similar to what's specified in [RFC5880], the BFD
   Echo session begins with the periodic, slow transmission of BFD Echo
   packets, the slow transmission rate SHOULD be no less then one second
   per packet, until the session is Up, after that the provisioned
   transmission interval is applied, and reverting back to the slow rate
   once the session goes Down.  Considering the BFD peer wouldn't
   advertise Detect Mult "Detect Mult" as defined in [RFC5880], the Detect Mult "Detect Mult"
   for calculating the Detection Time MUST be provisioned at device A,
   the Detection Time in device A is equal to the provisioned Detect Mult "Detect
   Mult" multiplied by the provisioned
   transmit transmission interval.

   After receiving the

   Device A                                  Device B

   BFD Enabled                               BFD Echo packets sent from device A, the one-hop-
   away loopback
   +--------+        BFD peer device B immediately loops them back by normal IP
   forwarding, this allows device A to rapidly detect a connectivity
   loss to device B.

   Device A                                   Device B
                      BFD Echo session
   BFD Enabled                                BFD Echo packets loopback
   +--------+                                 +---------+
   |   A    |---------------------------------| Echo session        +---------+
   |   A    |--------------------------------|   B     |
   |        |Inf 1                      Inf 1|         |
   +--------+10.1.1.1/24          10.1.1.2/24+---------+
   BFD is supported.                BFD is not supported.

                  Figure 1: Unaffiliated BFD Echo deployment scenario diagram

4.  Unaffilicated BFD Echo Applicability

   With the more and more application of BFD detection, there are some
   scenarios the BFD Echo function is deployed.  And due to the
   different capabilities of the devices deploying BFD Echo function,
   it's required to apply  Unaffiliated BFD Echo to the Applicability

   Some devices that
   couldn't afford would benefit from the overhead use of BFD may be unable to
   support the full BFD protocol capability, protocol.  Examples of such as the devices include
   servers running virtual machines machines, or some Internet of Things (IoT)
   devices.  The Unaffiliated BFD Echo function can be used when two
   devices are connected and only one of them supports the BFD protocol
   capability.

   Unaffiliated BFD Echo function is reasonable protocol,
   and useful.  Firstly,
   Unaffiliated BFD Echo can use BFD protocol capability at the local
   BFD-supported device, while using IP forwarding capability at the
   peer BFD-unsupported device, so Unaffiliated other is capable of looping BFD Echo can support
   fast detecting packets.

5.  Security Considerations

   All Security Considerations from [RFC5880] and manage BFD sessions very effectively.  Secondly,
   it is scalable when using [RFC5881] apply.

   Note that the Unaffiliated BFD Echo to adapt to different
   capabilities function prevents the use of devices.

5.  Security Considerations
   Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (uRPF), as specified in (URPF) [RFC3704] and
   [RFC8704], is a security feature that prevents the IP address
   spoofing attacks which is commonly used [RFC8704] in DoS, DDoS. uRPF has two
   modes called strict mode and loose
   mode. uRPF strict mode means that

   As specified in Section 5 of [RFC5880], since BFD Echo packets may be
   spoofed, some form of authentication SHOULD be included.  Considering
   the router will perform checks for all incoming BFD Echo packets on a certain
   interface: whether in this document are also BFD Control packets,
   the router has a matching entry "Authentication Section" as defined in [RFC5880] for BFD Control
   packet is RECOMMENDED to be included within the source IP
   in BFD Echo packet.

   In order to mitigate the routing table and whether potential reflector attack by the router uses remote
   attackers, or infinite loop of the same interface BFD Echo packets, it's RECOMMENDED
   to reach this source IP as where the router received this packet on.
   Note that put two requirements on the use of device looping BFD Echo function would prevent packets, the
   first one is that a packet SHOULD NOT be looped unless it has a TTL
   or Hop Limit value of 255, and the second one is that a packet being
   looped MUST NOT reset the TTL or Hop Limit value to 255, and MUST use
   a TTL or Hop Limit value of uRPF
   in strict mode. 254.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA action requested.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Ketan Talaulikar, Greg Mirsky
   and Santosh Pallagatti for their careful review and very helpful
   comments.

   The authors would like to acknowledge Jeff Haas for his insightful
   review and very helpful comments.

8.  Contributors

   Liu Aihua
   ZTE
   Email: liu.aihua@zte.com.cn

   Qian Xin
   ZTE
   Email: qian.xin2@zte.com.cn

   Zhao Yanhua
   ZTE
   Email: zhao.yanhua3@zte.com.cn

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5880]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD)", RFC 5880, DOI 10.17487/RFC5880, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5880>.

   [RFC5881]  Katz, D. and D. Ward, "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
              (BFD) for IPv4 and IPv6 (Single Hop)", RFC 5881,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5881, June 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5881>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [BBF-TR-146]
              Broadband Forum, "BBF Technical Report - Subscriber
              Sessions Issue 1", 2013, <https://www.broadband-
              forum.org/technical/download/TR-146.pdf>.

   [RFC3704]  Baker, F. and P. Savola, "Ingress Filtering for Multihomed
              Networks", BCP 84, RFC 3704, DOI 10.17487/RFC3704, March
              2004, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3704>.

   [RFC8704]  Sriram, K., Montgomery, D., and J. Haas, "Enhanced
              Feasible-Path Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding", BCP 84,
              RFC 8704, DOI 10.17487/RFC8704, February 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8704>.

Authors' Addresses

   Weiqiang Cheng
   China Mobile
   Beijing
   CN
   China

   Email: chengweiqiang@chinamobile.com

   Ruixue Wang
   China Mobile
   Beijing
   CN
   China

   Email: wangruixue@chinamobile.com

   Xiao Min
   ZTE Corp.
   Nanjing
   CN
   China

   Email: xiao.min2@zte.com.cn

   Reshad Rahman
   Cisco Systems
   Individual
   Kanata
   CA
   Canada

   Email: rrahman@cisco.com reshad@yahoo.com

   Raj Chetan Boddireddy
   Juniper Networks

   Email: rchetan@juniper.net