draft-ietf-ace-coap-est-06.txt   draft-ietf-ace-coap-est-07.txt 
ACE P. van der Stok ACE P. van der Stok
Internet-Draft Consultant Internet-Draft Consultant
Intended status: Standards Track P. Kampanakis Intended status: Standards Track P. Kampanakis
Expires: April 11, 2019 Cisco Systems Expires: July 13, 2019 Cisco Systems
S. Kumar
Philips Lighting Research
M. Richardson M. Richardson
SSW SSW
M. Furuhed
Nexus Group
S. Raza S. Raza
RISE SICS RISE SICS
October 8, 2018 January 9, 2019
EST over secure CoAP (EST-coaps) EST over secure CoAP (EST-coaps)
draft-ietf-ace-coap-est-06 draft-ietf-ace-coap-est-07
Abstract Abstract
Enrollment over Secure Transport (EST) is used as a certificate Enrollment over Secure Transport (EST) is used as a certificate
provisioning protocol over HTTPS. Low-resource devices often use the provisioning protocol over HTTPS. Low-resource devices often use the
lightweight Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) for message lightweight Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) for message
exchanges. This document defines how to transport EST payloads over exchanges. This document defines how to transport EST payloads over
secure CoAP (EST-coaps), which allows low-resource constrained secure CoAP (EST-coaps), which allows constrained devices to use
devices to use existing EST functionality for provisioning existing EST functionality for provisioning certificates.
certificates.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 11, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 13, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Conformance to RFC7925 profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Conformance to RFC7925 profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Protocol Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Protocol Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1. Mandatory/optional EST Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.1. Mandatory/optional EST Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2. Payload format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2. Payload format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.2.1. Content Format application/multipart-core . . . . . . 8 5.2.1. Content Format application/multipart-core . . . . . . 8
5.3. Message Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.3. Message Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.4. CoAP response codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.4. CoAP response codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.5. Delayed Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.5. Message fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.6. Server-side Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.6. Delayed Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.7. Message fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.7. Server-side Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.8. Deployment limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.8. Deployment limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6. Discovery and URI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Discovery and URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. DTLS Transport Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7. DTLS Transport Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9. Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9. Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10.1. Content-Format Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10.1. Content-Format Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10.2. Resource Type registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 10.2. Resource Type registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
11.1. EST server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 11.1. EST server considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
11.2. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar considerations . . . . . . . . . . 22 11.2. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar considerations . . . . . . . . . . 23
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 12. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appendix A. EST messages to EST-coaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
A.1. cacerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Appendix A. EST messages to EST-coaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.2. csrattrs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 A.1. cacerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A.2. csrattrs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
A.3. enroll / reenroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 A.3. enroll / reenroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
A.4. serverkeygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 A.4. serverkeygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Appendix B. EST-coaps Block message examples . . . . . . . . . . 35 Appendix B. EST-coaps Block message examples . . . . . . . . . . 35
B.1. cacerts block example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 B.1. cacerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
B.2. enroll block example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B.2. enroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix C. Message content breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
C.1. cacerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
C.2. enroll / reenroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
C.3. serverkeygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1. Change Log 1. Change Log
EDNOTE: Remove this section before publication EDNOTE: Remove this section before publication
-07:
redone examples from scratch with openssl
Updated authors.
Added CoAP RST as a MAY for an equivalent to an HTTP 204 message.
Added serialization example of the /skg CBOR response.
Added text regarding expired IDevIDs and persistent DTLS
connection that will start using the Explicit TA Database in the
new DTLS connection.
Nits and fixes
Removed CBOR envelop for binary data
Replaced TBD8 with 62.
Added RFC8174 reference and text.
Clarified MTI for server-side key generation and Content-Formats.
Defined the /skg MTI (PKCS#8) and the cases where CMS encryption
will be used.
Moved Fragmentation section up because it was referenced in
sections above it.
-06: -06:
clarified discovery section, by specifying that no discovery may clarified discovery section, by specifying that no discovery may
be needed for /.well-known/est URI. be needed for /.well-known/est URI.
added resource type values for IANA added resource type values for IANA
added list of compulsory to implement and optional functions. added list of compulsory to implement and optional functions.
Fixed issues pointed out by the idnits tool. Fixed issues pointed out by the idnits tool.
Updated COAP response codes section with more mappings between EST Updated CoAP response codes section with more mappings between EST
HTTP codes and EST-coaps COAP codes. HTTP codes and EST-coaps CoAP codes.
Minor updates to the MTI EST Functions section. Minor updates to the MTI EST Functions section.
Moved Change Log section higher. Moved Change Log section higher.
-05: -05:
repaired again repaired again
TBD8 removed from C-F registration, to be done in CT draft. TBD8 = 62 removed from C-F registration, to be done in CT draft.
-04: -04:
Updated Delayed response section to reflect short and long delay Updated Delayed response section to reflect short and long delay
options. options.
-03: -03:
Removed observe and simplified long waits Removed observe and simplified long waits
skipping to change at page 4, line 22 skipping to change at page 4, line 48
Editorials done. Editorials done.
Redefinition of proxy to Registrar in Section 8. Explained better Redefinition of proxy to Registrar in Section 8. Explained better
the role of https-coaps Registrar, instead of "proxy" the role of https-coaps Registrar, instead of "proxy"
Provide "observe" option examples Provide "observe" option examples
extended block message example. extended block message example.
inserted new server key generation text in Section 5.6 and inserted new server key generation text in Section 5.7 and
motivated server key generation. motivated server key generation.
Broke down details for DTLS 1.3 Broke down details for DTLS 1.3
New media type uses CBOR array for multiple content-format New media type uses CBOR array for multiple content-format
payloads payloads
provided new content format tables provided new content format tables
new media format for IANA new media format for IANA
-00 -00
copied from vanderstok-ace-coap-04 copied from vanderstok-ace-coap-04
skipping to change at page 5, line 5 skipping to change at page 5, line 28
for authenticated/authorized endpoint certificate enrollment (and for authenticated/authorized endpoint certificate enrollment (and
optionally key provisioning) through a Certificate Authority (CA) or optionally key provisioning) through a Certificate Authority (CA) or
Registration Authority (RA). EST messages run over HTTPS. Registration Authority (RA). EST messages run over HTTPS.
This document defines a new transport for EST based on the This document defines a new transport for EST based on the
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) since some Internet of Things Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) since some Internet of Things
(IoT) devices use CoAP instead of HTTP. Therefore, this (IoT) devices use CoAP instead of HTTP. Therefore, this
specification utilizes DTLS [RFC6347], CoAP [RFC7252], and UDP specification utilizes DTLS [RFC6347], CoAP [RFC7252], and UDP
instead of TLS [RFC8446], HTTP [RFC7230] and TCP. instead of TLS [RFC8446], HTTP [RFC7230] and TCP.
EST messages may be relatively large and for this reason this EST responses can be relatively large and for this reason this
document also uses CoAP Block-Wise Transfer [RFC7959] to offer a specification also uses CoAP Block-Wise Transfer [RFC7959] to offer a
fragmentation mechanism of EST messages at the CoAP layer. fragmentation mechanism of EST messages at the CoAP layer.
This specification also profiles the use of EST to only support This document also profiles the use of EST to only support
certificate-based client Authentication. HTTP Basic or Digest certificate-based client authentication. HTTP Basic or Digest
authentication (as described in Section 3.2.3 of [RFC7030] are not authentication (as described in Section 3.2.3 of [RFC7030] are not
supported. supported.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
Many of the concepts in this document are taken over from [RFC7030]. Many of the concepts in this document are taken over from [RFC7030].
Consequently, much text is directly traceable to [RFC7030]. The same Consequently, much text is directly traceable to [RFC7030]. The same
document structure is followed to point out the differences and document structure is followed to point out the differences and
commonalities between EST and EST-coaps. commonalities between EST and EST-coaps.
4. Conformance to RFC7925 profiles 4. Conformance to RFC7925 profiles
This section shows how EST-coaps fits into the profiles of low- This section shows how EST-coaps fits into the profiles of low-
resource devices described in [RFC7925]. resource devices described in [RFC7925]. EST-coaps can transport
certificates and private keys. Certificates are responses to
EST-coaps can transport certificates and private keys. Certificates (re-)enrollment requests or requests for a trusted certificate list.
are responses to (re-)enrollment requests or request for a trusted Private keys can be transported as responses to a server-side key
certificate list. Private keys can be transported as responses to a generation request as described in section 4.4 of [RFC7030] snd
request to a server-side keygeneration as described in section 4.4 of discussed in Section 5.7 of this document.
[RFC7030] and discussed in Section 5.6 of this document.
As per [RFC7925] section 3.3 and section 4.4, the mandatory cipher As per Sections 3.3 and 4.4 of [RFC7925], the mandatory cipher suite
suite for DTLS in EST-coaps is TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 for DTLS in EST-coaps is TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
defined in [RFC7251], and the curve secp256r1 MUST be supported [RFC7251]. Curve secp256r1 MUST be supported [RFC8422]; this curve
[RFC8422]; this curve is equivalent to the NIST P-256 curve. Crypto is equivalent to the NIST P-256 curve. Crypto agility is important,
agility is important, and the recommendations in [RFC7925] section and the recommendations in [RFC7925] section 4.4 and any updates to
4.4 and any updates to RFC7925 concerning Curve25519 and other CFRG RFC7925 concerning Curve25519 and other CFRG curves also apply.
curves also apply.
DTLS1.2 implementations MUST use the Supported Elliptic Curves and DTLS1.2 implementations MUST use the Supported Elliptic Curves and
Supported Point Formats Extensions [RFC8422]. Uncompressed point Supported Point Formats Extensions [RFC8422]. Uncompressed point
format MUST also be supported. [RFC6090] can be used as summary of format MUST also be supported. [RFC6090] can be used as summary of
the ECC algorithms. DTLS 1.3 implementations differ from DTLS 1.2 the ECC algorithms. DTLS 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13] implementations
because they do not support point format negotiation in favor of a differ from DTLS 1.2 because they do not support point format
single point format for each curve and thus support for DTLS 1.3 does negotiation in favor of a single point format for each curve and thus
not mandate point formation extensions and negotiation. support for DTLS 1.3 does not mandate point formation extensions and
negotiation.
The EST-coaps client MUST be configured with at least an implicit TA The authentication of the EST-coaps server by the EST-coaps client is
database from its manufacturer. The authentication of the EST-coaps based on certificate authentication in the DTLS handshake. The EST-
server by the EST-coaps client is based on certificate authentication coaps client MUST be configured with at least an Implicit TA database
in the DTLS handshake. from its manufacturer which will allow for the authenticating the
server the first time before updating its trust anchor (Explicit TA)
[RFC7030].
The authentication of the EST-coaps client is based on a client The authentication of the EST-coaps client is based on a client
certificate in the DTLS handshake. This can either be certificate in the DTLS handshake. This can either be
o a previously issued client certificate (e.g., an existing o a previously issued client certificate (e.g., an existing
certificate issued by the EST CA); this could be a common case for certificate issued by the EST CA); this could be a common case for
simple reenrollment of clients; simple reenrollment of clients.
o a previously installed certificate (e.g., manufacturer-installed o a previously installed certificate (e.g., manufacturer-installed
certificate or a certificate issued by some other party); the IDevID (IEEE 802.1AR [ieee802.1ar] certificate or a certificate
server is expected to trust the manufacturer's root CA certificate issued by some other party); the server is expected to trust the
in this case. previously installed CA certificate in this case. IDevID's are
expected to have a very long life, as long as the device, but
under some conditions could expire. In the latter case, the
server MAY want to authenticate a client certificate against its
trust store although the certificate is expired (Section 11).
Client authentication via DTLS Client Certificate is mandatory.
5. Protocol Design 5. Protocol Design
EST-coaps uses CoAP to transfer EST messages, aided by Block-Wise EST-coaps uses CoAP to transfer EST messages, aided by Block-Wise
Transfer [RFC7959] to transport CoAP messages in blocks thus avoiding Transfer [RFC7959] to transport CoAP messages in blocks thus avoiding
(excessive) fragmentation of UDP datagrams. The use of "Block" for (excessive) fragmentation of UDP datagrams. The use of "Block" for
the transfer of larger EST messages is specified in Section 5.7. The the transfer of larger EST messages is specified in Section 5.5.
Figure 1 below shows the layered EST-coaps architecture. Figure 1 below shows the layered EST-coaps architecture.
+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------+
| EST request/response messages | | EST request/response messages |
+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------+
| CoAP for message transfer and signalling | | CoAP for message transfer and signalling |
+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------+
| DTLS for transport security | | DTLS for transport security |
+------------------------------------------------+ +------------------------------------------------+
| UDP for transport | | UDP for transport |
skipping to change at page 7, line 22 skipping to change at page 8, line 8
optional functions, and not specified functions. The latter ones are optional functions, and not specified functions. The latter ones are
deemed too expensive for low-resource devices in payload and deemed too expensive for low-resource devices in payload and
calculation times. calculation times.
Table 1 specifies the mandatory-to-implement or optional Table 1 specifies the mandatory-to-implement or optional
implementation of the est-coaps functions. implementation of the est-coaps functions.
+------------------+--------------------------+ +------------------+--------------------------+
| EST Functions | EST-coaps implementation | | EST Functions | EST-coaps implementation |
+------------------+--------------------------+ +------------------+--------------------------+
| /cacerts | Mandatory | | /cacerts | MUST |
| /simpleenroll | Mandatory | | /simpleenroll | MUST |
| /simplereenroll | Mandatory | | /simplereenroll | MUST |
| /fullcmc | Not specified | | /fullcmc | Not specified |
| /serverkeygen | Optional | | /serverkeygen | OPTIONAL |
| /csrattrs | Optional | | /csrattrs | OPTIONAL |
+------------------+--------------------------+ +------------------+--------------------------+
Table 1: list of EST -coaps fuctions Table 1: Table 1: List of EST-coaps fuctions
While [RFC7030] permits a number of these functions to be used
without authentication, this specification requires authentication
for all functions.
5.2. Payload format 5.2. Payload format
The content-format (media type equivalent) of the CoAP message The content-format (media type equivalent) of the CoAP message
determines which EST message is transported in the CoAP payload. The determines which EST message is transported in the CoAP payload. The
media types specified in the HTTP Content-Type header (section 3.2.2 media types specified in the HTTP Content-Type header (section 3.2.2
of [RFC7030]) are in EST-coaps specified by the Content-Format Option of [RFC7030]) are in EST-coaps specified by the Content-Format Option
(12) of CoAP. The combination of URI path and content-format used (12) of CoAP. The combination of URI path and content-format in EST-
for CoAP MUST map to an allowed combination of URI and media type as coaps MUST map to an allowed combination of URI and media type in
defined for EST. The required content-formats for these requests and EST. The required content-formats for these requests and response
response messages are defined in Section 10. The CoAP response codes messages are defined in Section 10.1. The CoAP response codes are
are defined in Section 5.4. defined in Section 5.4.
EST-coaps is designed for use between low-resource devices and hence EST-coaps is designed for use between low-resource devices and hence
does not need to send base64-encoded data. Simple binary is more does not need to send Base64-encoded data. Simple binary is more
efficient (30% smaller payload) and well supported by CoAP. efficient (30% smaller payload) and well supported by CoAP. Thus,
the payload for a given media type follows the ASN.1 structure of the
The payload for a given media type follows the ASN.1 structure of the media-type and is transported in binary DER format. Section 5.2.1
media-type and is transported as straight binary coding instead of
the base64-encoded. The binary is wrapped in a CBOR major type 2
using h'xxx' notation (to assure compatibility with multipart).
EDNote: suggestion to remove CBOR wrapping for not multipart.
In the examples of Appendix A, the base16 diagnostic notation is used
for CBOR major type 2, where h'450aafbb' represents an example binary
payload. The content formats specification in Section 5.2.1
specifies the payload structure when multiple media types are present specifies the payload structure when multiple media types are present
in the payload. in the payload.
5.2.1. Content Format application/multipart-core 5.2.1. Content Format application/multipart-core
A representation with content format ID TBD8 contains a collection of A representation with content format ID 62 contains a collection of
representations along with their respective content format. The representations along with their respective content format. The
content-format identifies the media-type application/multipart-core content-format identifies the media-type application/multipart-core
specified in [I-D.ietf-core-multipart-ct]. specified in [I-D.ietf-core-multipart-ct].
The collection is encoded as a CBOR array [RFC7049] with an even The collection is encoded as a CBOR array [RFC7049] with an even
number of elements. The second, fourth, sixth, etc. element is a number of elements. The second, fourth, sixth, etc. element is a
binary string containing a representation. The first, third, fifth, binary string containing a representation. The first, third, fifth,
etc. element is an unsigned integer specifying the content format ID etc. element is an unsigned integer specifying the content format ID
of the following representation. of the consecutive representation. For example, a collection
containing two representations in response to a server-side key
generation request, could include a private key in PKCS#8 [RFC5958]
with content format ID 284 (0x011C) and a certificate with content
format ID 281 (0x0119). Such a collection would look like
[284,h'0123456789abcdef', 281,h'fedcba9876543210'] in diagnostic CBOR
notation. The serialization of such CBOR content would be
For example, a collection containing two representations in response 84 # array(4)
to a server-side key generation, could include a private key in 19 011C # unsigned(284)
PKCS#8 with content format ID 284 and a certificate with content 48 # bytes(8)
format ID 281, looks like this in diagnostic CBOR notation: 0123456789ABCDEF # "\x01#Eg\x89\xAB\xCD\xEF"
[284,h'0123456789abcdef',281,h'fedcba9876543210']. The PKCS#8 key 19 0119 # unsigned(281)
and the X.509 certificate representations will be ASN.1 encoded in 48 # bytes(8)
binary format. An example is shown in Appendix A.4. FEDCBA9876543210 # "\xFE\xDC\xBA\x98vT2\x10"
Multipart /skg response serialization
The PKCS#8 key and X.509 certificate representations are ASN.1
encoded in binary DER format. An example is shown in Appendix A.4.
In cases where the private key is further encrypted with CMS (as
explained in Section 5.7) the content format ID is 280 (0x0118).
5.3. Message Bindings 5.3. Message Bindings
The general EST CoAP message characteristics are: The general EST CoAP message characteristics are:
o All EST-coaps messages expect a response from the server, thus the o All EST-coaps messages expect a response from the server, thus the
client MUST send the requests over confirmable CON COAP messages. client MUST send the requests over confirmable CON CoAP messages.
o The Ver, TKL, Token, and Message ID values of the CoAP header are o The Ver, TKL, Token, and Message ID values of the CoAP header are
not affected by EST. not affected by EST.
o The CoAP options used are Uri-Host, Uri-Path, Uri-Port, Content- o The CoAP options used are Uri-Host, Uri-Path, Uri-Port, Content-
Format, and Location-Path in CoAP. These CoAP Options are used to Format, and Location-Path. These CoAP Options are used to
communicate the HTTP fields specified in the EST REST messages. communicate the HTTP fields specified in the EST REST messages.
o EST URLs are HTTPS based (https://), in CoAP these will be assumed o EST URLs are HTTPS based (https://), in CoAP these are assumed to
to be transformed to coaps (coaps://) be translated to coaps (coaps://)
Appendix A includes some practical examples of EST messages Appendix A includes some practical examples of EST messages
translated to CoAP. translated to CoAP.
5.4. CoAP response codes 5.4. CoAP response codes
Section 5.9 of [RFC7252] specifies the mapping of HTTP response codes Section 5.9 of [RFC7252] and Section 7 of [RFC8075] specify the
to CoAP response codes. Every time the HTTP response code 200 is mapping of HTTP response codes to CoAP response codes. Every time
specified in [RFC7030] in response to a GET request, in EST-coaps the the HTTP response code 200 is specified in [RFC7030] in response to a
equivalent CoAP response code 2.05 or 2.03 MUST be used. Similarly, GET request (/cacerts, /csrattrs), in EST-coaps the equivalent CoAP
2.01, 2.02 or 2.04 MUST be used in response to POST EST requests. response code 2.05 or 2.03 MUST be used. Similarly, 2.01, 2.02 or
Response code HTTP 202 has no equivalent in CoAP. Section 5.5 2.04 MUST be used in response to HTTP POST EST requests
specifies how EST requests over CoAP handle delayed messages. (/simpleenroll, /simplereenroll, /serverkeygen ). Response code HTTP
202 Retry-After that existed in EST has no equivalent in CoAP.
Section 5.6 specifies how EST requests over CoAP handle delayed
messages.
Other HTTP response codes EST makes use of, are 204 and 404 when a EST makes use of HTTP 204 and 404 responses when a resource is not
resource is not available for the client. The equivalent COAP error available for the client. The equivalent CoAP error code to use in
code to use in an EST-coaps response is 4.04. Additionally, EST's an EST-coaps responses are 2.04 and 4.04. Additionally, EST's HTTP
401 error translates to 4.01 in EST-coaps. Other HTTP error messages 401 error translates to 4.01 in EST-coaps. Other EST HTTP error
commonly used in EST are 400, 423 and 503. Their equivalent COAP messages are 400, 423 and 503. Their equivalent CoAP errors are
errors are 4.00, 4.03 and 5.03 respectively. 4.00, 4.03 and 5.03 respectively. In case a required COAP option
(i.e Content-Format) is omitted, the server is expected to return a
4.02.
5.5. Delayed Responses 5.5. Message fragmentation
Appendix B.2 shows an example of a server response that comes DTLS defines fragmentation only for the handshake and not for secure
immediately after a client request. The example shows the flows of data exchange (DTLS records). [RFC6347] states that to avoid using
blocks as the large messages require fragmentation. But server IP fragmentation, which involves error-prone datagram reconstitution,
responses can sometimes be delayed. invokers of the DTLS record layer SHOULD size DTLS records so that
they fit within any Path MTU estimates obtained from the record
layer. In addition, invokers residing on a 6LoWPAN over IEEE
802.15.4 [ieee802.15.4] network SHOULD attempt to size CoAP messages
such that each DTLS record will fit within one or two IEEE 802.15.4
frames.
According to section 5.2.2 of [RFC7252], a slow server can That is not always possible in EST-coaps. Even though ECC
acknowledge the request and respond later with the requested resource certificates are small in size, they can vary greatly based on
representation. In particular, a slow server can respond to a enroll signature algorithms, key sizes, and OID fields used. For 256-bit
request with an empty ACK with code 0.00, before sending the curves, common ECDSA cert sizes are 500-1000 bytes which could
certificate to the server after a short delay. Consecutively, the fluctuate further based on the algorithms, OIDs, SANs and cert
server will need more than one "Block2" blocks to respond if the fields. For 384-bit curves, ECDSA certs increase in size and can
certificate is large. This situation is shown in Figure 2 where a sometimes reach 1.5KB. Additionally, there are times when the EST
client sends an enrollment request that uses more than one "Block1" cacerts response from the server can include multiple certs that
blocks. The server uses an empty 0.00 ACK to announce the response amount to large payloads. Section 4.6 of CoAP [RFC7252] describes
which will be provided later with 2.04 messages containing "Block2" the possible payload sizes: "if nothing is known about the size of
options. Having received the first 128 bytes in the first "block2" the headers, good upper bounds are 1152 bytes for the message size
block, the client asks for a block reduction to 128 bytes in all and 1024 bytes for the payload size". Section 4.6 of [RFC7252] also
following "block2" blocks, starting with the second block (NUM=1). suggests that IPv4 implementations may want to limit themselves to
more conservative IPv4 datagram sizes such as 576 bytes. Even with
ECC certs, EST-coaps messages can still exceed MTU sizes on the
Internet or 6LoWPAN [RFC4919] (Section 2 of [RFC7959]). EST-coaps
needs to be able to fragment messages into multiple DTLS datagrams.
To perform fragmentation in CoAP, [RFC7959] specifies the "Block1"
option for fragmentation of the request payload and the "Block2"
option for fragmentation of the return payload of a CoAP flow. As
explained in Section 1 of [RFC7959], blockwise transfers SHOULD be
used in Confirmable CoAP messages to avoid the exacerbation of lost
blocks. [RFC7959] defines SZX in the block option fields. SZX is
used to convey the size of the blocks in the requests or responses.
The CoAP client MAY specify the Block1 size and MAY also specify the
Block2 size. The CoAP server MAY specify the Block2 size, but not
the Block1 size.
[RFC7959] also defines Size1 and Size2 options to provide size
information about the resource representation in a request and
response. The Size1 response MAY be parsed by the client as a size
indication of the Block2 resource in the server response or by the
server as a request for a size estimate by the client. Similarly,
the Size2 option defined in BLOCK should be parsed by the server as
an indication of the size of the resource carried in Block1 options
and by the client as a maximum size expected in the 4.13 (Request
Entity Too Large) response to a request.
Examples of fragmented EST messages are shown in Appendix B.
5.6. Delayed Responses
Server responses can sometimes be delayed. According to section
5.2.2 of [RFC7252], a slow server can acknowledge the request with a
2.31 code and respond later with the requested resource
representation. In particular, a slow server can respond to an
enrollment request with an empty ACK with code 0.00, before sending
the certificate to the server after a short delay. If the
certificate response is large, the server will need more than one
"Block2" blocks to transfer it. This situation is shown in Figure 2
where a client sends an enrollment request that uses more than one
"Block1" blocks. The server uses an empty 0.00 ACK to announce the
delayed response which is provided later with 2.04 messages
containing "Block2" options. Having received the first 256 bytes in
the first "block2" block, the client asks for a block reduction to
128 bytes in all following "block2" blocks, starting with the second
block (NUM=1).
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
. .
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} -->
<-- (0.00 empty ACK) <-- (0.00 empty ACK)
| |
...... short delay before certificate is ready....... ...... short delay before certificate is ready ......
| |
<-- (CON) (1:N1/0/256)(2:0/1/256)(2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (CON) (1:N1/0/256)(2:0/1/256)(2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
(ACK) --> (ACK) -->
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/128) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/128) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:1/1/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:1/1/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
. .
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/128) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/128) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
Figure 2: EST-COAP enrolment with short wait Figure 2: EST-COAP enrolment with short wait
If the server is very slow providing the response (say minutes, If the server is very slow (i.e. minutes) in providing the response
possible when a manual intervention is wanted), the server SHOULD (i.e. when a manual intervention is needed), the server SHOULD
respond with an ACK containing response code 5.03 (Service respond with an ACK containing response code 5.03 (Service
unavailable) and a Max-Age option to indicate the time the client unavailable) and a Max-Age option to indicate the time the client
SHOULD wait to request the content later. After a delay of Max-Age, SHOULD wait to request the content later. After a delay of Max-Age,
the client SHOULD resend the identical CSR to the server. As long as the client SHOULD resend the identical CSR to the server. As long as
the server responds with response code 5.03 (Service Unavailable), the server responds with response code 5.03 (Service Unavailable)
the client can resend the enrolment request until the server responds with a Max-Age option, the client can resend the enrolment request
with the certificate or the client abandons for other reasons. until the server responds with the certificate or the client abandons
for other reasons.
To demonstrate this situation, Figure 3 shows a client sending an
enrolment request that will use more than one "Block1" block to send
the CSR to the server. The server needs more than one "Block2"
blocks to respond, but also needs to take a long delay (minutes) to
provide the response. Consequently, the server will use a 5.03 ACK
for the response. The client can be requested to wait multiple times
for a period of Max-Age. Note that in the example below the server
asks for a decrease in the block size when acknowledging the first
Block2.
Figure 5 can be compared with Figure 3 to see the extra requests To demonstrate this scenario, Figure 3 shows a client sending an
after a Max-Age wait. enrolment request that uses more than one "Block1" blocks to send the
CSR to the server. The server needs more than one "Block2" blocks to
respond, but also needs to take a long delay (minutes) to provide the
response. Consequently, the server uses a 5.03 ACK response with a
Max-Age option. The client waits for a period of Max-Age as many
times as he receives the same 5.03 response and retransmits the
enrollment request until he receives a certificate. Note that in the
example below the server asks for a decrease in the block size when
acknowledging the first Block2.
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:N1/0/256) (2:0/0/128) (5.03 Service Unavailable) <-- (ACK) (1:N1/0/256) (2:0/0/128) (5.03 Service Unavailable)
(Max-Age) (Max-Age)
skipping to change at page 11, line 31 skipping to change at page 13, line 31
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/128) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/128) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:1/1/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:1/1/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
. .
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/128) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/128) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/128) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
Figure 3: EST-COAP enrolment with long wait Figure 3: EST-COAP enrolment with long wait
5.6. Server-side Key Generation 5.7. Server-side Key Generation
Constrained devices sometimes do not have the necessary hardware to Constrained devices sometimes do not have the necessary hardware to
generate statistically random numbers for private keys and DTLS generate statistically random numbers for private keys and DTLS
ephemeral keys. Past experience has shown that low-resource ephemeral keys. Past experience has also shown that low-resource
endpoints sometimes generate numbers which could allow someone to endpoints sometimes generate numbers which could allow someone to
decrypt the communication or guess the private key and impersonate as decrypt the communication or guess the private key and impersonate as
the device. Studies have shown that the same keys are generated by the device [PsQs] [RSAorig].
the same model devices deployed on-line.
EDNote: Is there a reference for these studies?
Additionally, random number key generation is costly, thus energy Additionally, random number key generation is costly, thus energy
draining. Even though the random numbers that constitute the draining. Even though the random numbers that constitute the
identity/cert do not get generated often, an endpoint may not want to identity/cert do not get generated often, an endpoint may not want to
spend time and energy generating keypairs, and just ask for one from spend time and energy generating keypairs, and just ask for one from
the server. the server.
In these scenarios, server-side key generation can be used. The In these scenarios, server-side key generation can be used. The
client asks for the server or proxy to generate the private key and client asks for the server or proxy to generate the private key and
the certificate which is transferred back to the client in the the certificate which is transferred back to the client in the
server-side key generation response. server-side key generation response. In all respects, the server
SHOULD treat the CSR as it would treat any enroll or re-enroll CSR;
the only distinction here is that the server MUST ignore the public
key values and signature in the CSR. These are included in the
request only to allow re-use of existing codebases for generating and
parsing such requests.
[RFC7030] recommends for the private key returned by the server to be [RFC7030] recommends the private key returned by the server to be
encrypted. The specification provides two methods to encrypt the encrypted. This specification provides two methods to encrypt the
generated key, symmetric and asymmetric. The methods are signalled generated key, symmetric and asymmetric. The methods are signalled
by the client by using the relevant attributes (SMIMECapabilities and by the client by using the relevant attributes (SMIMECapabilities and
DecryptKeyIdentifier or AsymmetricDecryptKeyIdentifier) in the CSR DecryptKeyIdentifier or AsymmetricDecryptKeyIdentifier) in the CSR
request. In the symmetric key case, the key can be established out- request. The symmetric key or the asymmetric keypair establishment
of-band or alternatively derived by the established TLS connection as method is out of scope of this specification.
described in [RFC5705].
The sever-side key generation response is returned using a CBOR array The sever-side key generation response is returned using a CBOR array
Section 5.2.1. The certificate part exactly matches the response Section 5.2.1. The certificate part exactly matches the response
from an enrollment response. The private key is placed inside of a from an enrollment response. The private key can be in unprotected
CMS SignedData. The SignedData is signed by the party that generated PKCS#8 [RFC5958] format (content type 281) or protected inside of CMS
the private key, which may or may not be the EST server or the EST SignedData (content type 280). The SignedData is signed by the party
CA. The SignedData is further protected by placing it inside of a that generated the private key, which may or may not be the EST
CMS EnvelopedData as explained in Section 4.4.2 of [RFC7030]. server or the EST CA. The SignedData is further protected by placing
it inside of a CMS EnvelopedData as explained in Section 4.4.2 of
5.7. Message fragmentation [RFC7030]. In summary, the symmetricly encrypted key is included in
the encryptedKey attribute in a KEKRecipientInfo structure. In the
DTLS defines fragmentation only for the handshake part and not for case where the asymmetric encryption key is suitable for transport
secure data exchange (DTLS records). [RFC6347] states that to avoid key operations the generated private key is encrypted with a
using IP fragmentation, which involves error-prone datagram symmetric key which is encrypted by using the client defined (in the
reconstitution, invokers of the DTLS record layer SHOULD size DTLS CSR) asymmetric public key and is carried in an encryptedKey
records so that they fit within any Path MTU estimates obtained from attribute in a KeyTransRecipientInfo. Finally, if the asymmetric
the record layer. In addition, invokers residing on a 6LoWPAN over encryption key is suitable for key agreement, the generated private
IEEE 802.15.4 network SHOULD attempt to size CoAP messages such that key is encrypted with a symmetric key which is encrypted by using the
each DTLS record will fit within one or two IEEE 802.15.4 frames. client defined (in the CSR) asymmetric public key and is carried in
an recipientEncryptedKeys attribute in a KeyAgreeRecipientInfo.
That is not always possible. Even though ECC certificates are small
in size, they can vary greatly based on signature algorithms, key
sizes, and OID fields used. For 256-bit curves, common ECDSA cert
sizes are 500-1000 bytes which could fluctuate further based on the
algorithms, OIDs, SANs and cert fields. For 384-bit curves, ECDSA
certs increase in size and can sometimes reach 1.5KB. Additionally,
there are times when the EST cacerts response from the server can
include multiple certs that amount to large payloads. Section 4.6 of
CoAP [RFC7252] describes the possible payload sizes: "if nothing is
known about the size of the headers, good upper bounds are 1152 bytes
for the message size and 1024 bytes for the payload size".
Section 4.6 of [RFC7252] also suggests that IPv4 implementations may
want to limit themselves to more conservative IPv4 datagram sizes
such as 576 bytes. From [RFC0791] follows that the absolute minimum
value of the IP MTU for IPv4 is as low as 68 bytes, which would leave
only 40 bytes minus security overhead for a UDP payload. Thus, even
with ECC certs, EST-coaps messages can still exceed sizes in MTU of
1280 for IPv6 or 60-80 bytes for 6LoWPAN [RFC4919] as explained in
section 2 of [RFC7959]. EST-coaps needs to be able to fragment EST
messages into multiple DTLS datagrams. Fine-grained fragmentation of
EST messages is essential.
To perform fragmentation in CoAP, [RFC7959] specifies the "Block1"
option for fragmentation of the request payload and the "Block2"
option for fragmentation of the return payload of a CoAP flow.
The BLOCK draft defines SZX in the Block1 and Block2 option fields.
These are used to convey the size of the blocks in the requests or
responses.
The CoAP client MAY specify the Block1 size and MAY also specify the
Block2 size. The CoAP server MAY specify the Block2 size, but not
the Block1 size. As explained in Section 1 of [RFC7959]), blockwise
transfers SHOULD be used in Confirmable CoAP messages to avoid the
exacerbation of lost blocks.
The Size1 response MAY be parsed by the client as a size indication
of the Block2 resource in the server response or by the server as a
request for a size estimate by the client. Similarly, Size2 option
defined in BLOCK should be parsed by the server as an indication of
the size of the resource carried in Block1 options and by the client
as a maximum size expected in the 4.13 (Request Entity Too Large)
response to a request.
Examples of fragmented messages are shown in Appendix B. [RFC7030] recommends the use of additional encryption of the returned
private key. For the context of this specification, clients and
servers that choose to support server-side key generation MUST
support unprotected (PKCS#8) private keys (content type 281).
Symmetric or asymmetric encryption of the private key (CMS
EnvelopedData, content type 280) SHOULD be supported for deployments
where end-to-end encryption needs to be provided between the client
and a server. Such cases could include architectures where an entity
between the client and the CA terminates the DTLS connection
(Registrar in Figure 4).
5.8. Deployment limits 5.8. Deployment limits
Although EST-coaps paves the way for the utilization of EST for Although EST-coaps paves the way for the utilization of EST by
constrained devices on constrained networks, some devices will not constrained devices in constrained networks, some classes of devices
have enough resources to handle the large payloads that come with [RFC7228] will not have enough resources to handle the large payloads
EST-coaps. The specification of EST-coaps is intended to ensure that that come with EST-coaps. The specification of EST-coaps is intended
EST works for networks of constrained devices that choose to limit to ensure that EST works for networks of constrained devices that
their communications stack to UDP/CoAP. It is up to the network choose to limit their communications stack to UDP/DTLS/CoAP. It is
designer to decide which devices execute the EST protocol and which up to the network designer to decide which devices execute the EST
do not. protocol and which do not.
6. Discovery and URI 6. Discovery and URIs
EST-coaps is targeted to low-resource networks with small packets. EST-coaps is targeted for low-resource networks with small packets.
Saving header space is important and a short EST-coaps URI (see Saving header space is important and short EST-coaps URIs are
Table 2) is specified that is shorter than the EST URI specified in specified in this document. These URIs are shorter than the ones in
[RFC7030]. The individual EST-coaps well-known server URIs differ [RFC7030]. The EST-coaps resource path names are:
from the EST URI by replacing the scheme https by coaps and by
specifying shorter resource path names:
coaps://example.com:<port>/.well-known/est/<short-est> coaps://example.com:<port>/.well-known/est/<short-est>
coaps://example.com:<port>/.well-known/est/ArbitraryLabel/<short-est> coaps://example.com:<port>/.well-known/est/ArbitraryLabel/<short-est>
The ArbitraryLabel Path-Segment, if used, SHOULD be of the shortest The short-est strings are defined in Table 2. The ArbitraryLabel
length possible (See sections 3.1 and 3.2.2 of [RFC7030]. Following Path-Segment, if used, SHOULD be of the shortest length possible
[RFC7030] discovery is not needed when the client is preconfigured (Sections 3.1 and 3.2.2 of [RFC7030]. Following [RFC7030] discovery
with the /.well-known/est server URI and the coaps port 5684. is not needed when the client is preconfigured with the /.well-known/
est server URI and the coaps port 5684.
The additional EST-coaps server URIs, obtained through discovery of
the EST root resource(s) as shown below, are of the form:
coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/<short-est>
coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/ArbitraryLabel/<short-est>
In the context of CoAP, the presence and location of (path to) the
management data are discovered by sending a GET request to "/.well-
known/core" including a resource type (RT) parameter with the value
"ace.est" [RFC6690]. Upon success, the return payload will contain
the root resource of the EST resources. It is up to the
implementation to choose its root resource; throughout this document
the example root resource /est is used.
The optional additional EST-coaps server URIs, obtained through The EST-coaps server URIs, obtained through discovery of the EST-
discovery of the EST root resource(s) as shown below, are of the coaps root resource(s) as shown below, are of the form:
form:
coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/<short-est> coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/<short-est>
coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/ArbitraryLabel/<short-est> coaps://example.com:<port>/<root-resource>/ArbitraryLabel/<short-est>
Figure 5 in section 3.2.2 of [RFC7030] enumerates the operations and Figure 5 in section 3.2.2 of [RFC7030] enumerates the operations and
corresponding paths which are supported by EST. Table 2 provides the corresponding paths which are supported by EST. Table 2 provides the
mapping from the EST URI path to the shorter EST-coaps URI path. mapping from the EST URI path to the shorter EST-coaps URI path.
+------------------+-----------+ +------------------+-----------+
| EST | EST-coaps | | EST | EST-coaps |
+------------------+-----------+ +------------------+-----------+
| /cacerts | /crts | | /cacerts | /crts |
| /simpleenroll | /sen | | /simpleenroll | /sen |
| /simplereenroll | /sren | | /simplereenroll | /sren |
| /csrattrs | /att | | /csrattrs | /att |
| /serverkeygen | /skg | | /serverkeygen | /skg |
+------------------+-----------+ +------------------+-----------+
Table 2: Short EST-coaps URI path Table 2: Table 2: Short EST-coaps URI path
The short resource URIs MUST be supported. The corresponding longer Clients and servers MUST support the short resource URIs. The
URIs specified in [RFC7030] MAY be supported. corresponding longer URIs from [RFC7030] MAY be supported.
When discovering the root path for the EST resources, the server MAY In the context of CoAP, the presence and location of (path to) the
return all available resource paths and the used content types. This management data are discovered by sending a GET request to "/.well-
is useful when multiple content types are specified for EST-coaps known/core" including a resource type (RT) parameter with the value
server and optional functions are available. The example below shows "ace.est" [RFC6690]. Upon success, the return payload will contain
the discovery of the presence and location of EST-coaps resources. the root resource of the EST resources. The server MAY return all
available resource paths and the used content types. This is useful
when multiple content types are supported by the EST-coaps server and
optional functions are available. The example below shows the
discovery of the presence and location of EST-coaps resources.
Linefeeds are included only for readability. Linefeeds are included only for readability.
REQ: GET /.well-known/core?rt=ace.est* REQ: GET /.well-known/core?rt=ace.est*
RES: 2.05 Content RES: 2.05 Content
</est>; rt="ace.est", </est>; rt="ace.est",
</est/crts>;rt="ace.est.crts";ct=281, </est/crts>;rt="ace.est.crts";ct=281,
</est/sen>;rt="ace.est.sen"ct=281 286, </est/sen>;rt="ace.est.sen";ct=281 286,
</est/sren>;rt="ace.est.sren"ct=281 286, </est/sren>;rt="ace.est.sren";ct=281 286,
</est/att>;rt="ace.est.att"ct=285, </est/att>;rt="ace.est.att";ct=285,
</est/skg>;rt="ace.est.skg"ct=280 286 TBD8 </est/skg>;rt="ace.est.skg";ct=280 286 62
The first line of the discovery response MUST be returned. The five The first line of the discovery response above MUST be included. The
consecutive lines MAY be returned. The return of the content-types five consecutive lines after the first MAY be included. The return
in the last four lines allows the client to choose the most of the content-types allows the client to choose the most appropriate
appropriate one from multiple content types. one from multiple content types.
Port numbers, not returned in the example, are assumed to be the Port numbers, not returned in the example, are assumed to be the
default numbers 5683 and 5684 for coap and coaps respectively default numbers 5683 and 5684 for coap and coaps respectively
(sections 12.6 and 12.7 of [RFC7252]. Discoverable port numbers MAY (Sections 12.6 and 12.7 of [RFC7252]). Discoverable port numbers MAY
be returned in the <href> of the payload. be returned in the <href> of the payload.
7. DTLS Transport Protocol It is up to the implementation to choose its root resource;
throughout this document the example root resource /est is used.
EST-coaps depends on a secure transport mechanism over UDP that can 7. DTLS Transport Protocol
secure (confidentiality, authenticity) the exchanged CoAP messages.
DTLS is one such secure protocol. When "TLS" is referred to in the EST-coaps depends on a secure transport mechanism over UDP that
context of EST, it is understood that in EST-coaps, security is secures the exchanged CoAP messages. DTLS is one such secure
provided using DTLS instead. No other changes are necessary (all protocol. Where TLS is used in the context of EST, it is understood
provisional modes etc. are the same as for TLS). that EST-coaps uses DTLS instead. No other changes are necessary
regarding the secure transport of EST messages (all provisional modes
etc. are the same as in TLS).
CoAP was designed to avoid fragmentation. DTLS is used to secure CoAP was designed to avoid fragmentation. DTLS is used to secure
CoAP messages. However, fragmentation is still possible at the DTLS CoAP messages. However, fragmentation is still possible at the DTLS
layer during the DTLS handshake when using ECC ciphersuites. If layer during the DTLS handshake when using ECC ciphersuites. If
fragmentation is necessary, "DTLS provides a mechanism for fragmentation is necessary, "DTLS provides a mechanism for
fragmenting a handshake message over several records, each of which fragmenting a handshake message over several records, each of which
can be transmitted separately, thus avoiding IP fragmentation" can be transmitted separately, thus avoiding IP fragmentation"
[RFC6347]. [RFC6347].
CoAP and DTLS can provide proof of identity for EST-coaps clients and The DTLS handshake is authenticated by using certificates. EST-coaps
server with simple PKI messages conformant to section 3.1 of supports the certificate types and Trust Anchors (TA) that are
specified for EST in Section 3 of [RFC7030].
[RFC5272]. EST-coaps supports the certificate types and Trust
Anchors (TA) that are specified for EST in section 3 of [RFC7030].
Channel-binding information for linking proof-of-identity with CoAP and DTLS can provide proof-of-identity for EST-coaps clients and
connection-based proof-of-possession is optional for EST-coaps. When servers with simple PKI messages as descrbed in Section 3.1 of
proof-of-possession is desired, a set of actions are required [RFC5272]. Moreover, channel-binding information for linking proof-
regarding the use of tls-unique, described in section 3.5 in of-identity with connection-based proof-of-possession is OPTIONAL for
[RFC7030]. The tls-unique information translates to the contents of EST-coaps. When proof-of-possession is desired, a set of actions are
required regarding the use of tls-unique, described in section 3.5 in
[RFC7030]. The tls-unique information consists of the contents of
the first "Finished" message in the (D)TLS handshake between server the first "Finished" message in the (D)TLS handshake between server
and client [RFC5929]. The client is then supposed to add this and client [RFC5929]. The client is supposed to add this "Finished"
"Finished" message as a ChallengePassword in the attributes section message as a ChallengePassword in the attributes section of the
of the PKCS#10 Request Info to prove that the client is indeed in PKCS#10 Request [RFC5967] Info to prove that the client is indeed in
control of the private key at the time of the TLS session when control of the private key at the time of the (D)TLS session
performing a /simpleenroll, for example. In the case of EST-coaps, establishment. In the case of EST-coaps, the same operations can be
the same operations can be performed during the DTLS handshake. For performed during the DTLS handshake. For DTLS 1.2, in the event of
DTLS 1.2, in the event of handshake message fragmentation, the Hash handshake message fragmentation, the Hash of the handshake messages
of the handshake messages used in the MAC calculation of the Finished used in the MAC calculation of the Finished message MUST be computed
message as if each handshake message had been sent as a single fragment
[RFC6347]. The Finished message is calculated as:
PRF(master_secret, finished_label, Hash(handshake_messages)) PRF(master_secret, finished_label, Hash(handshake_messages))
[0..verify_data_length-1]; [0..verify_data_length-1];
MUST be computed as if each handshake message had been sent as a Similarly, for DTLS 1.3, the Finished message MUST be computed as if
single fragment [RFC6347]. Similarly, for DTLS 1.3, the Finished each handshake message had been sent as a single fragment following
message the algorithm described in 4.4.4 of [RFC8446]. The Finished message
is calculated as:
HMAC(finished_key, HMAC(finished_key,
Transcript-Hash(Handshake Context, Transcript-Hash(Handshake Context,
Certificate*, CertificateVerify*)) Certificate*, CertificateVerify*))
* Only included if present. * Only included if present.
MUST be computed as if each handshake message had been sent as a
single fragment following the algorithm described in 4.4.4 of
[RFC8446].
In a constrained CoAP environment, endpoints can't afford to In a constrained CoAP environment, endpoints can't afford to
establish a DTLS connection for every EST transaction. establish a DTLS connection for every EST transaction.
Authenticating and negotiating DTLS keys requires resources on low- Authenticating and negotiating DTLS keys requires resources on low-
end endpoints and consumes valuable bandwidth. The DTLS connection end endpoints and consumes valuable bandwidth. The DTLS connection
SHOULD remain open for persistent EST connections. For example, an SHOULD remain open for sequential EST transactions. For example, an
EST cacerts request that is followed by a simpleenroll request can EST cacerts request that is followed by a simpleenroll request can
use the same authenticated DTLS connection. Given that after a use the same authenticated DTLS connection. However, some additional
successful enrollment, it is more likely that a new EST transaction security considerations apply regarding the use of the Implicit and
will take place after a significant amount of time, the DTLS Explicit TA database (Section 11.1)
connections SHOULD only be kept alive for EST messages that are
relatively close to each other. In some cases, such as NAT Given that after a successful enrollment, it is more likely that a
new EST transaction will take place after a significant amount of
time, the DTLS connections SHOULD only be kept alive for EST messages
that are relatively close to each other. In some cases like NAT
rebinding, keeping the state of a connection is not possible when rebinding, keeping the state of a connection is not possible when
devices sleep for extended periods of time. In such occasions, devices sleep for extended periods of time. In such occasions,
[I-D.rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id] negotiates a connection ID that [I-D.rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id] negotiates a connection ID that
can eliminate the need for new handshake and its additional cost. can eliminate the need for new handshake and its additional cost.
8. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar 8. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar
In real-world deployments, the EST server will not always reside In real-world deployments, the EST server will not always reside
within the CoAP boundary. The EST-server can exist outside the within the CoAP boundary. The EST server can exist outside the
constrained network in a non-constrained network that supports TLS/ constrained network that supports TLS/HTTP. In such environments
HTTP. In such environments EST-coaps is used by the client within EST-coaps is used by the client within the CoAP boundary and TLS is
the CoAP boundary and TLS is used to transport the EST messages used to transport the EST messages outside the CoAP boundary. A
outside the CoAP boundary. A Registrar at the edge is required to Registrar at the edge is required to operate between the CoAP
operate between the CoAP environment and the external HTTP network. environment and the external HTTP network as shown in Figure 4.
The EST coaps-to-HTTPS Registrar MUST terminate EST-coaps and
authenticate the client downstream and initiate EST connections over
TLS upstream.
The Registrar SHOULD authenticate the client downstream and it should
be authenticated by the EST server or CA upstream. The Registration
Authority (re-)creates the secure connection from DTLS to TLS and
vice versa. A trust relationship SHOULD be pre-established between
the Registrar and the EST servers to be able to proxy these
connections on behalf of various clients.
When enforcing Proof-of-Possession (POP) linking, the (D)TLS tls-
unique value of the (D)TLS session needs to be used to prove that the
private key corresponding to the public key is in the possession of
and was used to establish the connection by an end-entity or client.
To do that the CSR the client is using needs to include information
from the DTLS connection the client establishes with the server. In
EST, that information is the (D)TLS tls-unique value of the (D)TLS
session. In the presence of ESTcoaps-to-HTTPS Registrar, the EST-
coaps client MUST be authenticated and authorized by the Registrar
and the Registrar MUST be authenticated as an EST Registrar client to
the EST server. Thus the POP linking information is lost between the
EST-coaps client and the EST server. The EST server becomes aware of
the presence of an EST Registrar from its TLS client certificate that
includes id-kp-cmcRA [RFC6402] extended key usage extension. As
explained in Section 3.7 of [RFC7030], the EST server SHOULD apply an
authorization policy consistent with a Registrar client. For
example, it could be configured to accept POP linking information
that does not match the current TLS session because the authenticated
EST client Registrar has verified this information when acting as an
EST server.
For some use cases, clients that leverage server-side key generation
might prefer for the enrolled keys to be generated by the Registrar
if the CA does not support server-side key generation. In these
cases the Registrar MUST support the random number generation using
proper entropy and is responsible for generating a new CSR signed by
a new key which will be returned to the client along with the
certificate from the CA.
One possible use-case, shown in one figure below, is expected to be
deployed in practice:
Constrained Network Constrained Network
.------. .----------------------------. .------. .----------------------------.
| CA | |.--------------------------.| | CA | |.--------------------------.|
'------' || || '------' || ||
| || || | || ||
.------. HTTP .-----------------. CoAPS .-----------. || .------. HTTP .-----------------. CoAPS .-----------. ||
| EST |<------->|ESTcoaps-to-HTTPS|<-------->| EST Client| || | EST |<------->|EST-coaps-to-HTTPS|<------->| EST Client| ||
|Server|over TLS | Registrar | '-----------' || |Server|over TLS | Registrar | '-----------' ||
'------' '-----------------' || '------' '-----------------' ||
|| || || ||
|'--------------------------'| |'--------------------------'|
'----------------------------' '----------------------------'
ESTcoaps-to-HTTPS Registrar at the CoAP boundary. Figure 4: EST-coaps-to-HTTPS Registrar at the CoAP boundary.
Table 2 contains the URI mapping between the EST-coaps and EST the The EST-coaps-to-HTTPS Registrar MUST terminate EST-coaps downstream
Registrar SHOULD adhere to. Section 7 of [RFC8075] and Section 5.4 and initiate EST connections over TLS upstream. The Registrar MUST
define the mapping between EST-coaps and HTTP response codes, that authenticate and OPTIONALLY authorize the clients and it MUST be
determines how the Registrar translates CoAP response codes from/to authenticated by the EST server or CA. The trust relationship
HTTP status codes. The mapping from Content-Type to media type is between the Registrar and the EST server SHOULD be pre-established
defined in Section 10. The conversion from CBOR major type 2 to for the Registrar to proxy these connections on behalf of various
base64 encoding needs to be done in the Registrar. Conversion is clients.
possible because a TLS link exists between EST-coaps-to-HTTP
Registrar and EST server and a corresponding DTLS link exists between When enforcing Proof-of-Possession (POP) linking, the DTLS tls-unique
EST-coaps-to-HTTP Registrar and EST client. value of the (D)TLS session needs to be used to prove that the
private key corresponding to the public key is in the possession of
and was used to establish the connection by the client as explained
in Section 7). The POP linking information is lost between the EST-
coaps client and the EST server when a Registrar is present. The EST
server becomes aware of the presence of a Registrar from its TLS
client certificate that includes id-kp-cmcRA [RFC6402] extended key
usage extension (EKU). As explained in Section 3.7 of [RFC7030], the
EST server SHOULD apply an authorization policy consistent with a
Registrar client. For example, it could be configured to accept POP
linking information that does not match the current TLS session
because the authenticated EST client Registrar has verified this
information when acting as an EST server.
For some use cases, clients that leverage server-side key generation
might prefer for the enrolled keys to be generated by the Registrar
if the CA does not support server-side key generation. In these
cases the Registrar MUST support random number generation using
proper entropy. Such Registrar is responsible for generating a new
CSR signed by a new key which will be returned to the client along
with the certificate from the CA.
Table 2 contains the URI mappings between EST-coaps and EST that the
Registrar MUST adhere to. Section 5.4 of this specification and
Section 7 of [RFC8075] define the mappings between EST-coaps and HTTP
response codes, that determine how the Registrar MUST translate CoAP
response codes from/to HTTP status codes. The mapping from CoAP
Content-Type to HTTP Media-Type is defined in Section 10.1.
Additionally, a conversion from CBOR major type 2 to Base64 encoding
MUST take place at the Registrar when server-side key generation is
supported. If CMS end-to-end encryption is employed for the private
key, the encrypted CMS EnvelopedData blob should be included in
binary in CBOR type 2 downstream to the client.
Due to fragmentation of large messages into blocks, an EST-coaps-to- Due to fragmentation of large messages into blocks, an EST-coaps-to-
HTTP Registrar MUST reassemble the BLOCKs before translating the HTTP Registrar MUST reassemble the BLOCKs before translating the
binary content to Base-64, and consecutively relay the message binary content to Base64, and consecutively relay the message
upstream. upstream.
For the discovery of the EST server by the EST client in the coap For the discovery of the EST server by the EST client in the CoAP
environment, the EST-coaps-to-HTTP Registrar MUST announce itself environment, the EST-coaps-to-HTTP Registrar MUST announce itself
according to the rules of Section 6. The available actions of the according to the rules in Section 6. The available actions of the
Registrars MUST be announced with as many resource paths. The Registrars MUST be announced with as many resource paths necessary.
discovery of EST server in the http environment follow the rules .
specified in [RFC7030].
9. Parameters 9. Parameters
This section addresses transmission parameters described in sections This section addresses transmission parameters described in sections
4.7 and 4.8 of the CoAP document [RFC7252]. 4.7 and 4.8 of [RFC7252].
ACK_TIMEOUT | 2 seconds | ACK_TIMEOUT | 2 seconds |
ACK_RANDOM_FACTOR | 1.5 | ACK_RANDOM_FACTOR | 1.5 |
MAX_RETRANSMIT | 4 | MAX_RETRANSMIT | 4 |
NSTART | 1 | NSTART | 1 |
DEFAULT_LEISURE | 5 seconds | DEFAULT_LEISURE | 5 seconds |
PROBING_RATE | 1 byte/second | PROBING_RATE | 1 byte/second |
Figure 4: EST-COAP protocol parameters
EST does not impose any unique parameters that affect the CoAP EST does not impose any unique parameters that affect the CoAP
parameters in Table 2 and 3 in the CoAP draft but the ones in CoAP parameters But the CoAP ones could be affecting EST. For example,
could be affecting EST. For example, the processing delay of CAs the processing delay of CAs could be less then 2s, but in this case
could be less then 2s, but in this case they should send a CoAP ACK the EST-coaps server should be sending a CoAP ACK every 2s while
every 2s while processing. processing.
The main recommendation, based on experiments using Nexus Certificate
Manager with Californium for CoAP support, communicating with a
ContikiOS and tinyDTLS based client, from RISE SICS, is to start with
the default CoAP configuration parameters.
However, depending on the implementation scenario, resending and The main recommendation, based on experiments, is to follow the
timeouts can also occur on other networking layers, governed by other default CoAP configuration parameters. However, depending on the
configuration parameters. implementation scenario, retransmissions and timeouts can also occur
on other networking layers, governed by other configuration
parameters.
Some further comments about some specific parameters, mainly from Some further comments about some specific parameters, mainly from
Table 2 in [RFC7252]: Table 2 in [RFC7252]:
o DEFAULT_LEISURE: This setting is only relevant in multicast
scenarios, outside the scope of the EST-coaps draft.
o NSTART: Limit the number of simultaneous outstanding interactions o NSTART: Limit the number of simultaneous outstanding interactions
that a client maintains to a given server. The default is one, that a client maintains to a given server. EST-coaps clients
hence is the risk of congestion or out-of-order messages already SHOULD use 1, which is the default. A EST-coaps client is not
limited. expected to interact with more than one servers at the same time.
o DEFAULT_LEISURE: This setting is only relevant in multicast
scenarios, outside the scope of EST-coaps.
o PROBING_RATE: A parameter which specifies the rate of re-sending o PROBING_RATE: A parameter which specifies the rate of re-sending
non-confirmable messages. The EST messages are defined to be sent non-confirmable messages. The EST messages are defined to be sent
as CoAP confirmable messages, hence the PROBING_RATE setting is as CoAP confirmable messages, hence this setting is not
not applicable. applicable.
Finally, the Table 3 parameters are mainly derived from the more Finally, the Table 3 parameters in [RFC7252] are mainly derived from
basic Table 2 parameters. If the CoAP implementation allows setting Table 2. Directly changing parameters on one table would affect
them directly, they might need to be updated if the table 2 parameters on the other.
parameters are changed.
10. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
10.1. Content-Format Registry 10.1. Content-Format Registry
Additions to the sub-registry "CoAP Content-Formats", within the Additions to the sub-registry "CoAP Content-Formats", within the
"CoRE Parameters" registry are specified in Table 3. These have been "CoRE Parameters" registry [COREparams] are specified in Table 3.
registered temporarily in the Expert Review range (0-255). These have been registered temporarily in the Expert Review range
(0-255).
+--------------------------+--------+-----+-------------------------+ +-------------------------------+-----+-----------------------------+
| HTTP Media-Type | Encodi | ID | Reference | | HTTP Media-Type | ID | Reference |
| | ng | | | +-------------------------------+-----+-----------------------------+
+--------------------------+--------+-----+-------------------------+ | application/pkcs7-mime; | 280 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs7-mime; | - | 280 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | smime-type=server-generated- | | ] [RFC7030] |
| smime-type=server- | | | -bis] [RFC7030] | | key | | |
| generated-key | | | | | application/pkcs7-mime; | 281 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs7-mime; | - | 281 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | smime-type=certs-only | | ] |
| smime-type=certs-only | | | -bis] | | application/pkcs7-mime; | 282 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs7-mime; | - | 282 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | smime-type=CMC-request | | ] [RFC5273] |
| smime-type=CMC-request | | | -bis] [RFC5273] | | application/pkcs7-mime; | 283 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs7-mime; | - | 283 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | smime-type=CMC-response | | ] [RFC5273] |
| smime-type=CMC-response | | | -bis] [RFC5273] | | application/pkcs8 | 284 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs8 | - | 284 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | | | ] [RFC5958] |
| | | | -bis] [RFC5958] | | application/csrattrs | 285 | [RFC7030] [RFC7231] |
| application/csrattrs | - | 285 | [RFC7030] [RFC7231] | | application/pkcs10 | 286 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis |
| application/pkcs10 | - | 286 | [I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751 | | | | ] [RFC5967] |
| | | | -bis] [RFC5967] | +-------------------------------+-----+-----------------------------+
+--------------------------+--------+-----+-------------------------+
Table 3: New CoAP Content-Formats Table 3: New CoAP Content-Formats
10.2. Resource Type registry 10.2. Resource Type registry
This memo registers a new Resource Type (rt=) Link Target Attributes This memo registers a new Resource Type (rt=) Link Target Attributes
in the "Resource Type (rt=) Link Target Attribute Values" subregistry in the "Resource Type (rt=) Link Target Attribute Values" subregistry
under the "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Parameters" under the "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Parameters"
registry. registry.
skipping to change at page 21, line 25 skipping to change at page 22, line 16
11.1. EST server considerations 11.1. EST server considerations
The security considerations of Section 6 of [RFC7030] are only The security considerations of Section 6 of [RFC7030] are only
partially valid for the purposes of this document. As HTTP Basic partially valid for the purposes of this document. As HTTP Basic
Authentication is not supported, the considerations expressed for Authentication is not supported, the considerations expressed for
using passwords do not apply. using passwords do not apply.
Given that the client has only limited resources and may not be able Given that the client has only limited resources and may not be able
to generate sufficiently random keys to encrypt its identity, it is to generate sufficiently random keys to encrypt its identity, it is
possible that the client uses server generated private/public keys to possible that the client uses server generated private/public keys.
encrypt its certificate. The transport of these keys is inherently The transport of these keys is inherently risky. Analysis SHOULD be
risky. A full probability analysis MUST be done to establish whether done to establish whether server side key generation enhances or
server side key generation enhances or decreases the probability of decreases the probability of identity stealing.
identity stealing.
When a client uses the Implicit TA database for certificate It is also RECOMMENDED that the Implicit Trust Anchor database used
validation, the client cannot verify that the implicit database can for EST server authentication be carefully managed to reduce the
act as an RA. It is RECOMMENDED that such clients include "Linking
Identity and POP Information" Section 7 in requests (to prevent such
requests from being forwarded to a real EST server by a man in the
middle). It is RECOMMENDED that the Implicit Trust Anchor database
used for EST server authentication be carefully managed to reduce the
chance of a third-party CA with poor certification practices from chance of a third-party CA with poor certification practices from
being trusted. Disabling the Implicit Trust Anchor database after being trusted. Disabling the Implicit Trust Anchor database after
successfully receiving the Distribution of CA certificates response successfully receiving the Distribution of CA certificates response
(Section 4.1.3 of [RFC7030]) limits any risk to the first DTLS (Section 4.1.3 of [RFC7030]) limits any risk to the first DTLS
exchange. exchange. Alternatively, in a persistent DTLS connection where a
/sen request follows a /crt in the same connection, a client MAY
choose to keep the connection already authenticated by the Implicit
TA open for efficiency reasons (Section 7) by assuming that the
identity of the server is to be trusted. In that case then the
Explicit TA MUST be used starting from the next DTLS connection.
In cases where the IDevID used to authenticate the client is expired
the server MAY still authenticate the client because IDevIDs are
expected to live as long as the device itself (Section 4). In such
occasions, checking the certificate revocation status or authorizing
the client using another method is important for the server to ensure
that the client is to be trusted.
In accordance with [RFC7030], TLS cipher suites that include In accordance with [RFC7030], TLS cipher suites that include
"_EXPORT_" and "_DES_" in their names MUST NOT be used. More "_EXPORT_" and "_DES_" in their names MUST NOT be used. More
information about recommendations of TLS and DTLS are included in information about recommendations of TLS and DTLS are included in
[RFC7525]. [RFC7525].
As described in CMC, Section 6.7 of [RFC5272], "For keys that can be As described in CMC, Section 6.7 of [RFC5272], "For keys that can be
used as signature keys, signing the certification request with the used as signature keys, signing the certification request with the
private key serves as a POP on that key pair". The inclusion of tls- private key serves as a POP on that key pair". The inclusion of tls-
unique in the certification request links the proof-of-possession to unique in the certificate request links the proof-of-possession to
the TLS proof-of-identity. This implies but does not prove that the the TLS proof-of-identity. This implies but does not prove that only
authenticated client currently has access to the private key. the authenticated client currently has access to the private key.
Regarding the Certificate Signing Request (CSR), an adversary could Regarding the Certificate Signing Request (CSR), an adversary could
exclude attributes that a server may want, include attributes that a exclude attributes that a server may want, include attributes that a
server may not want, and render meaningless other attributes that a server may not want, and render meaningless other attributes that a
server may want. The CA is expected to be able to enforce policies server may want. The CA is expected to be able to enforce policies
to recover from improper CSR requests. to recover from improper CSR requests.
Interpreters of ASN.1 structures should be aware of the use of Interpreters of ASN.1 structures should be aware of the use of
invalid ASN.1 length fields and should take appropriate measures to invalid ASN.1 length fields and should take appropriate measures to
guard against buffer overflows, stack overruns in particular, and guard against buffer overflows, stack overruns in particular, and
skipping to change at page 22, line 28 skipping to change at page 23, line 26
11.2. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar considerations 11.2. HTTPS-CoAPS Registrar considerations
The Registrar proposed in Section 8 must be deployed with care, and The Registrar proposed in Section 8 must be deployed with care, and
only when the recommended connections are impossible. When POP only when the recommended connections are impossible. When POP
linking is used the Registrar terminating the TLS connection linking is used the Registrar terminating the TLS connection
establishes a new one with the upstream CA. Thus, it is impossible establishes a new one with the upstream CA. Thus, it is impossible
for POP linking to be enforced end-to-end for the EST transaction. for POP linking to be enforced end-to-end for the EST transaction.
The EST server could be configured to accept POP linking information The EST server could be configured to accept POP linking information
that does not match the current TLS session because the authenticated that does not match the current TLS session because the authenticated
EST Registrar client has verified this information when acting as an EST Registrar client has verified this information when acting as an
EST server. The introduction of an EST-coaps-to-HTTP Registrar EST server.
assumes the client can trust the registrar using its implicit or
explicit TA database. It also assumes the Registrar has a trust The introduction of an EST-coaps-to-HTTP Registrar assumes the client
relationship with the upstream EST server in order to act on behalf can trust the registrar using its implicit or explicit TA database.
of the clients. It also assumes the Registrar has a trust relationship with the
upstream EST server in order to act on behalf of the clients. When a
client uses the Implicit TA database for certificate validation, he
SHOULD confirm if the server is acting as an RA by the presence of
the id-kp-cmcRA [RFC6402] EKU in the server certificate. If the
server certificate does not include the EKU, it is RECOMMENDED that
the client includes "Linking Identity and POP Information"
(Section 7) in requests.
In a server-side key generation case, if no end-to-end encryption is In a server-side key generation case, if no end-to-end encryption is
used, the Registrar may be able see the private key as it acts as a used, the Registrar may be able see the private key as it acts as a
man-in-the-middle. Thus, the clients puts its trust on the Registrar man-in-the-middle. Thus, the client puts its trust on the Registrar
not exposing the private key. not exposing the private key.
Clients that leverage server-side key generation have no knowledge if Clients that leverage server-side key generation without end-to-end
the Registrar will be generating the keys and enrolling the encryption of the private key (Section 5.7 have no knowledge if the
Registrar will be generating the private key and enrolling the
certificates with the CA or if the CA will be responsible for certificates with the CA or if the CA will be responsible for
generating the keys, the existence of a Registrar requires the client generating the key. In such cases, the existence of a Registrar
to put its trust on the registrar doing the right thing if it is requires the client to put its trust on the registrar doing the right
generating they private keys. thing if it is generating the private key.
12. Acknowledgements 12. Contributors
Martin Furuhed contributed to the EST-coaps specification by
providing feedback based on the Nexus EST over CoAPs server
implementation that started in 2015. Sandeep Kumar kick-started this
specification and was instrumental in drawing attention to the
importance of the subject.
13. Acknowledgements
The authors are very grateful to Klaus Hartke for his detailed The authors are very grateful to Klaus Hartke for his detailed
explanations on the use of Block with DTLS and his support for the explanations on the use of Block with DTLS and his support for the
content-format specification. The authors would like to thank Esko content-format specification. The authors would like to thank Esko
Dijk and Michael Verschoor for the valuable discussions that helped Dijk and Michael Verschoor for the valuable discussions that helped
in shaping the solution. They would also like to thank Peter in shaping the solution. They would also like to thank Peter
Panburana for his feedback on technical details of the solution. Panburana for his feedback on technical details of the solution.
Constructive comments were received from Benjamin Kaduk, Eliot Lear, Constructive comments were received from Benjamin Kaduk, Eliot Lear,
Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, Julien Vermillard, and John Manuel. Jim Schaad, Hannes Tschofenig, Julien Vermillard, John Manuel, Oliver
Pfaff and Pete Beal.
13. References Interop tests were done by Oliver Pfaff, Thomas Werner, Oskar
Camezind, Bjorn Elmers and Joel Hoglund.
13.1. Normative References Robert Moskowitz provided code to create the examples.
14. References
14.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-core-multipart-ct] [I-D.ietf-core-multipart-ct]
Fossati, T., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Multipart Fossati, T., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "Multipart
Content-Format for CoAP", draft-ietf-core-multipart-ct-02 Content-Format for CoAP", draft-ietf-core-multipart-ct-02
(work in progress), August 2018. (work in progress), August 2018.
[I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis] [I-D.ietf-tls-dtls13]
Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/ Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., and N. Modadugu, "The
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0 Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Protocol Version
Message Specification", draft-ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis-12 1.3", draft-ietf-tls-dtls13-30 (work in progress),
(work in progress), September 2018. November 2018.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC5272] Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
(CMC)", RFC 5272, DOI 10.17487/RFC5272, June 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5272>.
[RFC5967] Turner, S., "The application/pkcs10 Media Type", RFC 5967, [RFC5967] Turner, S., "The application/pkcs10 Media Type", RFC 5967,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5967, August 2010, DOI 10.17487/RFC5967, August 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5967>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5967>.
[RFC6347] Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer [RFC6347] Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347, Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>. January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.
[RFC6690] Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link [RFC6690] Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link
Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012, Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012,
skipping to change at page 24, line 25 skipping to change at page 25, line 38
the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7959, the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7959,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7959, August 2016, DOI 10.17487/RFC7959, August 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7959>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7959>.
[RFC8075] Castellani, A., Loreto, S., Rahman, A., Fossati, T., and [RFC8075] Castellani, A., Loreto, S., Rahman, A., Fossati, T., and
E. Dijk, "Guidelines for Mapping Implementations: HTTP to E. Dijk, "Guidelines for Mapping Implementations: HTTP to
the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 8075, the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 8075,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8075, February 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8075, February 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8075>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8075>.
[RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
13.2. Informative References 14.2. Informative References
[COREparams]
IANA, "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
Parameters", <https://www.iana.org/assignments/core-
parameters/core-parameters.xhtml>.
[I-D.ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis]
Schaad, J., Ramsdell, B., and S. Turner, "Secure/
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 4.0
Message Specification", draft-ietf-lamps-rfc5751-bis-12
(work in progress), September 2018.
[I-D.moskowitz-ecdsa-pki]
Moskowitz, R., Birkholz, H., Xia, L., and M. Richardson,
"Guide for building an ECC pki", draft-moskowitz-ecdsa-
pki-04 (work in progress), September 2018.
[I-D.rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id] [I-D.rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id]
Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., Fossati, T., and T. Gondrom, Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., Fossati, T., and T. Gondrom,
"The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Connection "The Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Connection
Identifier", draft-rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id-02 Identifier", draft-rescorla-tls-dtls-connection-id-02
(work in progress), November 2017. (work in progress), November 2017.
[RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, [ieee802.15.4]
DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc791>. Standard 802.15.4-2006", 2006.
[ieee802.1ar]
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
802.1AR Secure Device Identifier", December 2009.
[PsQs] Nadia Heninger, Zakir Durumeric, Eric Wustrow, J. Alex
Halderman, "Mining Your Ps and Qs: Detection of Widespread
Weak Keys in Network Devices", USENIX Security Symposium
2012 ISBN 978-931971-95-9, August 2012.
[RFC4919] Kushalnagar, N., Montenegro, G., and C. Schumacher, "IPv6 [RFC4919] Kushalnagar, N., Montenegro, G., and C. Schumacher, "IPv6
over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs): over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs):
Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals", Overview, Assumptions, Problem Statement, and Goals",
RFC 4919, DOI 10.17487/RFC4919, August 2007, RFC 4919, DOI 10.17487/RFC4919, August 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4919>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4919>.
[RFC5272] Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
(CMC)", RFC 5272, DOI 10.17487/RFC5272, June 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5272>.
[RFC5273] Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS [RFC5273] Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
(CMC): Transport Protocols", RFC 5273, (CMC): Transport Protocols", RFC 5273,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5273, June 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5273, June 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5273>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5273>.
[RFC5705] Rescorla, E., "Keying Material Exporters for Transport
Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 5705, DOI 10.17487/RFC5705,
March 2010, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5705>.
[RFC5929] Altman, J., Williams, N., and L. Zhu, "Channel Bindings [RFC5929] Altman, J., Williams, N., and L. Zhu, "Channel Bindings
for TLS", RFC 5929, DOI 10.17487/RFC5929, July 2010, for TLS", RFC 5929, DOI 10.17487/RFC5929, July 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5929>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5929>.
[RFC5958] Turner, S., "Asymmetric Key Packages", RFC 5958, [RFC5958] Turner, S., "Asymmetric Key Packages", RFC 5958,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5958, August 2010, DOI 10.17487/RFC5958, August 2010,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5958>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5958>.
[RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic [RFC6090] McGrew, D., Igoe, K., and M. Salter, "Fundamental Elliptic
Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090, Curve Cryptography Algorithms", RFC 6090,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6090, February 2011, DOI 10.17487/RFC6090, February 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6090>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6090>.
[RFC6402] Schaad, J., "Certificate Management over CMS (CMC) [RFC6402] Schaad, J., "Certificate Management over CMS (CMC)
Updates", RFC 6402, DOI 10.17487/RFC6402, November 2011, Updates", RFC 6402, DOI 10.17487/RFC6402, November 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6402>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6402>.
[RFC7228] Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
[RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [RFC7231] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231, Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content", RFC 7231,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.
skipping to change at page 26, line 11 skipping to change at page 28, line 11
Profiles for the Internet of Things", RFC 7925, Profiles for the Internet of Things", RFC 7925,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7925, July 2016, DOI 10.17487/RFC7925, July 2016,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7925>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7925>.
[RFC8422] Nir, Y., Josefsson, S., and M. Pegourie-Gonnard, "Elliptic [RFC8422] Nir, Y., Josefsson, S., and M. Pegourie-Gonnard, "Elliptic
Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Curve Cryptography (ECC) Cipher Suites for Transport Layer
Security (TLS) Versions 1.2 and Earlier", RFC 8422, Security (TLS) Versions 1.2 and Earlier", RFC 8422,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8422, August 2018, DOI 10.17487/RFC8422, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8422>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8422>.
Appendix A. EST messages to EST-coaps [RFC8446] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.
This section takes all examples from Appendix A of [RFC7030], changes [RSAorig] Petr Svenda, Matus Nemec, Peter Sekan, Rudolf Kvasnovsky,
the payload from Base64 to binary and replaces the http headers by David Formanek, David Komarek, Vashek Matyas, "The
their CoAP equivalents. Million-Key Question - Investigating the Origins of RSA
Public Keys", USENIX Security Symposium 2016 ISBN
978-1-931971-32-4, August 2016.
The corresponding CoAP headers are only shown in Appendix A.1. Appendix A. EST messages to EST-coaps
Creating CoAP headers are assumed to be generally known.
Binary payload is a CBOR major type 2 (byte array), that is shown This section shows similar examples to the ones presented in
with a base16 (hexadecimal) CBOR diagnostic notation. Appendix A of [RFC7030]. The payloads in the examples are the hex
encoded DER binary, generated with 'xxd -p', of the PKI certificates
created following [I-D.moskowitz-ecdsa-pki]. The payloads are shown
unencrypted. In practice the message content would be binary DER
formatted and transferred over an encrypted DTLS tunnel. The
hexadecimal representations in the examples below would NOT be
transported in hex, but in binary DER. Hex is used for visualization
purposes because a binary representation cannot be rendered well in
text.
[EDNOTE: The payloads of the examples need to be re-generated with The message content breakdown is presented in Appendix C.
appropriate tools and example certificates.]
A.1. cacerts The corresponding CoAP headers are only shown in Appendix A.1.
Creating CoAP headers is assumed to be generally understood.
These examples assume that the resource discovery, returned a short These examples assume that the resource discovery, returned a short
URL of "/est". base path of "/est".
In EST-coaps, a coaps cacerts IPv4 message can be: A.1. cacerts
In EST-coaps, a coaps cacerts message can be:
GET coaps://192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts GET coaps://192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts
The corresponding CoAP header fields are shown below. The use of The corresponding CoAP header fields are shown below. The use of
block and DTLS are worked out in Appendix B. block and DTLS are worked out in Appendix B.
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 0 (CON) T = 0 (CON)
Code = 0x01 (0.01 is GET) Code = 0x01 (0.01 is GET)
Token = 0x9a (client generated) Token = 0x9a (client generated)
Options Options
Option1 (Uri-Host) [optional] Option [optional]
Option Delta = 0x3 (option nr = 3) Option Delta = 0x3 (option# 3 Uri-Host)
Option Length = 0x9 Option Length = 0x9
Option Value = 192.0.2.1 Option Value = 192.0.2.1
Option2 (Uri-Port) [optional] Option [optional]
Option Delta = 0x4 (option nr = 3+4=7) Option Delta = 0x4 (option# 3+4=7 Uri-Port)
Option Length = 0x4 Option Length = 0x4
Option Value = 8085 Option Value = 8085
Option3 (Uri-Path) Option
Option Delta = 0x4 (option nr = 7+4= 11) Option Delta = 0x4 (option# 7+4=11 Uri-Path)
Option Length = 0x5 Option Length = 0x5
Option Value = "est" Option Value = "est"
Option4 (Uri-Path) Option
Option Delta = 0x0 (option nr = 11+0= 11) Option Delta = 0x0 (option# 11+0=11 Uri-Path)
Option Length = 0x6 Option Length = 0x6
Option Value = "crts" Option Value = "crts"
Option5 (Max-Age) Option
Option Delta = 0x3 (option nr = 11+3= 14) Option Delta = 0x3 (option# 11+3=14 Max-Age)
Option Length = 0x1 Option Length = 0x1
Option Value = 0x1 (1 minute) Option Value = 0x1 (1 minute)
Payload = [Empty] Payload = [Empty]
A 2.05 Content response with a cert in EST-coaps will then be: A 2.05 Content response with a cert in EST-coaps will then be
2.05 Content (Content-Format: 281) 2.05 Content (Content-Format: 281)
{payload} {payload with certificate in binary DER format}
with CoAP fields with CoAP fields
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 2 (ACK) T = 2 (ACK)
Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content) Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content)
Token = 0x9a (copied by server) Token = 0x9a (copied from request by server)
Options Options
Option1 (Content-Format) Option
Option Delta = 0xC (option nr =12) Option Delta = 0xC (option# 12 Content-Format)
Option Length = 0x2 Option Length = 0x2
Option Value = 281 (defined in this document) Option Value = 281
Payload = [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
h'30233906092a6206734107028c2a3023260201013100300b06092a6206734107018 in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
c0c3020bb302063c20102020900a61e75193b7acc0d06092a620673410105050030 cannot be rendered well in text. ]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'
The hexadecimal dump of the CBOR payload looks like: Payload =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59 09CD # bytes(2509) The breakdown of the payload is shown in Appendix C.1.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A.2. csrattrs A.2. csrattrs
In the following valid /csrattrs exchange, the EST-coaps client In the following csrattrs exchange, the CoAP GET request looks like
authenticates itself with a certificate issued by the connected CA.
The initial DTLS handshake is identical to the enrollment example.
The IPv6 CoAP GET request looks like:
REQ: REQ:
GET coaps://[2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/att GET coaps://[2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/att
(Content-Format: 285) (Content-Format: 285)
A 2.05 Content response contains attributes which are relevant for [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
the authenticated client. In this example, the EST-coaps server in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
returns two attributes that the client can ignore when they are cannot be rendered well in text. ]
unknown to him.
A.3. enroll / reenroll 307c06072b06010101011630220603883701311b131950617273652053455
420617320322e3939392e31206461746106092a864886f70d010907302c06
0388370231250603883703060388370413195061727365205345542061732
0322e3939392e32206461746106092b240303020801010b06096086480165
03040202
During the Enroll/Reenroll exchange, the EST-coaps client uses a CSR A 2.05 Content response should contain attributes which are relevant
(Content-Format 286) request in the POST request payload. for the authenticated client. This example is copied from section
A.2 in [RFC7030], where the base64 representation is replaced with a
hexadecimal representation of the equivalent binary DER format. The
EST-coaps server returns attributes that the client can ignore if
they are unknown to him.
After verification of the CSR by the server, a 2.05 Content response A.3. enroll / reenroll
with the issued certificate will be returned to the client. As
described in Section 5.5, if the server is not able to provide a During the (re-)enroll exchange the EST-coaps client uses a CSR
response immediately, it sends an empty ACK with response code 5.03 (Content-Format 286) request in the POST request payload. As shown
(Service Unavailabel) and the Max-Age option. See Figure 3 for an in Appendix C.2, the CSR contains a ChallengePassword which is used
example exchange. for POP linking (Section 7).
[EDNOTE: When redoing this example, given that POP linking is also
used, make sure it is obvious that the ChallengePassword attribute in
the CSR is valid HMAC output. HMAC-REAL.]
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen
(token 0x45) (token 0x45)
(Content-Format: 286) (Content-Format: 286)
h'30208530206d020100301f311d301b0603550403131464656d6f7374657034203
1333638313431333532302062300d06092a620673410101050003204f0030204a [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
022041005d9f4dffd3c5949f646a9584367778560950b355c35b8e34726dd3764 in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
54231734795b4c09b9c6d75d408311307a81f7adef7f5d241f7d5be85620c5d44 cannot be rendered well in text. ]
38bbb4242cf215c167f2ccf36c364ea2618a62f0536576369d6304e6a96877224
7d86824f079faac7a6f694cfda5b84c42087dc062d462190c525813f210a036a7 308201853082012c0201003070310b3009060355040613025553310b3009
37b4f30d8891f4b75559fb72752453146332d51c937557716ccec624f5125c3a4 06035504080c024341310b300906035504070c024c413114301206035504
447ad3115020048113fef54ad554ee88af09a2583aac9024075113db4990b1786 0a0c0b6578616d706c6520496e63310c300a060355040b0c03496f543112
b871691e0f02030100018701f06092a620673410907311213102b72724369722f 301006035504030c09436c69656e74205241310f300d0603550405130657
372b45597535305434300d06092a620673410105050003204100441b40177a3a6 74313233343059301306072a8648ce3d020106082a8648ce3d0301070342
5501487735a8ad5d3827a4eaa867013920e2afcda87aa81733c7c0353be47e1bf 00041bb8c1117896f98e4506c03d70efbe820d8e38ea97e9d65d52c8460c
a7cda5176e7ccc6be22ae03498588d5f2de3b143f2b1a6175ec544e8e7625af6b 5852c51dd89a61370a2843760fc859799d78cd33f3c1846e304f1717f812
836fd4416894c2e55ea99c6606f69075d6d53475d410729aa6d806afbb9986caf 3f1a284cc99fa05a301b06092a864886f70d010907310e0c0c6461746e69
7b844b5b3e4545f19071865ada007060cad6db26a592d4a7bda7d586b68110962 65746465657274303b06092a864886f70d01090e312e302c302a0603551d
17071103407553155cddc75481e272b5ed553a8593fb7e25100a6f7605085dab4 1104233021a01f06082b06010505070804a013301106092b06010401b43b
fc7e0731f0e7fe305703791362d5157e92e6b5c2e3edbcadb40' 0a01040401020304300a06082a8648ce3d040302034700304402201f82c6
868a654e2dec43cff50aebd6cbbe20dc8242a20a806684f2b8545d008902
20668de2c306df1768105a781e49b1cdc42a2a7f41d6b71d928789547d61
b2b7cf
After verification of the CSR by the server, a 2.01 Content response
with the issued certificate will be returned to the client. As
described in Section 5.6, if the server is not able to provide a
response immediately, it sends an empty ACK with response code 5.03
(Service Unavailable) and the Max-Age option. See Figure 3 for an
example exchange.
RET: RET:
(Content-Format: 281)(token =0x45) (Content-Format: 281)(token =0x45)
2.01 Created 2.01 Created
h'3020f806092a62067341070283293020e50201013100300b06092a62067341070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'
A.4. serverkeygen
During this valid /serverkeygen exchange, the EST-coaps client [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
authenticates itself using the certificate provided by the connected in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
CA. cannot be rendered well in text. ]
The initial DTLS handshake is identical to the enrollment example. 3082028206092a864886f70d010702a08202733082026f0201013100300b
The CoAP GET request looks like: 06092a864886f70d010701a082025530820251308201f7a0030201020209
00ce06119a0fd27ca9300a06082a8648ce3d040302305d310b3009060355
040613025553310b300906035504080c02434131143012060355040a0c0b
4578616d706c6520496e6331163014060355040b0c0d6365727469666963
6174696f6e3113301106035504030c0a3830322e3141522043413020170d
3139303130373130343832345a180f39393939313233313233353935395a
3070310b3009060355040613025553310b300906035504080c024341310b
300906035504070c024c4131143012060355040a0c0b6578616d706c6520
496e63310c300a060355040b0c03496f543112301006035504030c09436c
69656e74205241310f300d06035504051306577431323334305930130607
2a8648ce3d020106082a8648ce3d030107034200041bb8c1117896f98e45
06c03d70efbe820d8e38ea97e9d65d52c8460c5852c51dd89a61370a2843
760fc859799d78cd33f3c1846e304f1717f8123f1a284cc99fa3818a3081
8730090603551d1304023000301d0603551d0e04160414494be598dc8dbc
0dbc071c486b777460e5cce621301f0603551d23041830168014d344161b
ff1fa5343015958577dd33507be6b29b300e0603551d0f0101ff04040302
05a0302a0603551d1104233021a01f06082b06010505070804a013301106
092b06010401b43b0a01040401020304300a06082a8648ce3d0403020348
003045022100a8073d6c1f9abb40739fc85a3773378568544036d8cd24f0
1d4b34cb61d9602c022008cc77f8dd5ca7c2fcf95ffc94fdc341e2b61080
118a9576c09e88d2fbd8a921a1003100
[EDNOTE: same comment as HMAC-REAL above applies.] The breakdown of the request and response is shown in Appendix C.2.
[EDNOTE: Suggestion to have only one example with complete encrypted A.4. serverkeygen
payload (the short one) and point out the different fields. Update
this example according to the agreed upon solution from Section 5.6.
]
In a serverkeygen exchange the CoAP GET request looks like
POST coaps://192.0.2.1:8085/est/skg POST coaps://192.0.2.1:8085/est/skg
(token 0xa5) (token 0xa5)
(Content-Format: 286)(Max-Age=120) (Content-Format: 286)(Max-Age=120)
h'302081302069020100305b313e303c060355040313357365727665724b6579476 [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
56e2072657120627920636c69656e7420696e2064656d6f207374657020313220 in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
3133363831343139353531193017060355040513105049443a576964676574205 cannot be rendered well in text. ]
34e3a3130302062300d06092a620673410101050003204f0030204a02204100f4
dfa6c03f7f2766b23776c333d2c0f9d1a7a6ee36d01499bbe6f075d1e38a57e98 3081cf3078020100301631143012060355040a0c0b736b67206578616d70
ecc197f51b75228454b7f19652332de5e52e4a974c6ae34e1df80b33f15f47d3b 6c653059301306072a8648ce3d020106082a8648ce3d030107034200041b
cbf76116bb0e4d3e04a9651218a476a13fc186c2a255e4065ff7c271cff104e47 b8c1117896f98e4506c03d70efbe820d8e38ea97e9d65d52c8460c5852c5
31fad53c22b21a1e5138bf9ad0187314ac39445949a48805392390e78c7659621 1dd89a61370a2843760fc859799d78cd33f3c1846e304f1717f8123f1a28
6d3e61327a534f5ea7721d2b1343c7362b37da502717cfc2475653c7a3860c5f4 4cc99fa000300a06082a8648ce3d04030203470030440220387cd4e9cf62
0612a5db6d33794d755264b6327e3a3263b149628585b85e57e42f6b3277591b0 8d4af77f92ebed4890d9d141dca86cd2757dd14cbd59cdf6961802202f24
2030100018701f06092a6206734109073112131064467341586d4a6e6a6f6b427 5e828c77754378b66660a4977f113cacdaa0cc7bad7d1474a7fd155d090d
4447672300d06092a620673410105050003204100472d11007e5a2b2c2023d47a
6d71d046c307701d8ebc9e47272713378390b4ee321462a3dbe54579f5a514f6f
4050af497f428189b63655d03a194ef729f101743e5d03fbc6ae1e84486d1300a
f9288724381909188c851fa9a5059802eb64449f2a3c9e441353d136768da27ff
4f277651d676a6a7e51931b08f56135a2230891fd184960e1313e7a1a9139ed19
28196867079a456cd2266cb754a45151b7b1b939e381be333fea61580fe5d25bf
4823dbd2d6a98445b46305c10637e202856611'
The response would follow [I-D.ietf-core-multipart-ct] and could
looke like
RET: RET:
2.01 Content (Content-Format: TBD8) 2.01 Content (Content-Format: 62)
(token=0xa5) (token=0xa5)
[284, [ The hexadecimal representations below would NOT be transported
h'30213e020100300d06092a6206734101010500042128302124020100022041003 in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
c0bc2748f2003e3e8ea15f746f2a71e83f585412b92cf6f8e64de02e056153274 cannot be rendered well in text. ]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',
281,
h'3020c506092a62067341070283363020f20201013100300b06092a62067341070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']
Without the DecryptKeyIdentifier attribute, the response has no
additional encryption beyond DTLS.
The response contains first a preamble that can be ignored. The EST- 84 # array(4)
coaps server can use the preamble to include additional explanations, 19 011C # unsigned(284)
like ownership or support information 58 8A # bytes(138)
308187020100301306072a8648ce3d020106082a8648ce3d030107046d30
6b02010104200b9a67785b65e07360b6d28cfc1d3f3925c0755799deeca7
45372b01697bd8a6a144034200041bb8c1117896f98e4506c03d70efbe82
0d8e38ea97e9d65d52c8460c5852c51dd89a61370a2843760fc859799d78
cd33f3c1846e304f1717f8123f1a284cc99f
19 0119 # unsigned(281)
59 01D3 # bytes(467)
308201cf06092a864886f70d010702a08201c0308201bc0201013100300b
06092a864886f70d010701a08201a23082019e30820143a0030201020208
126de8571518524b300a06082a8648ce3d04030230163114301206035504
0a0c0b736b67206578616d706c65301e170d313930313039303835373038
5a170d3339303130343038353730385a301631143012060355040a0c0b73
6b67206578616d706c653059301306072a8648ce3d020106082a8648ce3d
030107034200041bb8c1117896f98e4506c03d70efbe820d8e38ea97e9d6
5d52c8460c5852c51dd89a61370a2843760fc859799d78cd33f3c1846e30
4f1717f8123f1a284cc99fa37b307930090603551d1304023000302c0609
6086480186f842010d041f161d4f70656e53534c2047656e657261746564
204365727469666963617465301d0603551d0e04160414494be598dc8dbc
0dbc071c486b777460e5cce621301f0603551d23041830168014494be598
dc8dbc0dbc071c486b777460e5cce621300a06082a8648ce3d0403020349
003046022100a4b167d0f9add9202810e6bf6a290b8cfdfc9b9c9fea2cc1
c8fc3a464f79f2c202210081d31ba142751a7b4a34fd1a01fcfb08716b9e
b53bdaadc9ae60b08f52429c0fa1003100
The breakdown of the request and response is shown in Appendix C.3
Appendix B. EST-coaps Block message examples Appendix B. EST-coaps Block message examples
Two examples are presented: (1) a cacerts exchange shows the use of Two examples are presented in this section:
Block2 and the block headers, and (2) a enroll exchange shows the
Block1 and Block2 size negotiation for request and response payloads.
B.1. cacerts block example 1. a cacerts exchange shows the use of Block2 and the block headers
2. an enroll exchange shows the Block1 and Block2 size negotiation
for request and response payloads.
The payloads are shown unencrypted. In practice the message contents
would be binary DER formatted and transferred over an encrypted DTLS
tunnel. The corresponding CoAP headers are only shown in
Appendix B.1. Creating CoAP headers are assumed to be generally
known.
B.1. cacerts
This section provides a detailed example of the messages using DTLS This section provides a detailed example of the messages using DTLS
and BLOCK option Block2. The minimum PMTU is 1280 bytes, which is and BLOCK option Block2. The minimum PMTU is 1280 bytes, which is
the example value assumed for the DTLS datagram size. The example the example value assumed for the DTLS datagram size. The example
block length is taken as 64 which gives an SZX value of 2. block length is taken as 64 which gives an SZX value of 2.
The following is an example of a valid /cacerts exchange over DTLS. The following is an example of a cacerts exchange over DTLS. The
The content length of the cacerts response in appendix A.1 of content length of the cacerts response in appendix A.1 of [RFC7030]
[RFC7030] is 4246 bytes using base64. This leads to a length of 2509 contains 639 bytes in binary. The CoAP message adds around 10 bytes,
bytes in binary. The CoAP message adds around 10 bytes, the DTLS the DTLS record 29 bytes. To avoid IP fragmentation, the CoAP block
record 29 bytes. To avoid IP fragmentation, the CoAP block option is option is used and an MTU of 127 is assumed to stay within one IEEE
used and an MTU of 127 is assumed to stay within one IEEE 802.15.4 802.15.4 packet. To stay below the MTU of 127, the payload is split
packet. To stay below the MTU of 127, the payload is split in 39 in 9 packets with a payload of 64 bytes each, followed by a last
packets with a payload of 64 bytes each, followed by a packet of 13 tenth packet of 63 bytes. The client sends an IPv6 packet containing
bytes. The client sends an IPv6 packet containing the UDP datagram the UDP datagram with the DTLS record that encapsulates the CoAP
with the DTLS record that encapsulates the CoAP Request 40 times. request 10 times. The server returns an IPv6 packet containing the
The server returns an IPv6 packet containing the UDP datagram with UDP datagram with the DTLS record that encapsulates the CoAP
the DTLS record that encapsulates the CoAP response. The CoAP response. The CoAP request-response exchange with block option is
request-response exchange with block option is shown below. Block shown below. Block option is shown in a decomposed way (block-
option is shown in a decomposed way (block-option:NUM/M/size) option:NUM/M/size) indicating the kind of Block option (2 in this
indicating the kind of Block option (2 in this case because used in case) followed by a colon, and then the block number (NUM), the more
the response) followed by a colon, and then the block number (NUM), bit (M = 0 in Block2 response means it is last block), and block size
the more bit (M = 0 in lock2 response means last block), and block with exponent (2**(SZX+4)) separated by slashes. The Length 64 is
size with exponent (2**(SZX+4)) separated by slashes. The Length 64 used with SZX=2 to avoid IP fragmentation. The CoAP Request is sent
is used with SZX= 2 to avoid IP fragmentation. The CoAP Request is with confirmable (CON) option and the content format of the response,
sent with confirmable (CON) option and the content format of the even though not shown, is 281 (application/pkcs7-mime; smime-
Response is /application/cacerts. type=certs-only). The transer of the 11 blocks with partially filled
block NUM=10 is shown below
GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:0/0/64) --> GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:0/0/64) -->
<-- (2:0/1/64) 2.05 Content <-- (2:0/1/64) 2.05 Content
GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:1/0/64) --> GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:1/0/64) -->
<-- (2:1/1/64) 2.05 Content <-- (2:1/1/64) 2.05 Content
| |
| |
| |
GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:39/0/64) --> GET /192.0.2.1:8085/est/crts (2:10/0/64) -->
<-- (2:39/0/64) 2.05 Content <-- (2:9/0/64) 2.05 Content
40 blocks have been sent with partially filled block NUM=39 as last
block.
For further detailing the CoAP headers, the first two blocks are
written out.
The header of the first GET looks like:
The header of the GET request looks like
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 0 (CON) T = 0 (CON)
Code = 0x01 (0.1 GET) Code = 0x01 (0.1 GET)
Token = 0x9a (client generated) Token = 0x9a (client generated)
Options Options
Option1 (Uri-Host) [optional] Option [optional]
Option Delta = 0x3 (option nr = 3) Option Delta = 0x3 (option# 3 Uri-Host)
Option Length = 0x9 Option Length = 0x9
Option Value = 192.0.2.1 Option Value = 192.0.2.1
Option2 (Uri-Port) [optional] Option [optional]
Option Delta = 0x4 (option nr = 3+4=7) Option Delta = 0x4 (option# 3+4=7 Uri-Port)
Option Length = 0x4 Option Length = 0x4
Option Value = 8085 Option Value = 8085
Option3 (Uri-Path) Option
Option Delta = 0x4 (option nr = 7+4=11) Option Delta = 0x4 (option# 7+4=11 Uri-Path)
Option Length = 0x5 Option Length = 0x5
Option Value = "est" Option Value = "est"
Option4 (Uri-Path) Option4
Option Delta = 0x0 (option nr = 11+0=11) Option Delta = 0x0 (option# 11+0=11 Uri-Path)
Option Length = 0x6 Option Length = 0x6
Option Value = "crts" Option Value = "crts"
Payload = [Empty] Payload = [Empty]
The header of the first response looks like: For further detailing the CoAP headers, the first two and the last
blocks are written out below. The header of the first Block2
response looks like
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 2 (ACK) T = 2 (ACK)
Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content) Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content)
Token = 0x9a (copied by server) Token = 0x9a (copied from request by server)
Options Options
Option1 (Content-Format) Option
Option Delta = 0xC (option nr =12) Option Delta = 0xC (option# 12 Content-Format)
Option Length = 0x2 Option Length = 0x2
Option Value = 281 Option Value = 281
Option2 (Block2) Option
Option Delta = 0xB (option 23 = 12 + 11) Option Delta = 0xB (option# 12+11=23 Block2)
Option Length = 0x1 Option Length = 0x1
Option Value = 0x0A (block number = 0, M=1, SZX=2) Option Value = 0x0A (block#=0, M=1, SZX=2)
[ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
cannot be rendered well in text. ]
Payload = Payload =
h'30233906092a6206734107028c2a3023260201013100300b06092a6206734107018 3082027b06092a864886f70d010702a082026c308202680201013100300b
c0c3020bb302063c20102020900a61e75193b7acc0d06092a6206734101' 06092a864886f70d010701a082024e3082024a308201f0a0030201020209
009189bc
The second Block2: The second Block2:
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 2 (means ACK) T = 2 (means ACK)
Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content) Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content)
Token = 0x9a (copied by server) Token = 0x9a (copied from request by server)
Options Options
Option1 (Content-Format) Option
Option Delta = 0xC (option nr =12) Option Delta = 0xC (option# 12 Content-Format)
Option Length = 0x2 Option Length = 0x2
Option Value = 281 Option Value = 281
Option2 (Block2) Option
Option Delta = 0xB (option 23 = 12 + 11) Option Delta = 0xB (option 12+11=23 Block2)
Option Length = 0x1 Option Length = 0x1
Option Value = 0x1A (block number = 1, M=1, SZX=2) Option Value = 0x1A (block#=1, M=1, SZX=2)
Payload =
h'05050030
1b31193017060355040313106573744578616d706c654341204f774f301e170d313
3303530393033353333315a170d3134303530393033353333315a'
The 40th and final Block2: [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
cannot be rendered well in text. ]
Payload =
df9c99244b300a06082a8648ce3d0403023067310b300906035504061302
5553310b300906035504080c024341310b300906035504070c024c413114
30120603
The 11th and final Block2:
Ver = 1 Ver = 1
T = 2 (means ACK) T = 2 (means ACK)
Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content) Code = 0x45 (2.05 Content)
Token = 0x9a (copied by server) Token = 0x9a (copied from request by server)
Options Options
Option1 (Content-Format) Option
Option Delta = 0xC (option nr =12) Option Delta = 0xC (option# 12 Content-Format)
Option Length = 0x2 Option Length = 0x2
Option Value = 281 Option Value = 281
Option2 (Block2) Option
Option Delta = 0xB (option 23 = 12 + 11) Option Delta = 0xB (option# 12+11=23 Block2 )
Option Length = 0x2 Option Length = 0x2
Option Value = 0x272 (block number = 39, M=0, SZX=2) Option Value = 0x92 (block#=9, M=0, SZX=2)
Payload = h'73a30d0c006343116f58403100'
B.2. enroll block example [ The hexadecimal representation below would NOT be transported
in hex, but in DER. Hex is used because a binary representation
cannot be rendered well in text. ]
In this example the requested block2 size of 256 bytes, required by Payload =
2ec0b4af52d46f3b7ecc9687ddf267bcec368f7b7f1353272f022047a28a
e5c7306163b3c3834bab3c103f743070594c089aaa0ac870cd13b902caa1
003100
B.2. enroll
In this example the requested Block2 size of 256 bytes, required by
the client, is transferred to the server in the very first request the client, is transferred to the server in the very first request
message. The request/response consists of two parts: part1 message. The block size 256=(2**(SZX+4)) which gives SZX=4. The
containing the CSR transferred to the server, and part2 contains the notation for block numbering is the same as in Appendix B.1. It is
certificate transferred back to the client. The block size assumed that CSR takes N1+1 blocks and the cert response takes N2+1
256=(2**(SZX+4)) which gives SZX=4. The notation for block numbering blocks. The header fields and the payload are omitted for brevity.
is the same as in Appendix B.1. It is assumed that CSR takes N1+1
blocks and Cert response takes N2+1 blocks. The header fields and
the payload are omitted to show the block exchange. The type of
payload is shown within curly brackets.
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:0/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:0/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:1/1/256) {CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue) <-- (ACK) (1:1/1/256) (2.31 Continue)
. .
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(1:N1/0/256){CSR req} -->
<-- (ACK) (1:N1/0/256) (2:0/1/256) (2.04 Changed){Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (1:N1/0/256) (2:0/1/256) (2.04 Changed){Cert resp}
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/256) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:1/0/256) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:1/1/256) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:1/1/256) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
. .
. .
. .
POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/256) --> POST [2001:db8::2:1]:61616/est/sen (CON)(2:N2/0/256) -->
<-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/256) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp} <-- (ACK) (2:N2/0/256) (2.04 Changed) {Cert resp}
Figure 5: EST-COAP enrolment with multiple blocks Figure 5: EST-COAP enrolment with multiple blocks
N1+1 blocks have been transferred from client to server and N2+1 N1+1 blocks have been transferred from client to the server and N2+1
blocks have been transferred from server to client. blocks have been transferred from server to client.
Appendix C. Message content breakdown
This appendix presents the breakdown of the hexadecimal dumps of the
binary payloads shown in Appendix A.
C.1. cacerts
Breakdown of cacerts response containing one root CA certificate.
Certificate:
Data:
Version: 3 (0x2)
Serial Number:
91:89:bc:df:9c:99:24:4b
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
Issuer: C=US, ST=CA, L=LA, O=Example Inc,
OU=certification, CN=Root CA
Validity
Not Before: Jan 7 10:40:41 2019 GMT
Not After : Jan 2 10:40:41 2039 GMT
Subject: C=US, ST=CA, L=LA, O=Example Inc,
OU=certification, CN=Root CA
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
Public-Key: (256 bit)
pub:
04:81:49:94:08:2b:6e:81:85:f3:df:53:f5:e0:be:
e6:98:97:33:35:20:00:23:dd:f7:8c:d1:7a:44:3f:
fd:8d:dd:40:90:87:69:c5:56:52:ac:2c:cb:75:c4:
a5:0a:7c:7d:db:7c:22:da:e6:c8:5c:ca:53:82:09:
fd:bb:f1:04:c9
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
X509v3 extensions:
X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
24:95:E8:16:EF:6F:FC:AA:F3:56:CE:4A:DF:FE:33:CF:49:2A:BB:A8
X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
keyid:
24:95:E8:16:EF:6F:FC:AA:F3:56:CE:4A:DF:FE:33:CF:49:2A:BB:A8
X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical
CA:TRUE
X509v3 Key Usage: critical
Certificate Sign, CRL Sign
X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
email:certify@example.com
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
30:45:02:21:00:da:e3:7c:96:f1:54:c3:2e:c0:b4:af:52:d4:
6f:3b:7e:cc:96:87:dd:f2:67:bc:ec:36:8f:7b:7f:13:53:27:
2f:02:20:47:a2:8a:e5:c7:30:61:63:b3:c3:83:4b:ab:3c:10:
3f:74:30:70:59:4c:08:9a:aa:0a:c8:70:cd:13:b9:02:ca
C.2. enroll / reenroll
The breakdown of the request is
Certificate Request:
Data:
Version: 0 (0x0)
Subject: C=US, ST=CA, L=LA, O=example Inc,
OU=IoT, CN=Client RA/serialNumber=Wt1234
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
Public-Key: (256 bit)
pub:
04:1b:b8:c1:11:78:96:f9:8e:45:06:c0:3d:70:ef:
be:82:0d:8e:38:ea:97:e9:d6:5d:52:c8:46:0c:58:
52:c5:1d:d8:9a:61:37:0a:28:43:76:0f:c8:59:79:
9d:78:cd:33:f3:c1:84:6e:30:4f:17:17:f8:12:3f:
1a:28:4c:c9:9f
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
Attributes:
challengePassword :datnietdeert
Requested Extensions:
X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
othername:<unsupported>
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
30:44:02:20:1f:82:c6:86:8a:65:4e:2d:ec:43:cf:f5:0a:eb:
d6:cb:be:20:dc:82:42:a2:0a:80:66:84:f2:b8:54:5d:00:89:
02:20:66:8d:e2:c3:06:df:17:68:10:5a:78:1e:49:b1:cd:c4:
2a:2a:7f:41:d6:b7:1d:92:87:89:54:7d:61:b2:b7:cf
The CSR contained a ChallengePassword which is used for POP linking
(Section 7)
The breakdown of the issued certificate response is
Certificate:
Data:
Version: 3 (0x2)
Serial Number:
ce:06:11:9a:0f:d2:7c:a9
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
Issuer: C=US, ST=CA, O=Example Inc,
OU=certification, CN=802.1AR CA
Validity
Not Before: Jan 7 10:48:24 2019 GMT
Not After : Dec 31 23:59:59 9999 GMT
Subject: C=US, ST=CA, L=LA, O=example Inc,
OU=IoT, CN=Client RA/serialNumber=Wt1234
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
Public-Key: (256 bit)
pub:
04:1b:b8:c1:11:78:96:f9:8e:45:06:c0:3d:70:ef:
be:82:0d:8e:38:ea:97:e9:d6:5d:52:c8:46:0c:58:
52:c5:1d:d8:9a:61:37:0a:28:43:76:0f:c8:59:79:
9d:78:cd:33:f3:c1:84:6e:30:4f:17:17:f8:12:3f:
1a:28:4c:c9:9f
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
X509v3 extensions:
X509v3 Basic Constraints:
CA:FALSE
X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
49:4B:E5:98:DC:8D:BC:0D:BC:07:1C:48:6B:77:74:60:E5:CC:E6:21
X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
keyid:
D3:44:16:1B:FF:1F:A5:34:30:15:95:85:77:DD:33:50:7B:E6:B2:9B
X509v3 Key Usage: critical
Digital Signature, Key Encipherment
X509v3 Subject Alternative Name:
othername:<unsupported>
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
30:45:02:21:00:a8:07:3d:6c:1f:9a:bb:40:73:9f:c8:5a:37:
73:37:85:68:54:40:36:d8:cd:24:f0:1d:4b:34:cb:61:d9:60:
2c:02:20:08:cc:77:f8:dd:5c:a7:c2:fc:f9:5f:fc:94:fd:c3:
41:e2:b6:10:80:11:8a:95:76:c0:9e:88:d2:fb:d8:a9:21
C.3. serverkeygen
The followng is the breakdown of the request example used.
Certificate Request:
Data:
Version: 0 (0x0)
Subject: O=skg example
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
Public-Key: (256 bit)
pub:
04:1b:b8:c1:11:78:96:f9:8e:45:06:c0:3d:70:ef:
be:82:0d:8e:38:ea:97:e9:d6:5d:52:c8:46:0c:58:
52:c5:1d:d8:9a:61:37:0a:28:43:76:0f:c8:59:79:
9d:78:cd:33:f3:c1:84:6e:30:4f:17:17:f8:12:3f:
1a:28:4c:c9:9f
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
Attributes:
a0:00
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
30:44:02:20:38:7c:d4:e9:cf:62:8d:4a:f7:7f:92:eb:ed:48:
90:d9:d1:41:dc:a8:6c:d2:75:7d:d1:4c:bd:59:cd:f6:96:18:
02:20:2f:24:5e:82:8c:77:75:43:78:b6:66:60:a4:97:7f:11:
3c:ac:da:a0:cc:7b:ad:7d:14:74:a7:fd:15:5d:09:0d
The following is the breakdown of the private key content of the
server-side key generation response payload.
Private-Key: (256 bit)
priv:
0b:9a:67:78:5b:65:e0:73:60:b6:d2:8c:fc:1d:3f:
39:25:c0:75:57:99:de:ec:a7:45:37:2b:01:69:7b:
d8:a6
pub:
04:1b:b8:c1:11:78:96:f9:8e:45:06:c0:3d:70:ef:
be:82:0d:8e:38:ea:97:e9:d6:5d:52:c8:46:0c:58:
52:c5:1d:d8:9a:61:37:0a:28:43:76:0f:c8:59:79:
9d:78:cd:33:f3:c1:84:6e:30:4f:17:17:f8:12:3f:
1a:28:4c:c9:9f
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
The following is the breakdown of the certificate of the second part
of the server-side key generation response payload.
Certificate:
Data:
Version: 3 (0x2)
Serial Number: 1327972925857878603 (0x126de8571518524b)
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
Issuer: O=skg example
Validity
Not Before: Jan 9 08:57:08 2019 GMT
Not After : Jan 4 08:57:08 2039 GMT
Subject: O=skg example
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
Public-Key: (256 bit)
pub:
04:1b:b8:c1:11:78:96:f9:8e:45:06:c0:3d:70:ef:
be:82:0d:8e:38:ea:97:e9:d6:5d:52:c8:46:0c:58:
52:c5:1d:d8:9a:61:37:0a:28:43:76:0f:c8:59:79:
9d:78:cd:33:f3:c1:84:6e:30:4f:17:17:f8:12:3f:
1a:28:4c:c9:9f
ASN1 OID: prime256v1
NIST CURVE: P-256
X509v3 extensions:
X509v3 Basic Constraints:
CA:FALSE
Netscape Comment:
OpenSSL Generated Certificate
X509v3 Subject Key Identifier:
49:4B:E5:98:DC:8D:BC:0D:BC:07:1C:48:6B:77:74:60:E5:CC:E6:21
X509v3 Authority Key Identifier:
keyid:
49:4B:E5:98:DC:8D:BC:0D:BC:07:1C:48:6B:77:74:60:E5:CC:E6:21
Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
30:46:02:21:00:a4:b1:67:d0:f9:ad:d9:20:28:10:e6:bf:6a:
29:0b:8c:fd:fc:9b:9c:9f:ea:2c:c1:c8:fc:3a:46:4f:79:f2:
c2:02:21:00:81:d3:1b:a1:42:75:1a:7b:4a:34:fd:1a:01:fc:
fb:08:71:6b:9e:b5:3b:da:ad:c9:ae:60:b0:8f:52:42:9c:0f
The private key in the response above is without CMS EnvelopedData
and has no additional encryption beyond DTLS (Section 5.7).
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Peter van der Stok Peter van der Stok
Consultant Consultant
Email: consultancy@vanderstok.org Email: consultancy@vanderstok.org
Panos Kampanakis Panos Kampanakis
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Email: pkampana@cisco.com Email: pkampana@cisco.com
Sandeep S. Kumar
Philips Lighting Research
High Tech Campus 7
Eindhoven 5656 AE
NL
Email: ietf@sandeep.de
Michael C. Richardson Michael C. Richardson
Sandelman Software Works Sandelman Software Works
Email: mcr+ietf@sandelman.ca Email: mcr+ietf@sandelman.ca
URI: http://www.sandelman.ca/ URI: http://www.sandelman.ca/
Martin Furuhed
Nexus Group
Email: martin.furuhed@nexusgroup.com
Shahid Raza Shahid Raza
RISE SICS RISE SICS
Isafjordsgatan 22 Isafjordsgatan 22
Kista, Stockholm 16440 Kista, Stockholm 16440
SE SE
Email: shahid@sics.se Email: shahid@sics.se
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